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Research proposal

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Research proposal

  1. 1. EXPANDING INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP: THE IMPACT OF HIGHER ORDER THINKING TOWARDS STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION NOR ZAKIAH BT ISMAIL 2013741249 FACULTY OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA SHAH ALAM 2014
  2. 2. Contents 1.0 CHAPTER 1.............................................................................................................................................2 1.1Introduction............................................................................................................................................2 1.2Background of Study...............................................................................................................................3 References.................................................................................................................................................33 1.0 CHAPTER 1 1.1 Introduction Education in Malaysia has been moving towards the transformation phase where all the institutions are equipped with all the facilities and technology to ease the teaching and learning sessions. In higher education, lecturers are provided with many sources by Ministry with the intention they are able to produce students who are among the first class mentality. This has been stated in the blueprint of National Higher Education Action Plan 2007- 2010. Malaysia is a developing country and yet to plan to be a developed country in line with other countries. Education plays a big role in transforming our country to be one of the developed countries. Through education, Malaysia will produce future generations with the first class mentality. It is important to ensure that future generations are all among the first class mentality because these people will lead and determine the pathway of our country. We need people who know well to use technology and we also need critical thinkers to develop our country. In Malaysia, we have many candidates with different specialist and potential and yet education is needed to hone their skills and knowledge. This is where the educators need to play their role. Over the years, Ministry of Education has spent millions to come out with the best strategies for Malaysian education. It is to ensure future generations will not left behind. These future
  3. 3. generations must be very critical in thinking. Educators may lead them but at the end of the day, they themselves need to take initiatives to improve and be a step ahead than other candidates in other countries. Everyone must play their role including the Ministry, educators and students to ensure the vision of 2020 will be achieved. 1.2 Background of Study Nature of Education Higher Education system in Malaysia emphasizes on the lifelong education. Education is a platform to instill knowledge and help students to apply their knowledge in their life so that students are able to use their knowledge and qualification to get themselves employed in job market in the future (National Higher Education Action Plan, 2007). It is important for the students to achieve good qualification in academic and master certain knowledge for their own benefits so that they can be very independent in their work field in the future. Performance of the school depends on how good the school is in terms of teaching and learning method applied in the school and the school system (Day, 2008; Firestone, 1996; Park, 2005). School leaders play an important role in guiding and motivating teachers to play their role or give fully commitment towards their teaching. Motivated teachers tend to give more commitment towards school achievements including co-curriculum and curriculum (Moyday et al., 1979). Considering the excellent academic performance among students, teachers or lecturers must know that knowledge is not solely to be memorized but knowledge is about understanding the concept or meaning and apply it in various contexts.
  4. 4. This is where critical thinking is applied in education. Critical thinking is also called as higher order thinking (Scriven & Paul, 1987). Students may know the course they choose to learn and the subjects they are taught in school or college but not all of them are able to connect logic between knowledge and the importance of that knowledge in life (Elder & Paul, 2002). Learning by memorizing will prolong to low academic performance and even their working performance in the future because they have never trained their brain to think critically. When they deal with problems they will not be able to think of any alternatives to solve it because most of the time their brain only processes the lower order thinking; knowledge, comprehend and apply. They do not apply higher order thinking which include the process of analysis, synthesis, interpretation and evaluation (Scriven & Paul, 1987). We are aware that not all the students have the ability to apply the intellectual skills (Elder & Paul, 2002). Regardless the level of IQ and socioeconomic status; students have an equal opportunity in education. Critical thinking can be applied to all the students including slow learners, intermediate learners and fast learners. According to Elder & Paul (2002), all the best students are not actually categorized as critical thinkers. It means critical thinking can be nurtured regardless which cognitive level of learners they belong to. In the tertiary education, students are not grouped according to their cognitive level and academic achievement level. Lecturers are expected to teach students with different cognitive level of learners in a class. That is the challenge that lecturers need to deal with because at the end of each lesson, lecturers must ensure they achieve the learning outcomes. (M. Sadiq Sohail et al., 2003). In light of these, students are assessed through exams and presentation to evaluate their understanding on the subjects they
  5. 5. learn. Scoring rubrics are used to evaluate students’ performance in exams and presentation. The purpose of applying higher order thinking towards the students is to hone their thinking so that they will be able to deal with the situations where problem solving is needed. This study is conducted to see the exact result of students’ performance through the application of higher order thinking in their learning as well as the learning and teaching styles practiced in tertiary education. 1.3 Statement of the Research Problem Preus (2012) has stated that critical thinking is about higher order thinking which implies the process of thinking like synthesizing, generalizing, explaining and hypothesizing. However, not all the students are able to apply higher order thinking. The end result, they turn to be poor listeners, writers and readers and that will give them problems in understanding the purpose of studying the subjects and the use of the knowledge in their life (Elder et al,. 2014). The reason why the students must be able to apply the higher order thinking is to ensure they applied a lifelong learning and able to have the ideal of a liberally educated mind (Elder et al,. 2014). Knowledge that they gained or learnt must remain longer in their memory and that will give them sometimes to process the knowledge into application. That is why; students are encouraged to understand rather than memorizing. Critical thinking is also related to the students’ performance. In Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), we have two different groups of students; students with disabilities and students without disabilities. It is necessary for the students to perform well in their academic to ensure better employment regardless of which group they belong to.
  6. 6. According to the Labour Force Survey, Office for National Statistics (2005), there was over one-third of individuals with disabilities and without formal qualification was categorized as disabled. A better or appropriate approach of teaching must be applied among the educators or HEIs provider in order to help this group (student with disabilities) to study in HEIs. It is important to ensure that everyone have equal opportunity in education (Pumfrey, 2010). The group of students with disabilities must not be discriminated from having the normal education (Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), 1995). Since many results shows the impact of higher order thinking towards students’ performance another study will be conducted to find the accurate result on the role of higher order thinking towards students’ performance. 1.4 Research Objectives The objectives of this study are: i. To identify the cognitive level of learners. ii. To investigate the limitation of student thinking level. iii. To determine the learning preferences exist among the students. iv. To determine the preferred method of teaching to teach students to think critically. v. To understand the impact of teaching and learning preferences towards students’
  7. 7. academic performance. 1.5 Research Questions i. What is cognitive level of learners? ii. What is the limitation of student thinking level? iii. What are the learning preferences exist among the students? iv. What is the preferred method of teaching that allows students to think critically? v. What is the impact of teaching and learning preferences towards students’ academic performance? 1.6 Significance of the Study This study is conducted to identify on the various aspects or factors that can contribute to good students’ academic performance in the tertiary education and the impact of those
  8. 8. aspects towards their working performance in the future especially when the students involve in the situation which requires them to solve the problem. There are four aspects involved; types of learners’ cognitive level, limitations of thinking level, learning preferences and teaching methods. The academic performance is determined by their grade score in each subject they take. Students who score an excellent grade in exams and presentations are the students who are able to give accurate and relevant explanations and examples on the topic issued in the exam questions and topic asked by the lecturers. Students in tertiary education must have a mind that can probe and question and free from bias. They must have the integrity in thinking and independent thinking. They do not simply regurgitate the statements or information they heard. In order to create that environment, higher order thinking is nurtured or applied among the students during learning session using several teaching methods and engage with learning preferences among students. Different level of IQ or cognitive level will determine the preferred teaching method used by lecturers during lecturing session. Lecturers must ensure they use the appropriate teaching method approach which can be applied to all different cognitive level of learners so that all the students will have the opportunity to perform well in academic. 1.7 Limitation of the Study Target population is only limited to 30 students due to limited time to analyze the data.
  9. 9. In order to conduct this study, the subject chosen is only one subject which is the Effective Speaking subject. The research questions for this study are focusing only on the effective speaking because the data must be collected and analyzed within the duration given. Researcher will not have enough time to complete the research if more subjects are involved. All the five research questions are only focusing on this subject so that the result collected are much more accurate since any changes affected the dependent variables are caused by the independent variables in a similar context. . 1.8 Scope of the Study This study is focusing on one cognitive level of learners which is slow learner. The theory used to determine the level of thinking is Bloom’s Taxonomy which consists only two level of thinking which are lower order thinking (LOT) level and higher order thinking (HOT) level. However, in this study, the higher order thinking is the main focus which the researcher used as an indicator for the test questions. There are only four learning styles preferences investigated in this study which are theorist, pragmatic, reflector and activist so that the accurate result for the learning style preferred by students can be analyzed completely within the duration given for the research. The preferred teaching method also limited to only four types which are facilitator, demonstrator, delegator and expert teaching style because it is easier to correlate with the four preferred learning styles and the data can be analyzed faster since both teaching methods and learning styles chosen are applied in similar context.
  10. 10. 1.9 Operational Definition 1.9.1 Higher order thinking The term higher order thinking brings the meaning of critical thinking which involves few processes of thinking like synthesizing, generalizing, hypothesizing or the two phases of thinking which the second phase of thinking produces further understanding and meaning based on the first phase of thinking (Preus, 2012). According to Paul & Elder (2014), higher order thinking has the similarity to the critical thinking because it involves the process of analysing, synthesizing and evaluating the different situations in learning. Higher order thinking is also used as a benchmark in creating the questions. As stated by Cullinane (2010), higher order thinking is the second phase of Bloom’s Taxonomy which includes the three ascending processes started with analyzing, synthesizing and evaluation. For the purpose of this study higher order thinking refers to the process of analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating the information into the new meaning or understanding which help the person to correlate with problem solving. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter discusses on the different angle of concepts and understanding of the present study. It covers the perspectives on critical thinking and higher order thinking
  11. 11. which correlate with the Bloom’s Taxonomy. To make the present study clearer, the further information on the impact of learners’ cognitive level towards degree of critical thinking is explained further. Since the teaching and learning are also related to the present study, few theories are discussed in this chapter; learning theories and teaching theories. The last part is the conceptual framework of the whole study which includes both of the dependent and independent variables of the present study. 2.2 Perspectives on Critical Thinking and Higher Order Thinking Student performance in academic is important for the future employment especially students in the tertiary level; critical thinking turns to be the domain part that determines most of the excellent performance among the students. It is important to know the different cognitive level of learners among the students; slow learner, intermediate learner and fast learner as it will contribute to the supremacy of critical thinker among the students. Critical thinking has been practiced by many academicians in the subjects learning to teach students to think critically. A subject of critical thinking has been taught in higher education with the purpose to enhance students’ credibility. As stated in the National Higher Education Action Plan (2007), producing human capital with the first class mentality has become the main goal for the future education. It explains everything of the importance of critical thinking among the students. In Malaysia education, we are still looking into the strategic plan to produce all the students with first class mentality and critical thinking will be one of the importance things that the educators must address in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to help achieving that goal. There are many methods of teaching
  12. 12. and guidelines to teach students how to think critically like Miniature Guide for Students on How to Study and Learn (Elder & Paul, 2014). However, it is not easy to apply it to all the students whose intelligence levels are different. Touching on the aspect of critical thinking, Bloom’s Taxonomy plays an important role in measuring the limit of students’ thinking process. As stated by Cullinane (2010), Bloom’s Taxonomy consists of two levels which are categorized as lower order thinking and higher order thinking. She stated that, lower order thinking reflects to three processes of thinking which are knowledge, comprehension and application where as higher order thinking reflects to another three processes of thinking which are analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating. Present study is focusing on the higher order thinking. According to Paul & Elder (2014), higher order thinking is referring to the critical thinking. It means the three processes of thinking; analyzing, synthesizing and evaluation are actually fall under the critical thinking. According to Baven (2009), said that critical thinking is the phase where individuals’ mindset is set to create the new meaning of what they understand on the first thought. Applying it towards the students, critical thinking tends to help students with problem solving situations which students will think of the alternatives and ideas to solve the problem. Throughout different perspectives of the critical thinking and higher order thinking will make the current study clearer in gaining the end finding result. 2.3 Impact of Cognitive Level of Learners towards Degree of Critical Thinking.
  13. 13. Types of cognitive level of learners that exist among the students represent the level of intelligence or IQ the students belong to. When comes to a critical thinking, the group of students who may be affected most is the slow learner. Slow learner is not categorized under mentally retarded or learning disability. Slow learners are the students with IQ of average 100. Most of the time, these students have difficulty to catch up in class. The frequency of processing the information is slower compared to the normal students with IQ more than 100 (Sagar Batchu,2011). As stated by Eastmead (2014), slow learners end up in skilled and semi-skilled field in the future. They tend to work in construction field or office work. It means slow learners find that critical field is not suitable for them to work on because it may require them to think critically which they cannot afford to deal with. 2.4 Learning Theory and Teaching Style Related to students’ performance. The Learning theories that is used in this study is the Kolb’s four phases learning cycle which consists of reflective observation which refers to reflector, abstract conceptualization which refers to theorist, active experimentation which refers to activist and concrete experience which refers to pragmatics (Shashank, 2013). This theory is related to the learning preferences among the students. According Mumford & Honey (2006), they stated that the process of learning style consist of four important elements which are reflector, theorist, activist and pragmatics (Coffield et al., 2010). Putting in the context of students learning in the class reflector is the action of watching, theorist is the action of thinking, activist is the action of doing and
  14. 14. pragmatics is the action of feeling. Figure 1.0 shows the Kolb’s four phases learning cycle. The teaching style used in this study is based on the Grasha-Riechmann Teaching Styles Inventory. It consists of four different styles which are facilitator, demonstrator, delegator and expert. Facilitator and delegator are more towards the student-centered whereas demonstrator and expert are more towards the teacher- centered (Filonova, 2008). Facilitator is the teaching style where a lecturer asks the students to apply the knowledge into practical so that students are able to know their learning strengths. Demonstrator is the teaching style where demonstrating is given a lot reflect to the students’ knowledge. Delegator is the teaching style where a lecturer received more feedback from the students. Expert otherwise is a teaching style where a lecturer make use of his or her expertise to transmit knowledge towards the students and ensure that students are equipped with enough knowledge.
  15. 15. Figure 1.0: Four phases of Kolb’s learning cycle Reflective observation (Reflector) Abstract conceptualization (Theorist) Active experimentation (Activist) Concrete experience (Pragmatics)
  16. 16. 2.5 Conceptual frameworks. This study consists of several variables. There are four independent variables used in this study which are types of students’ cognitive level, limitation of students’ thinking level, learning preferences and teaching methods. Figure 1.0 shows the conceptual framework for variables. Independent variables Dependent variable Cognitive level. Limitation of thinking level Learning preferences Students’ academic performance
  17. 17. Figure 1.1: Conceptual framework for variables CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction Teaching methods
  18. 18. This chapter explains on the research methodology as a whole. Research design, population and sampling are stated in details in this section. There are certain instrumentations applied in this present study. The conceptual framework is shown to see the variables of independent and dependent for the present study. Data collection and data analysis are shown to make the present study in order. 3.2 Research Design The present study is carried out using mixed method which both of quantitative and qualitative approach are used. In the present study, qualitative technique is used like the content analysis on the grade of exam answer sheets. Quantitative techniques are also used in this present study including rating scale and questionnaires 3.3 Population and Sampling The major target population for the present study is the Diploma students in University of Selangor (UNISEL). The accessible population is the third semester diploma students in the Faculty of Mass Communication. The sample is selected using the purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is based on the prior information that the samples have which is needed to conduct the research. 30 of third semester diploma students in Faculty of Mass Communication are selected with the first ten students score A grade, the
  19. 19. following ten students score B grade and the last ten students score the C grade in the exam of one particular subject which is Effective Speaking. From each 10 students of three different grades, only students who have fulfill the criteria needed for the research are assigned to the control conditions. The 30 of third semester diploma students in Faculty of education are selected based on the score grade in the achievement report of the Effective Speaking subject. The Effective Speaking subject is selected through non- random sampling which is purposive sampling. The report achievement of Effective Speaking subject is considered as a purposive sampling because the result of grades stated in the achievement report is based on the exam questions and the assignments questions which apply both lower order thinking and higher order thinking level questions. This is relevant to the present study because it correlates with the critical thinking scope. 3.4 Instrumentations 3.4.1 Document analysis The achievement report of Effective Speaking subjects is analyzed to determine the accessible target population for the present study. Only 30 numbers of students are selected from the list in the achievement report and they are grouped according to grade A, B and C with 10 students for each grade. It is conducted by analyzing grades scored by 30 diploma students in
  20. 20. fourth semester in Faculty of Mass Communication listed in the achievement report of Effective Speaking subject. The Effective Speaking exam and assignments questions are based on the Bloom’s Taxonomy which involved two levels of questions; lower order thinking and higher order thinking questions. From the 30 students selected, 10 each is grouped based on grade A, B and C. The grades limited until the C grade because C is the passing grade for that subject. Table 1.0 shows the group A, B and C. Table 1.0: Group A, B and C There is another document analysis conducted in this study which is analyzing the students’ answer sheets of the Effective Speaking exam. The researcher only chooses the higher order thinking questions to measure the limitations of students’ thinking level whether or not all the three types of students’ cognitive level able to answer the higher order thinking questions. Higher order thinking questions consist of three levels; analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Guidelines are used to determine the type of higher order thinking questions in the Effective Speaking exam paper. 10 questions are Group Number of students Grade A 10 A B 10 B C 10 C
  21. 21. chosen from the Effective Speaking exam paper. Questions 1 to 3 are based on analysis level. Questions 4 to 6 are based on the synthesis level and Questions 7 to 10 are based on the evaluation level. After analyzing the result from the students’ answer sheets, researcher matches the students’ cognitive level with the level of higher order thinking questions answered by the students. Figure 1.1 shows the framework of Bloom’s taxonomy and table 1.1 shows the guidelines for the levels of higher order thinking questions. Table 1.2 shows the 10 questions from the Effective Speaking exam paper. Higher order thinking Evaluation Synthesis Analysis
  22. 22. Figure 1.2: Bloom’s taxonomy Table 1.1: Guidelines for higher order thinking questions Cognitive Definition Verbs used in the questions stem
  23. 23. Domain Analysis Break down knowledge into parts and show relationships among the parts. analyze diagram question calculate discriminate test categorize distinguish differentiate experiment compare contrast criticize examine inventory Synthesis Bring together parts (elements, components) of knowledge to form a whole and build relationships for new situations. arrange design prepare assemble formulate propose collect manage set up synthesize organize compose create plan write construct modify conduct Evaluation Judgments about the value of material and methods for given purposes. appraise estimate select argue evaluate support assess judge value attack predict score compare rate defend (Source: Cullinane,2010)
  24. 24. Table 1.2: Higher order thinking questions Category No. Questions from the Effective Speaking exam paper Analysis 1. Compare and contrast between hearing and listening? 2. Draw the public speaking effectiveness process model and distinguish the element of process involved in the model. 3. Categorize the three phases of public speaking apprehension and differentiate the three phases. Synthesis 4. How would you plan a speech outline for the formal ceremony? 5. How many ways you can apply to overcome public speaking apprehension? 6. How would you deal with the situation where you have to give a speech on the usage of gadget in daily life towards different generations of age? Evaluation 7. Why do you think audience centered helps the speaker to be an effective speaker? 8 How would you handle if your language is the biggest barrier for you to give a speech to people? 9. How effective the use of persuasive speech towards the effective speaking? 10. Why the informative speaking is important to a speaker? 3.4.2 Questionnaires
  25. 25. This study has two different questionnaires. The first questionnaire based on two different aspects; students' cognitive level based on Effective Speaking exam questions and the students’ learning preferences. The second questionnaire based on lecturers’ teaching preferences. The first questionnaire consists of four sections; section A refers to demographic, section B refers to academic status, section C refers to students’ cognitive level and section D refers to students’ learning preferences. The questions for section C are created based on the students’ exam and presentation of the Effective Speaking subject. The questions for section D is focusing on the learning preferences. The theory used to create the question is the Kolb’s four stage learning cycle which consists of reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation and concrete experience. Based on that theory, researcher has come out with the four elements of learning styles in the questionnaire which are reflector, theorist, activist and pragmatics. The result from the questionnaire analysis determines the learning styles preferred by all the three groups of different cognitive level. The second questionnaire consists of three sections; demographic, academic status and teaching preferences. The related theory referred by the researcher is the social cognitive theory. There are four types of teaching styles involved in the questionnaire which are facilitator, demonstrator, delegator and expert. The result from the questionnaire analysis determines
  26. 26. the teaching style preferred by lecturers to teach all the different level of cognitive learners. The descriptions of questionnaires are shown in table 1.3 and tables 1.4 are as follows: i) Questionnaire for the students Table 1.3: Questionnaire 1 Sections Descriptions Number of Items Section A : Demographic To gather the basic information about the samples. Number 1-5 Section B : Academic To know the level of students’ achievement in academic Number 6-8 Section C : Students’ cognitive level To identify the level of cognitive among the students Number 9-18 Section D: Students’ learning preferences To identify the preferred learning styles among the lecturers.
  27. 27. ii) Questionnaires for the lecturers Table 1.4: Questionnaire 2 Sections Descriptions Number of Items Section A : Demographic To gather the basic information about the samples. Number 1-5 Section B : Academic To know the status of academic among the leturers. Number 5 Section C : Lecturers teaching preferences To identify the preferred teaching style by the lecturers. Number 6 3.5 Data collection The achievement report of Effective Speaking subjects for the third semester diploma students in Faculty of Mass Communication is examined to determine the accessible target population for the present study. Only 30 numbers of students are selected from the list in the achievement report and they are grouped according to grade A, B and C with 10 students for each grade. The grades limited until the C grade because C is the passing grade for that subject. The three groups of grade are coded as group A, group B and group C. Grroup A is the students who score A grade. Group B is the students who score B grade and
  28. 28. Group C is the students who score C grade. Questionnaires are assigned to all the three groups to determine the cognitive levels exist among the students. The questionnaires are based on the factors that contribute to the grade they score for the Effective Speaking subject. The type of cognitive level is limited to only one type which is slow learner. From the questionnaire analysis, the researcher able to determine the types of cognitive levels that belong to each group. The result will answer the first research question; i) What are types of cognitive levels of learners exist among the students? From the population of 30 students 15 samples are assigned for the random assignment. It means only 15 samples of answer script with five each from the group A, B and C are analyzed to measure the limitations of thinking among the 15 samples of different grades. The questions of the exam are designed based on the lower order thinking and higher order thinking questions. For this study, the higher order thinking questions are chosen to see the limitation of student thinking level. The result gained from the exam questions analysis will answer the second research question; ii) What is the limitation of student thinking level? The next step, the questionnaire which consists of the questions related to the four types of learning styles; theorist, pragmatic, reflector and activist are conducted and assigned to the 15 samples to identify the learning styles preferred by the students to help them to think critically in the Effective Speaking subject. The result from the questionnaire analysis will answer the third research question; iii) What are the learning preferences exist among the students?
  29. 29. After that, questionnaire consists of the questions related to the four types teaching styles; facilitator, demonstrator, delegator and expert are assigned to three lecturers who have experience in teaching the Effective Speaking subjects. The result from the interview analysis will answer the fourth research questions; iv) What is the preferred method of teaching that allows students to think critically? The last step is to conduct a content analysis between the questionnaire on the learning preferences and the questionnaire on the teaching preferences to see the relationship between preferred learning and preferred teaching methods on students’ performance in the Effective Speaking subject. The result from the analysis between questionnaire on learning preferences and questionnaire on teaching preferences method will answer the fifth research questions; v) What is the impact of teaching and learning preferences towards students’ academic performance? Figure 1.1 shows the data collection flowchart.
  30. 30. Figure 1.1 Data Collection Flowchart Analyze the score grades of A, B and C achieved by 30 students in the achievement report of the Effective Speaking subject. Make the amendments to the questionnaire based on the results from the document analysis. Distribute the questionnaire to the targeted populations; 30 students Analyze data from the questionnaire. Analyze 15 answer scripts of Effective Speaking subject with five each from the group A, B and C. Amend the questionnaire on the learning preferences and distribute the questionnaire to 15 samples. Amend the questionnaire on the teaching preferences and distribute the questionnaire to three lecturers from the institution Analyze learning preferences questionnaire and teaching preferences questionnaire to see the relationship between teaching and learning preferences and the impact towards the students’ performance in academic.
  31. 31. 3.6 Data Analysis Research Questions Instrument Method of analysis i. What are cognitive levels of learners exist among the students? 1) Document analysis 2) Questionnaire -Examining -Coding -Categorizing -SPSS program -Inferential statistics -Frequencies -Measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) -Measures of variability (range, quartile deviation, variance and standard deviation) ii. What is the limitation of student thinking level? Document analysis -Ordinal scale - Criterion-referenced instruments iii. What are the learning preferences exist among the students? Open-ended Questionnaires -SPSS program -Descriptive statistics -Frequencies -Measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) -Measures of variability (range, quartile deviation, variance and standard
  32. 32. deviation) iv. What is the preferred method of teaching that allows students to think critically? Closed-ended and Open-ended Questionnaires - Coding - Describing - Classifying - Identifying themes v. What is the impact of teaching and learning preferences towards students’ academic performance? Content analysis - Inferential statistics
  33. 33. References Baven, R. (2009). Expanding Rationality: The relation between epistemic virtue and critical thinking. Educational theory, 59(2), 167-179. Coffield, F. et al. (2010). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning. United Kingdom: Learning and Skills Research Centre. Cullinane, A. (2010). Bloom’s Taxonomy and its Use in Classroom Assessment. Resource and research guide, 1, 1-3. Don Eastmead, M. (2004). Memphis Neurology. Retrieved May Sunday, 2014, from http://www.memphisneurology.com/handouts/ Eastmead, D. J. (2014). Memphis Neurology. Retrieved May 2013, from Handouts: http://www.memphisneurology.com/handouts/ Elder, L., & Paul, R. (2002). Critical thinking: Teaching students how to study and learn. Journal of developmental education, 26(1), 1-36. Filonova, L. (2008). Teaching style survey. Educational, 1-14. Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). New York,NY: McGraw-Hill. M. Sadiq Sohail; Jegatheesan Rajadurai; Nor Azlin Abdul Rahman. (2003). Managing quality in higher education: a Malaysian case study. International Journal of Education Management, 17(4), 141-146. Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. (2007). The transfomation of higher education document. Putrajaya: Ministry of Higher Education.
  34. 34. Preus, B. (2012). Authentic instruction for 21st century learning: higher order thinking in inclusive school. American Secondary Education, 40(3), 59-79. Sagar Batchu. (2011). Slow learners:Identifying them and takingb remedial steps. In S. Batchu, ParentEdge (pp. 64-68). Banaglore: Prayag. Scriven, M., & Paul, R. (1987). The critical thinking community. Retrieved May Sunday, 2014, from http://www.criticalthinking.org/ Shashank, K. (2013, August). JCU Workplace Educators Resource Package. Retrieved May 2014, from Facilitating Student Learning: http://www.jcu.edu.au/wiledpack/ modules/fsl/JCU_090344.html

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