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Perfect score module 2012

  1. 1. SBP 2012 PHYSICSPERFECT SCORE MODULE SEKOLAHNAME :...................................................................CLASS/SCHOOL:................................................. BERASRAMA PENUH 2012 Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 1
  2. 2. SBP 2012 PHYSICS SCORE 2012 PANELS NOR SAIDAH BT CHE HASSAN (Ketua Penggubal) Kolej Tunku Kurshiah JENNYTA BT NOORBI SMS Tuanku Munawir JAMILAH YUSOF Sekolah Seri Puteri HASLINA BT ISMAIL SMS Hulu Selangor KAMARIAH BT MOHD ARSYAD The Malay College of Kuala Kangsar JAMALUDIN BIN ABD GHANI SBPI Batu Rakit HJH NOR SHIDAH HJ MANSOR SMS Tengku Mahmud SURIYATI YUSOFF SMS Muzaffar Shah TAN LEE FAH SMS Miri ZULAIFAH ZINUDDIN Sekolah Tuanku Abdul RahmanPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 2
  3. 3. SBP 2012 TABLE OF CONTENT SECTION CONSTRUCT/CONTENT Page Section I Physics Concept / Rules / Principles /Laws 4 Examples of Common Mistakes And Section II 14 Misconceptions Section III Construct: Understanding 19 Section IV Construct Decision Making 26 Section V C Construct onceptualisation 40 Section VI Construct (Qualitative) 53 Section VII Problem Solving (Quantitative) 58 Section VIII A Paper 3 Section A 63 Section VIII B Paper 3 Section B 71Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 3
  4. 4. SBP 2012 -PHYSICS CONCEPT AND DEFINITION Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics What is.. Definition Base quantities are quantities that cannot be defined in terms 1 Base Quantities of other base quantities Derived quantities are quantities that are obtained by 2. Derived Quantities combining base quantities by multiplication, derivition or both operations 3. Scalar Quantities Scalar quantities are quantities that have only magnitude Vector quantities are quantities that have both magnitude 4. Vector Quantities and direction The consistency of of a measuring instrument is its ability 5. Consistency register the same reading when a measurement is made repeatedly Accuracy is the degree of how close a measurement is to the 6. Accuracy actual vaue Sensitivity of an instrument is its ability to detect a small 7. Sensitivity change in the quantity to be measured Chapter 2: Force And Motion What is.. Definition 1. Speed Speed is the rate of change of distance 2. Velocity Velocity is the rate of change of displacement Acceleration is the rate of change of change/increase in 3. Acceleration velocity 4. Deceleration Deceleration is the rate of decrease in velocity The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain 5. Inertia its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line Newton’s First Law of Motion states that every object continues 6. Newton’s First Law of in its state of rest or uniform speed in a straight line unless acted Motion / Law of Inertia upon by an external force 7. Linear momentum Linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity Principle of Conservation of Momentum states that the total 8. Principle of Conservation momentum of a system remains unchanged if no external of Momentum force acts on the system. Force is defined as anything that changes the state of rest or 9. Force motion of an object moving in a straight linePhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 4
  5. 5. SBP 2012 What is.. Definition The acceleration of a body ,a, is directly proportional to the 10. Newton’s Second Law net force acting on it, F , and inversely proportional to its mass, m 11. Impulse Impulse is defined as the change in momentum 12. Impulsive Force Impulsive force is defined as the rate of change of momentum 13. Weight / Force of Gravity / Gravitational Pulled force towards the centre of the earth Force A free-falling object is an object falling under the force of 14. Free-Fall gravity only 15. Gravitational The acceleration of objects due to gravity // falling free Acceleration The gravitational field is the region around the earth in which 16. Gravitational Field an object experience a force due to gravitational attraction 17. Resultant Force / Resultant force is a single force that represents the combined Net Force effect of two or more forces in magnitude and direction When the forces acting on an object is not balanced, there must be a net force/unbalanced/resultant force acting on it 18. Unbalanced Forces / Unbalanced forces produce an acceleration to the object The object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when the resulting force acting on the object is zero ( no net force acting upon it) 19. Forces in Equilibrium / When the equilibrium is reached, then the object is in two Balanced Forces states, that is (i) remains stationary (if the object is stationary) (ii) moves at a constant velocity ( if the object is moving) / zero acceleration 20. Newton’s Third Law of Newton’s third law of motion states that, To every action there Motion is an equal but opposite direction Work is defined as the product of the applied force ,F on the 21. Work object and its displacement, s in the direction of the applied force Energy is the ability to do work 22. Energy (Work done is equal to the amount of energy transferred 23. Gravitational Potential The Gravitational potential energy of an object is the energy Energy stored in the object due to its position in a force field Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its 24. Kinetic Energy motion 25. Principle of Conservation Principle of Conservation of Energy states that of EnergyPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 5
  6. 6. SBP 2012 What is.. Definition 26. Power Power is the amount of work done per second Efficiency of a device is the percentage of the energy input 27. Efficiency that is transferred into useful energy Elasticity is the property of a substance which enables it to 28. Elasticity return to original shape after an applied external force is removed Elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that 29. Elastic Limit can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to restored to its original length when the force is removed Hooke’s Law states that the extension of a spring is directly 30. Hooke’s Law proportional to the applied force provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded A spring constant of a spring is the force that is required to 31. Spring Constant / produce one unit of extension of the spring Force Constant (measure of the stiffness of the spring) Elastic Potential Energy is the energy stored in a spring when it is 32. Elastic Potential Energy extended or compressed Chapter 3: Force and Pressure What is.. Definition Pressure is defined as the force acting normally on a unit of 1. Pressure surface area The Atmospheric pressure is caused by the the weight of the air 2. Atmospheric Pressure on the Earth’s surface Gas pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the gas 3. Gas Pressure molecules as they collide with the walls of their container Pascal’s principle states that when pressure is applied to an 4. Pascal’s Principle enclosed fluid, the pressure will be transmitted equally throughout the whole enclosed fluid Bouyant Force is an upward force resulting from an object being 5. Bouyant Force wholly or partially immersed in a fluid Archimedes’ Principle states that, “ When an object is immersed 6. Archimedes’ Principle in a fluid, the buoyant force on the object is equal in size to the weight of fluid displaced by the object Bernoulli’s principlestatesthat the pressure of a moving liquid 7. Bernoulli’s Principle decreases as the speed of the fluid increases and vice versaPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 6
  7. 7. SBP 2012 Chapter 4: Heat What is.. Definition Temperature is the degree of hotness of an object / 1. Temperature Amount of kinetic energy in an object 2. Heat Heat is the energy tranferred from hot to cold object Two objects are said to be in thermal equilibrium when; i) The rates of heat tansfer between the objects are 3. Thermal Equilibrium equal (net flow of heat between the two objects is zero) ii) The objects have the same temperature Thermometric Property is the physical property of a substance 4. Thermometric Property which is sensitive and varies linearly with changes in temperature of the material 5. Ice Point (Lower fixed Ice point is the temperature of pure melting ice pont) 6. Steam Point (Upper Steam point is the temperature of steam from water that is fixed point) boiling under standard atmospheric pressure Heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be 7. Heat Capacity supplied to increase its temperature by 1 oC Specific Heat Capacity of a substance is the amount of heat 8. Specific Heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature by 1 oC for a Capacity mass of 1 kg of the substance Latent heat is the heat absorbed or heat released at a constant 9. Latent Heat temperature during a change of phase Specific Latent Heat of a substance is the amount of heat 10. Specific Latent Heat required to change the phase of 1 kg of the substance at a constant temperature Spesific Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat required to 11. Spesific Latent Heat of change the phase of 1 kg of the substance from solid to liquid Fusion phase at a constant temperature Spesific Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat required to 12. Spesific Latent Heat of change the phase of 1 kg of the substance from liquid to Vaporisation gaseous phase at a constant temperature Boyle’s Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of 13. Boyle’s Law the gas is inversely proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant Charles’ Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of 14. Charles’ Law the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant Pressure Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of 15. Pressure Law the gas is directly proportional to its absolutev temperature when the volume is kept constantPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 7
  8. 8. SBP 2012 Chapter 5: Light What is.. Definition 1. Law of Reflection i. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all lie in the same plane ii. The anle of incidence i, is equal to the angle of reflection, r AO :Incident ray ON :Normal OB :Reflected ray i :Angle of incidence r :Angle of reflection Reflection by a concave mirror Parallel rays that strike the surface of a concave mirror will be reflected and converge at the focal point, F outside the mirror Centre of curvature, C of a curved mirror is the centre of the sphere of the mirror Radius of curvature. R is the distance between the the centre of curvature, C and the pole of the mirror Focal point is the point where parallel rays that strike the surface of a concave mirror will be reflected and converge at the focal point Refraction of light is a light phenomenon which occurs when 2. Refraction of light light passes through two materials of different optical densities, will change direction at the boundary between them. Refractive Index, n of the medium is defined as the ratio of the 3. Refractive Index speed of light in vacuum to the speed if light in the medium i. The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal all lie in 4. Law of Refraction and the same plane Snell’s Law ii. The value of sin i is a constant (Snell’s Law) sin r Critical angle is the angle of incidence in an optically more 5. Critical Angle dense medium which results in angle of refraction of 90 o in an optically less dense. The Internal Reflection of light is the phenomenon when the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle and the light not refracted anymore but internally reflected 6. Total Internal Reflection The conditions for the occurrence of total internal reflection. (1) The light ray must be travel from an optically denser medium to less dense medium. (2) The angle of incidence must be greater than the critical angle.Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 8
  9. 9. SBP 2012 Chapter 6: Waves What is.. Definition Waves are carriers of energy. They transfer energy from one 1. Waves location to another Longitudinal Wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in 2. Longitudinal Wave the medium is parallel to the direction of the propagation of the wave Transverse Wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in 3. Transverse Wave the medium is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave 4. Wavefront In waves, lines joining all the points of the same phase Wavelength of a wave is the distance between two adjacent 5. Wavelength points of the same phase on a wave Amplitude is the maximum displacement from its equilibrium 6. Amplitude position Frequency of a wave is the number of waves produced by a 7. Frequency source in one second The speed of the wave is the measurement of how fast a crest is 8. Wave speed moving from its fixed point The period of a wave is the time taken for an oscillation to 9. Period complete one cycle Forced Oscillation is the external force supplies energy to the 10. Forced Oscillation system Natural Frequency is the frequency of a system which oscillate 11. Natural Frequency freely without the action of an external force Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a 12. Resonance frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force Diffraction of waves is the spreading of waves around corners 13. Diffraction and edges as waves pass through an opening or around an obstacle along their paths Coherent Waves are waves that have same frequency and 14. Coherent Waves wavelength and in phase 15. Monochromatic Light Monochromatic Light is light with one colour/wavelength 16. Principle of Principle of Superposition states that when two waves interfered, Superposition of the resulting displacement of the medium at any point is the Waves algebraic sum of the displacements of the individual waves 17. Constructive Constructive interference occurs when a crest meets acrest and interference when a trough meets a troughPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 9
  10. 10. SBP 2012 What is.. Definition 18. Destructive Destructive interference occurs when crests suoerposed with interference troughs Antinodal lines are lines joining places of constructive 19. Antinodal lines interference 20. Nodal lines Nodal lines are line joining the places of destructive interference Chapter 7: Electricity What is.. Definition Electric field is a region around a charged object which any 1. Electric Field other charged body experience a force Potential Difference, V between two points in a circuit is defined 2. Potential Difference as the amount of work done when a coulomb of charge passes from one point to the other point Ohm’s Law states that the current that passes through an ohmic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference 3. Ohm’s Law applied accross it if the temperature and other physical conditions are constant Resistance, R of a conductor is the ratio of the potential 4. Resistance difference, V to the current, I 5. Electromotive Force Electromotive Force (e.m.f) is defined as the work done by the (e.m.f) source to move a coulomb of charge around a complete circuit The internal resistance ,r is the resistance within a cell due to its 6. Internal Resistance electrolyte and electrodes or source of electricity. Chapter 8: Electromagnetism What is.. Definition Ferromagnetic materials are the materials attracted to the 1. Ferromagnetic magnet. The examples of the ferromagnetic materials such as materials iron, nickel and cobalt An electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced 2. Electromagnet by an electric current. An electromagnet acts as a temporary magnet A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic material 3. Magnetic field experiences a force as the result of the present of a magnet or a electromagnetPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 10
  11. 11. SBP 2012 What is.. Definition 4. The right -hand grip rule. If a solenoid carrying a current is gripped with the right hand and with the thumb pointing along the solenoid so that the fingers curling round the solenoid in the direction of the current and the thumb then points towards the north pole. Fleming’s Left-hand Rule. 5. Fleming’s Left-hand Rule. Fleming’s Left-hand Rule states” If the thumb, first finger (forefinger)and second finger of the left hand are held at right angles to each other, then if the first finger (forefinger)represents the direction of the magnetic field and the second represents the direction of the current, then the thumb will represents the direction of the motion” Catapult field are the combinations field between 6. Catapult Field (a) the magnetic field produced by the current and (Resultant field) magnetic field of the permanent magnet occurred. Or (b) the magnetic field produced by two current –carrying conductors are placed close to each other Electromagnetic induction is the production of induced current 7. Electromagnetic or induced e.m.f. without using the power supplies but using the induction relative motion between a conductor or a magnet Faraday’s law state that “ The magnitude of the induced current or induced e.m.f. is directly proportional to the rate of 8. Faraday’s law change of magnetic flux linkage with the solenoid or the rate at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic flux.” Lenz’s law state that” The direction of an induced current 9. Lenz’s law always flows in such as a direction so to oppose the change which is causing it.”Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 11
  12. 12. SBP 2012 What is.. Definition To determine the direction of the induced current in the dynamo – Fleming’s Right-hand rule 10. Fleming’s Right-hand rule Fleming’s Right-hand Rule states” If the thumb, first finger (forefinger)and second finger of the right hand are held at right angles to each other, then if the first finger (forefinger)represents the direction of the magnetic field and the thumb represents the direction of the motion of the conductor , then the second finger will represents the direction of the induced current ”Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 12
  13. 13. SBP 2012 Chapter 9: Electronics What is.. Definition The emission of electrons from the surface of a heated metal or heated metal cathode. 1. Thermionic Emission The thermionic emission is a bit like electrons being evaporated off from the hot wire Cathode ray is a narrow beam of a fast electrons moving in a 2. Cathode Ray vacuum 3. Semiconductor Semiconductors are materials which conduct electricity better Materials than insulator, but no so well as ordinary conductors Doping is a process of adding a small amount of impurities into 4. Doping the pure crystal of semiconductor (intrinsic semiconductor) A rectifier converts alternating current(a.c.) into direct current(d.c). 5. Rectifier The process of converting a.c. to d.c. is called rectification A transistor is a semiconductor device capable of amplification 6. Transistor in addition to rectification. An electronic circuit with a single output and one or more inputs 7. Logic Gate Chapter 10: Radioactivity What is.. Definition Radioisotopes are unstable isotopes which decay and give out 1. Radioisotope radioactive emissions Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable 2. Radioactivity nucleus into a more stable nucleus accompanied by the emission of energetic particles (radioactive rays) or photons 4 3. - particles : Helium nucleus or 2 He 0 4. - particles : Fast moving electrons or 1 e 5. -rays Electromagnetic waves The half-life of a radioactive material is the time taken for the 6. The half-life activity of radioactive fall to half its original activity Nuclear fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter 7. Nuclear fission nuclei, which subsequently emit either two or three neutrons and release of large amounts of energy Nuclear fusion is the combining of two lighter nuclei to form a 8. Nuclear fusion heavier nucleus with the release of large amount of energy.Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 13
  14. 14. SBP 2012SECTION II - COMMON MISTAKES AND MISCONCEPTIONS A. Common Mistakes 1. Problem Solving (Quantitative) –the answer given: i. FRACTION FORM ii. without UNIT 2. Careless mistakes: Example: Convert minute into hour - 30 minutes = 30 x 60 = 1800 hours 3. Conceptual question: i. Giving the reason: E.g. : The horizontal distance of the water spurting out in Diagram (b) is greater because..... ii. Giving the value when comparing two situations: E.g. The boiling points of water is 100oC whereas the boiling point of methylated spirit is 80oC 4. Understanding Question - Not systematic in explanation 5. Explanation without diagram / symbol / formula / graph. 6. Use the reason given in the question 7. Light topic; Draw the ray diagram without “arrow” 8. Cannot distinguish between Physical Quantity, Physics Instrument and Physics Unit Examples: Physical Quantity Physical quantity measured Physics Unit and symbol Stop watch voltmeter thermometer Bourdon gauge Ammeter 9. Wrong Physics Term / Definition / Concept (Base on SBP Physics Trial Exams) Examples: Terms Common Mistake Correct Answer [The type of energy when the object is at P] ................................ Potential a Energy Potential energy Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 14
  15. 15. SBP 2012 Terms Common Mistake Correct Answer Force acting on surface area Force/area .................................. force acting b Pressure on ...................... of surface area A product of depth, density and gravitational acceleration Pascal’s principle In a close container, force is In a close container...................... c transmitted equally ......................................................... Heat absorbed to change Latent heat of d Heat absorbed to change .................... of liquid to gas vaporization by 1oC without ............................................ ......................................................... e Transfer from hot body to Temperature cold body [Physics phenomena in a prism] .................................................... f Reflection Critical angle is the ................ Critical angle is when the .............. in ............................r refracted angle is 90o medium which produces when g Critical angle Critical angle is the incident the ................................. angle in angle when the reflected ................................ medium is angle is 90o ......................... The image that formed The image that .............................. h Virtual image behind the lens ........................................................ The light that ................................. i Monochromatic light A colour of one light ......................................................... ………………………….. Maximum point of the ....................................... of any j Amplitude highest displacement particle/oscillating system from its …………………………………...Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 15
  16. 16. SBP 2012 Terms Common Mistake Correct Answer The …………………………. for k Period One complete oscillation any particle to make ……… ………………….oscillation ................................................... 1000 W of energy is supplied .................................................. Specification: l when the power supplied is when connected to a ............. 240 V, 1000 W 240 V. .......................... of ..................... .......................... When the current flow A .............................. which can through magnet produce ....................................... j electromagnet Is a combination of electric when .............................................. and magnetic field ......................................................... k Beta particles Negative charge ................................ electronPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 16
  17. 17. SBP 2012 B. Misconceptians Examples: Num Misconceptions Correction Oil is used in hydraulic jack because it has 1 higher boiling point Snell’s law state that: The sine of incident 2 angle Refractive = The sine of refracted index angle Container A Container B water 3 The force exerted at X > the force exerted at Y because smaller surface area (P = F /A) To increase the efficiency of ac/dc GENERATOR: - Use more number of turns to produce stronger magnetic field The ship can float in sea water because the buoyant force is bigger than the weight of the shipPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 17
  18. 18. SBP 2012 C. Paper 3 1. Data Tabulation Title - no unit Content- not consistent Example: Common Mistake Correct Answer Electric Current Voltage 0.1 0.5 0.12 1 0.14 1.5 2. Graph: Label - x-axis & y-axis : no unit Scale - Not uniform, odd Plotting (x @ )- too small or too big Line - not smooth, not balance Size - small [< (8 cm x 8 cm)] 3. Gradient of the graph Triangle - small [ < (8 cm x 8 cm)] Final answer - no unit, Written in fraction 4. Calculation Final answer - no unit written in fraction 5. Procedure Repeat the experiment three times Should state: What:……………………………………………………………………………………………..…….. How : ……………………………………………………………………………………………..……. 6. Precaution “Avoid parallax error” Should state: What: ………………………………………………………………………………… How : …………………………………………………………………………………Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 18
  19. 19. SBP 2012SECTION III– UNDERSTANDING - (Paper 2 Section B and C )Question 1 [ Introduction to Physics ]Explain the meaning of consistency and accuracy of a measuring instrument by using suitable examples [ 4 marks ]Question 2 [Forces and Motion]Using the principle of conservation of momentum, explain the working principle of the rocket. [4 marks]Question 3 [Forces and MotionSpring is widely used in suspension system of vehicles such as car and motorcycle. This is because of theelasticity of the spring. Diagram below shows how a spring is used in suspension system of a car. (i) What is meant by elasticity? (ii) Explain how the forces between the molecules caused the elasticity when the spring is compressed and stretched. [4 marks]Question 4 [Forces and Motion]Diagram 4 shows a hovercraft starts from rest and accelerates until it achieves constant velocity after afew seconds. Diagram 4 (i) Sketch a velocity-time graph to show the motion of hovercraft. (ii) Explain why the hovercraft moves with constant velocity in terms of the force acting on it [4 marks]Question 5 [Forces and Pressure]Explain why the atmospheric pressure at higher altitude is lower compared to places at lower altitude. [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 19
  20. 20. SBP 2012Question 6 [Forces and Pressure]Diagram shows a suction pump being used to lift a mirror that measured 1.5 m X 0.5 m X 0.01m . Thedensity of the mirror is 2.5 X 10 3 kg m-3 . The pump obeys atmospheric pressure principle to let the suctionpump stick onto surface of mirror. Diagram 6Explain how the suction pump can lift the mirror with the aid of atmospheric pressure. [4 marks]Question 7 [Forces and Pressure] Diagram (i) State Archimedes’ principle. . [1 mark] (ii) Explain why a weather balloon that is rising up in the air will stop at certain altitude [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 20
  21. 21. SBP 2012Question 8 [Forces and Pressure] (a) Diagram shows a hydrometer. DiagramA hydrometer is used to measure density of liquid. Explain how a hydrometer functions. [4 marks]Question 9 [Heat](i) What is the meaning of thermal equilibrium? [1mark](ii) Explain, in terms of thermal equilibrium, how a thermometer which is placed into the boiling water readsat the temperature of 100 ˚C. [4marks]Question 10 [Heat]Using kinetic theory of gaseous, explain how the pressure increase when the temperature increase. [4 marks]Question 11 [Heat]Diagram shows the phenomenon of sea breeze. DiagramUsing the concept of specific heat capacity, explain how the phenomenon of sea breeze occurs. [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 21
  22. 22. SBP 2012Question 12 [Light]Diagram shows the “superior mirage “ which occurs over cold water surface and snow. Warm air Image of ship Cool air shipUsing physics concepts, explain why the observer can only see the image of the ship. [4 marks]Question 13 [Light]Explain why a piece of paper burns when placed under a convex lens aimed towards hot sun rays. [4 marks]Question 14 [Waves]Sonar technique can be used to determine the distance between two positions. Ultrasonic wave is usedin this technique. (i) What is sonar?[ 1 mark ] (ii) Explain why using ultrasonic wave is better than just ordinary sound waves.[ 2 marks ] (iii) A marine researcher wants to use ultrasonic sound to determine the depth of the ocean bed. Explain how he can do so. [ 4 marks ]Question 15 [Waves]Explain why strong double-glazed glass is used as walls of the observation tower in an airport. [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 22
  23. 23. SBP 2012Question 17 [Electricity]Explain the advantages of parallel circuit in a house wiring system [4 marks]Question 18 [Electricity]Explain why the bulb connected to two dry cells lights up brighter than one bulb connected to one drycell. [4 marks]Question 19 [Electromagnetism]Explain what happens to magnet P and magnet Q when the switch is on. [4 marks]Question 20 [Electromagnetism]Diagram shows a simple direct current electric motor.Using the concept of the magnetic effect of an electric current, explain with the aid of diagrams howforces are produced on a wire in the coil, as shown in the diagram above.Question 21 [Electromagnetism]Diagram shows a circuit breaker. Explain how the circuit breaker works. [ 4marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 23
  24. 24. SBP 2012Question 22 [Electromagnetism] (i) What is meant by ideal transformer? [ 1 mark ] (ii) Explain the working principle of a transformer. [ 4 marks ]Question 23 [Electromagnetism]Diagram shows the model of an electricity transmission system. Transmission wire at 24 V a.c Power stationn Industry at 8 V a.c House at 6 V a.cMost of the electric energy that we are using come from hydroelectric and thermal power station. Thispower station is connected to each other using cable to transmit electric energy to industries, office,school and house. This system called National grid network.State the form of energy transfer at hydroelectric power station. Explain the importance of National grid network system in electricity transmission to consumers. Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 24
  25. 25. SBP 2012Question 24 [Electronic]Diagram shows a Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope.Explain how the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope can be used to measure the potential difference of a dry cell. [ 4marks ]Question 25 [Radioactivity]Radioisotope Strontium-90 is used to measure the thickness of paper in a paper industry .Explain howStrontium-90 is used to measure the thickness piece of paper? [4 marks]Question 26 [Radioactivity]Radioisotopes can be used as tracers to detect leaks from pipes underground. Diagram 12.1 shows a leakthat occurred in an underground water pipe.(a) What is meant by radioisotopes? [ 1 mark ](b) With the aid of diagram, explain how radioisotopes can be used to detect the location of the leakage as shown in Diagram. [ 3 marks ]Question 27 [Radioactivity]The following equation shows a fission reaction of Uranium-235.Nuclear fission produces a chain reaction.Describe how the chain reaction occurs in a nuclear fission of an atom of Uranium- 235. [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 25
  26. 26. SBP 2012SECTION IV – DECISION MAKING (Paper 2 Section A – Question 8; Section C )Question 1 [Force and Pressure]Table 1 shows the characteristics of four structures of ship P, Q, R, and S. Volume of the air Structure of Strength Of the Ship Base Cross Shape space in the ship ships metal used section area U Streamlined High Wide High V Oval Low Wide High W Circle High Small Low X Streamlined Low Small Low Table 1As a researcher in a ship manufacturing company, you are assigned to study the structure used to makethe ship to support heavy cargoes.You are given four choices of the structures P, Q, R and S. The table above shows the structures of the ship.Explain the suitable characteristics of the structure to be used to make the ship.Determine the most suitable structure to be used to make the ship to support heavy cargoes.Give reasons for your choice. [10 marks]Question 2 [Force and Pressure]At National Water Rocket competition, the winner is supposed to design a water rocket which can belaunched to a higher altitude, further distance and take the longest time to land.You are asked to investigate the characteristics of the water rockets in thediagram 11.2 and determinethe best rocket to use in the competition. Give reasons for your choice. P Q Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 26
  27. 27. SBP 2012 R S T [10 marks]Question 3 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 3 shows four racing motorcycles, P, Q, R and S, with different specifications. You are requiredto determine the most suitable motorcycle to move fast and safe when racing.Study the specifications of all the four motorcycles from the following aspects:Explain the suitability of the aspects.Justify your choice. Racing bike A Type of brake : without ABS Mass : 205.0 kg Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 27
  28. 28. SBP 2012 Racing bike B Type of brake : without ABS Mass : 220.0 kg Racing bike C Type of brake : ABS (Antilock Brake System) Mass : 208.0 kg Racing bike D Type of brake : ABS (Antilock Brake System) Mass : 242.0 kg Diagram 3 [10 marks]Question 4 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 4 shows the parts of brake systems car. Brake pads Brake pedal Brake fluid Brake disc Diagram 4Table 4 shows the specifications of components that can be used in brake systems , P,Q,R, S and T.Based on Table 4;You are required to determine the most suitable brake system and explain thesuitability of the aspects in Table 4 Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 28
  29. 29. SBP 2012 Specifications of components in a car brake system Brake Specific heat capacity Melting point The material Compression of system of brake disc of brake disc use of brake brake fluid J kg-10 C-1 0C pads ceramics P 360 930 Difficult Q 2400 1220 Difficult steel R 890 580 Easy ceramics S 2210 1940 Difficult ceramics steel T 1460 2070 Easy Table 4 [10 marks] Question 5 [Force and Pressure]You are asked to investigate the characteristics of each backhoes in table 11 and choose a backhoethat can do heavy works, an example of a backhoe is shown in diagram 11.2. Explain the suitability ofthe characteristics each backhoes. Determine the most suitable backhoe. Give reason for your choice Characteristics of Backhoe Type of Backhoe Fluids used in Centre of Size of tyre Mass Base area hydraulic system gravity M Large Liquid Large Large Low N Large Liquid Small Large Low P Large Gas Large Small High Q Medium Liquid Large Medium Low R Large Liquid Large Medium High Table 11 Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 29
  30. 30. SBP 2012 [10 marks]Question 6 [Force and Pressure]You are requested to choose a suitable wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. By referring tothe information given in Table 11.1, explain the suitability of each characteristic and suggest the mostsuitable wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. Design Shape of cross section of wing Area of Density of Difference in wing/m2 wing material speed of air / kg m-3 above and below the wing / m s-1 P 40.0 2100 10.0 Q 41.5 2300 0.0 R 42.5 2000 0.0 S 38.2 2050 8.0 Table 11.1 shows the characteristic of four designs of the aircraft wings. [10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 30
  31. 31. SBP 2012Question 7 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 11.5 shows a hot air balloon. Balloon Basket Diagram 11.5 Table 11.1 shows four hot air balloon with different specifications. Volume of the Material used for Material used for Temperature of air balloon Hot air balloon the balloon the basket inside the balloon (envelope) J 560 m3 Nylon Aluminium 500C Rattan K 2800 m3 Nylon 990C L 4 m3 Cotton Aluminium 500 C Rattan M 25 m3 Cotton 1200 C Table 11.1 You are required to determine the most suitable hot air balloon which can travel at higher altitude. Explain the suitability of each of the characteristic of the balloon. Choose the most suitable balloon and justify your choice. [10 marks] Question 8 [Force and Pressure] As a researcher you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of four types of liquid that are suitable to be used as a coolant for a car engine. Table 5 shows the characteristics of the liquids. character Boiling point Viscosity Specific heat Ability to react istics / oC Capacity / J with metals kg-1 C-1 . Liquid J 121 High 5500 High K 128 Low 4750 Low L 210 High 1195 Low M 101 Low 3588 medium Table 5Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 31
  32. 32. SBP 2012(i) Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the liquid to be used as a coolant for the car engine.(ii) Determine the most suitable liquid to be used and give a reason for your choice. [10 marks]Question 9 [Light]Diagram 6 shows an astronomical telescope consist of objective lens and eye piece. An astronomicaltelescope is used to view very large objects like moon. Diagram 6Table 7 shows the characteristics of four different simple astronomical telescopes. focal length of The distance Type of Objective Diameter of the Telescope objective of, f between two o lens objective lens /cm /cm lenses / D S Convex 40 D <fo+fe 5.0 T Concave 10 D >fo+fe 5.0 U Convex 10 D <fo+fe 2.5 V Concave 40 D >fo+fe 2.5 Table 6Explain the suitability of each characteristicof the telescope and determine the most suitable telescopeto be used to observe very far object. Give reason for your choice. [10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 32
  33. 33. SBP 2012Question 10 [Electricity]]Table 12.1 shows four heating elements F, G, H and J with different specifications. Three identical eatingpanels are needed to be fixed on three sides of an electric dryer. Heating Diameter Type of heating panel Arrangement Melting element of wire of heating point panels Thick Parallel circuit Low F Straight wire Thin Parallel circuit High G Coil wire Thin Series circuit High H Straight wire High Thick Parallel circuit J coil wire Table 12.1 You are required to determine the most suitable heating element that can produce highest amount of heat faster. Study the specifications of all the four heating elements based on the following aspects: (i) Diameter of the wire. (ii) Type of heating panel (iii) Arrangement of three heating panels. (iv) Melting point of the wire. Explain the suitability of each aspects and then determine the most suitable heating element. Give a reason of your choice. [10 marks]Question 11 [Electromagnetism]Question [Electromagnet]Diagram 12.2 shows four types of moving coil ammeter, R, S, T and U to measure small direct current.You are required to determine the most suitable moving coil ammeter to measure the small directcurrent effectively. Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 33
  34. 34. SBP 2012Moving coilammeter RMoving coilammeter S Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 34
  35. 35. SBP 2012Moving coilammeter TMoving coilammeter U Diagram 12.2 You are required to determine the most suitable moving coil ammeter to measure small direct current effectively. Study the specification of all the four moving coil ammeters based on the following aspects: (i). The shape of the permanent magnet and core [2 marks] (ii). The material of the core [2 marks] (iii) The stiffness of the hair spring [ 2 marks] (iv) The type of scale of the ammeter [2 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 35
  36. 36. SBP 2012 Explain the suitability of each aspect and then determine the most suitable moving coil ammeter. Give a reason for your choice. [2 marks]Question 12 [Electromagnetism]The transmission of electricity over the National Grid Network uses high voltage cables. You are assignedto study the characteristics of cables which could be used as transmission cable. Table 7 shows thecharacteristics of four transmission cables. Rate of Cable Resistivity /Ωm-1 Density / kg m-3 oxidation Rate of thermal expansion High P 3.0 x l0-7 5 x l05 Low Low Q 1.8 x l0-8 2 x l03 Low Medium R 7.5 x l0-7 8 x l02 High High S 7.0 x l0-8 4 x l03 Medium Table 7Based on the table 7;(i) Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the cables to be used as transmission cable. (ii) Determine the most suitable transmission cable to be used and give reasons for your choice. [10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 36
  37. 37. SBP 2012Question 13 [Electronic/electromagnetism]You are asked to investigate the design and the characteristics of four alternating current generatorsshown in Table 8. Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the alternating current generators anddetermine the alternating current generator which can supply a large direct current to an electricalcomponent X shown in Diagram 8. x Diagram 8 Density of Rectification circuit Frequency of Generator the coil / kg rotation m–3 G 9200 High 11600 H Medium High I 8960 J 10500 Medium [10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 37
  38. 38. SBP 2012Question 14 [Electronic]As a research engineer in a factory, you are asked to investigate the characteristics of severalsubstances in order to produce p-type or n-type to produce semiconductor diode.Table 9 shows the characteristics of five semiconductors P, Q, R, S and T Size of the doping atom compared Electron Valens of Semiconductor Electron Valens of with the size of the atom relative to intrinsic doping substance intrinsic semiconductor atom semiconductor P 2 5 Big Q Small 4 5 Small R 3 4 Almost the same S 5 2 3 T 4 Almost the same Table 9Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the semiconductor P, Q, R, S and T to be used in theproduction of a semiconductor diode. Give reasons for your choiceWhich type of intrinsic semiconductor below is the most suitable to be used. Give your reason for youranswer. Type of intrinsic semiconductor Silicon Germanium [ 10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 38
  39. 39. Question 15 [Radioactivity]As a researcher, you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of radioactive substances with tobe used for the treatment of cancer.Table 10 shows radioactive rays directed towards the cancer cells in a patient’s brain. Ionizing power Radioactive Type of radiation Half-life State of matter J Beta 6 hours Liquid High K Gamma 1620 years Solid Low L Gamma 5 years Solid Low M Beta 15 days Liquid High Table 10(i) Based on Table 10, explain the suitable properties of the radioactive substances for use to kill cancer cells in patients brains.(ii) Determine which radioactive substance is the most suitable for the treatment of cancer cells in a patient and give your reasons. [10 marks] 39X A-Plus Physics Module 2012
  40. 40. X A-PLUS 2012SECTION V– CONCEPTUALIZATION (Paper 2 Section A – Question 5/6; Section B )Question 1 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 1(a) and Diagram 1(b) show two solid spheres A and B with different density placed in the water. Diagram 1(a) Diagram 1 (b)Based on Diagram 1(a) and Diagram 1(b), (i) compare the density of sphere A and sphere B. [ 1 mark ] (ii) compare the weight of sphere A and sphere B [ 1 mark ] (iii) compare the weight of water displaced by sphere A and sphere B [ 1 mark ] (iv) relate the weight of sphere and the weight of water displaced [ 1 mark ] (v) relate the weight of water displaced and upthrust [ 1 mark ]Question 2 [Force and Pressure]A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river, although the boat carries thesame load. The density of sea water and river water is 1025 kg m-3 and 1000 kg m-3 respectively. In the sea In the river DIAGRAM 2(a) DIAGRAM 2(b)Diagram 2(a) and Diagram 2(b) illustrate the situation of the boat in the sea and in the river.(a) What is meant by density? [1 mark](b) Based on Diagram 2(a) and Diagram 2(b) (i) Compare the level of the boat in the sea water and in the river water. [1 mark] (ii) Compare the volume of water displaced by the boat in the sea and in the river. [1 mark] (iii) Compare the density of sea water and river w [1 mark](c) (i) Relate the volume of water displaced to the density of water. [1 mark] (ii) Deduce relationship between weight of the boat and the weight of the water displaced. [1 mark](d) Name the physics principle that explains the situation above. [1 mark] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 40
  41. 41. X A-PLUS 2012Question 3 [Heat]Diagram 3(a) shows a balloon filled with air attached to a test tube before and after the test tube isheated.Diagram 3(b) shows a pingpong ball before and after it is poured with boiled water. (i) (ii) Diagram 3(a) (i) (ii) Diagram 3(b)(a) (i) Observe Diagram 3(a) and Diagram 3(b).State two similarities about the air inside the balloon and ping pong ball. [2 marks] (ii) Compare the mass of air in Diagram 3(a)(i) with Diagram 3(a)(ii); and Diagram 3(b)(i) with Diagram 3(b)(ii). [1 mark](b) (i) Based on your observation in Diagram 3(a) and Diagram 3(b), state the relationship between the physical quantities in (a) (i). [1 mark] (ii) Name physics law involved in (b)(i). [1 mark] (iii) Using observation in Diagram 3(a) and Diagram 3(b), explain the physics law stated in b(ii) using kinetic theory of matter. [3 marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 41
  42. 42. X A-PLUS 2012Question 4 [Wave]Diagram 4.1 shows the pattern of the water wave after passing through a gap.The experiment was repeated with different wavelength of waterpassing through the same gap. The wavepattern is as shown in Diagram 4.2. Diagram 4.1 Diagram 4.2(a) What is wavelength? [1 mark ] (b) Based on Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2, compare (i) the wavelength before passing through the gap (ii) the wavelength before and after passing through the gap [2 marks](c) Compare the wave pattern in Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2 after the wave passed through the gap. [1 mark](d) Based on your answers in ( b) and (c), state the relationship between the wavelength and the wave pattern after passing through the gap. [1 mark](e) Name the wave phenomenon which occurs in Diagrams 4.1 and 4.2. [1 mark]Question 5 [Electromagnetism]Diagram 5.1 shows a bar magnet with northpole at point P and Diagram 5.2 shows a bar magnet withsouth pole at point Q which are moved towards the solenoid to produce current. DIAGRAM 5.1 DIAGRAM 5.2 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 42
  43. 43. X A-PLUS 2012a) Observe the diagrams and state two differences between them. [2 marks]b) What is the polarity of the solenoid at point P and Q when the magnet is moved towards the solenoid? P : …………………………… Q : ………………………… [2 marks]c) What is the relationship between the number of turns and the magnitude of induced current? [1mark]d) Name the law involved in (c). [1mark]e) Suggest another method to increase the deflection of the pointer. [1mark]f) State an instrument that uses the application of induced current. [1mark]Question 6 [Force and Motion]Diagrams 6.1 and 6.2 show a load is being lift up. Ground Ground Diagram 6.1 Diagram 6.2(a) What is gravitational potential energy? [1mark](b) Based on Diagrams 6.1 and 6.2 , compare the position of the loadafter being lifted up, the gravitational potential energy and the work done. State the relationship between - the position of the load and the work done in lifting the load. - The gravitational potential energy and the work done [5marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 43
  44. 44. X A-PLUS 2012Question 7 [Force and Motion]Diagram 7shows a 50 sen coin and a leaf falling in a vacuum container. The coin is heavier than the leaf. Diagram 7Using the diagram shown and the information given about the weight of the two objects, compare themass of the coin and the leaf, the time taken to fall, the falling position of the coin and the leaf,thegravitational acceleration of the coins and the leaf. Deduce the relationship between the mass and thegravitational acceleration of falling object. [5 marks]Question 8 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 8(a), Diagram 8(b) and Diagram 8(c) show a rock being hung on a spring balance in the air,immersed in water and cooking oil respectively. The reading of the spring balance for each situation is asshown in Diagram 8. Diagram 8Using Diagram 8(a), Diagram 8(b) and Diagram 8(c), compare the spring balance reading, the weight lostof the rock and the density of the water and the cooking oil.Relate the weight lost and the density to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 44
  45. 45. X A-PLUS 2012Question 9 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 9(a) shows a hot air balloon carry up the loads at a certain height in the morning and Diagram9(b) shows the same hot air balloon carry up the loads at a certain height in the afternoon. The hot airballoon used helium gas at the same temperature in both situations. Diagram 9Using Diagrams 9(a) and 9(b), compare the density of the air, the load that can be carried up by the hotair balloon and the height of the hot air balloon from the ground.Relate the buoyant force with the density of the air to make a deduction regarding the relationshipbetween the density of the air and the weight of the load carried by the hot air balloon. [5 marks]Question 10 [Force and Pressure]Diagram10.1, Diagram10.2and Diagram10.3 show a fisherman pulling the fishing net out of the river. InDiagram10.1, the fisherman finds it easy to pull up the fishing net while most of the fish is in the water.However as more and more of the net is out of the water it gets harder to pull up the net as shown inDiagrams10.2 and 10.3. Diagram 10.1 Diagram 10.2 Diagram 10.3 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 45
  46. 46. X A-PLUS 2012 Using Diagrams10.1, 10.2 and 10.3, compare the mass of the fishand the volume of the fishing netimmersed in the water.Relate the weight of water displaced with the amount of force required to lift the net and the buoyantforce, and deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks]Question 11 [Light]Diagram 11(a) and Diagram 11(b) show two rectangular glass blocks with different optical density andrefractive index. Ray of light is directed toward the glass blocks with the same angle of incidence 30°. Density = 2600 kgm-3 Density = 2670 kgm-3 Diagram 11(a) Diagram 11(b)Based on Diagram 11(a) and Diagram 11(b), compare the density, the refractive index and the angle ofrefraction of the glass blocks. Relate - the angle of refraction, r and the density of the glass blocks. - relate the angle of refraction, r and the refractive index of the glass blocks [5 marks]Question 12 [Light]Diagram 12.1 and Diagram 12.2 show the parallel rays of light directed towards the convex lenses J and K.Both the lenses produce real images. F is the focal point for each lens. DIAGRAM 12.1 DIAGRAM 12.2 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 46
  47. 47. X A-PLUS 2012With reference to Diagram 12.1 and Diagram 12.2, compare the thickness of the lenses, the effects it hason the refracted rays, and the focal length of the lens.Relate the thickness of the lens with the effect on therefracted ray, to deduce a relationship between the thickness of the lens and the focal length. [5 marks]Question 13 [Wave]Diagram 13.1 (a) and Diagram 13.2(a) show the apparatus set-up for a Young’s double-slit experiment, todetermine the wavelength of a monochromatic light. Diagram 13.1(b) and Diagram 13.2(b) show thefringes formed on the screen for each situation.Using the diagrams given, compare the distance between the double-slit and the screen, the distancebetween two successive bright fringes, the number of fringes and the width of fringes.Deduce the relationship between the distance between the double-slit and the screen, and the distancebetween two successive bright fringes. [5 marks]Question 14 [Waves]Diagram 14(a) and 14(b) show vibration of different thickness of guitar string. Diagram 14(a) X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 47
  48. 48. X A-PLUS 2012 Diagram 14(b)When microphone is used to detect the sound waves of each guitar string, the traces displayed on theoscilloscopes as shown in the diagrams.(i) Using Diagram 14(a) and 14(b), compare the number of oscillations, amplitude of wave and diameter of Guitar string.(ii) State the relationship between the frequency of sound wave and -diameter of the string -pitch of the sound [5 marks]Question 15 [Electricity]Diagram 15.1 and 15.2 show two identical resistors with resistance R connected to the ammeter, voltmeter,switch and batteries in different ways. DIAGRAM 15.1 DIAGRAM 15.2 DIAGRAM 11.2When the switch is on, the ammeter and the voltmeter show a reading. Based on Diagram 15.1 andDiagram 15.2, compare the type of circuit connection, the reading of ammeter, the reading of voltmeterand the effective resistance of the circuit.Relate the current flows in a circuit with the effective resistance to make a deduction regarding therelationship between type of a circuit connection and the effective resistance. [6 marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 48
  49. 49. X A-PLUS 2012Question 16 [Electromagnetism]Diagram 16(a) and Diagram 16(b) show the relative motion between the magnet and solenoid. The endsof the coils are connected to a zero centre galvanometer. Diagram 16(a) Diagram 16(b)Using Diagram 16(a) and Diagram 16(b),(i) compare the direction of the movement of the magnet(ii) compare the deflection of the galvanometer pointer(iii) Relate the movement of the magnet, the polarity at the top of the coil and the force acting on the magnet to explain a relevant physics law. [5 marks]Question 17 [Electronics]Diagram 17.1 and Diagram 17.2 show a bulb is connected to a diode and a dry cell. Diagram 17.1 Diagram 17.2Observe Diagram 17.1 and Diagram 17.2. Compare the condition of the two bulbs, the connection of thediode. Relate the diode connection with - the condition of the bulbs, and - the current flow through the diodeDeduce a relevant physics concept. [ 4 marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 49