Fossil fuels (petroleum), coal, and nuclear materials
such as uranium.
also known as non-conventional fuels,
any materials or substances that can be used as
fuels, other than conventional fuels.
which is consumed to provide energy to power an
Mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process.
Can also be manufactured by the chemical process of
reacting ethylene with steam.
A clear colorless liquid, it is biodegradable, low in toxicity
and causes little environmental pollution if spilt.
Ethanol is a high octane fuel and has replaced lead as an
octane enhancer in petrol.
Widely sold in the United States.
Much cleaner, it burns
more cleanly (more
Can reduce the net
emissions of greenhouse
The fuel spills are more
easily biodegraded or
diluted to non toxic
Can use any plant for
Will increase food prices
around the world.
Pure ethanol is also
difficult to vaporise
Not as efficient as
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Not RPG
Clean-burning fossil fuel that can be used to power
internal combustion engines.
Lower amounts of some harmful emissions and the
greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2)
Most LPG used in U.S
Transportation fuel since 1912
How Propane Vehicles Work?
Propane is stored as a liquid in a relatively low-pressure
The supply of propane to the engine is controlled by a
regulator or vaporizer, which converts the liquid propane
to a vapor
The vapor is fed to a mixer located near the intake
manifold, where it is metered and mixed with filtered air
before being drawn into the combustion chamber where
it is burned to produce power
90% of propane used in U.S. comes from domestic
Less expensive than gasoline
Potentially lower toxic, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon
monoxide (CO), and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC)
Propane is clean, cost effective, safe and a reliable
A few large trucks and vans can be special ordered from
manufacturers; other vehicles can be converted by
Less readily available than gasoline & diesel
Fewer miles on a tank of fuel
Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at
any level with petroleum diesel
To create a biodiesel blend in different concentrations of
B100, B20, B5, B2.
It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines
with little or no modifications.
Biodiesel is a form of diesel fuel manufactured from
recycled restaurant greases.
Biodiesel Compared to
• Can be used in most diesel • Use of blends above B5
engines, especially newer
not yet approved by many
• Less air pollutants (other
• B100 generally not
than nitrogen oxides)
suitable for use in low
• Less greenhouse gas
emissions (e.g., B20
• Concerns about B100's
reduces CO2 by 15%)
impact on engine
A potentially emissions-free alternative fuel produced
from domestic resources.
Not widely used today as a transportation fuel
Not occur free in nature in useful quantities, but it is
manufactured in a number of ways.
Emits only water vapour, assuming there is no leakage
of hydrogen gas
It can store up to 3x as much energy as conventional
It still costs a considerable amount of money to run a
a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and
a more environmentally "clean" alternative to conventional
It is much safer than other fuels in the event of a
spill, because natural gas is lighter than air and disperses
quickly when released
made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed
of methane, CH4), to less than 1 percent of the volume it
occupies at standard atmospheric pressure
it can be efficiently and
friendly due to its low
emissions after burning.
most of the natural
reserves of natural gas
field are underutilized.
because the cylinders are
not washed by petrol
still does create greenhouse
highly volatile and can be
dangerous is handled or
they aren't as roomy as
higher overall costs of a
compared to a gasolinepowered car.