SCOReD-UniTEN 2010 Managing Personal Knowledge


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Presentation of my second paper based on PhD research, at UniTEN, Putrajaya, Malaysia, on 13th October 2010.

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SCOReD-UniTEN 2010 Managing Personal Knowledge

  1. 1. Managing Personal Knowledge Understanding the Knowledge Expert Authors : Shahrinaz Ismail, UCSI University Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad, Universiti Tenaga Nasional SCOReD-UNITEN 2010, 13-14 Oct 2010
  2. 2. Introduction 5 Difficulties in searching/locating knowledge experts within the firm 2 3 1 Semantic Web 4 tacit explicit
  3. 3. Concept: OKM based on PKM Trust Social Influence Individual Behaviour Organisational Culture Barrier Personal Knowledge Management Using TOOLS that individuals find usable Collaboration of TOOLS can be a set of KM Technologies for specific organisation Align with Organisational KM Objectives
  4. 4. The People Factor… <ul><li>PKM processes defined by most literature includes ‘people factor’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>networking, find people who share the same interest, social, sharing knowledge, collaborating, extension and extrapolation, and community of practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there is a need to “know the knowledge expert” along the processes of PKM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verma (2009): The core focus of PKM is ‘personal inquiry’, a quest to find, connect, learn and explore. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Define PKM… <ul><li>PKM is defined based on the processes deemed necessary to ensure its worth : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ best viewed as based on a set of problem solving skills that have both a logical or conceptual as well as physical or hands-on component” (Avery et al., 2001); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ consists in a collection of processes that an individual needs to carry out in order to gather, classify, store, search, and retrieve knowledge in his/her daily activities” (Grundspenkis, 2007); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ activity we perform in order to improve our problem recognition, formulating attempted solutions, and error elimination activities” (Firestone, 2009); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ an individual, disciplined process by which we make sense of information, observations and ideas” (Jarche, 2010). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. PKM Processes Flows… Avery, et al. (2001) Retrieve Evaluate Organise Collaborate Analyse Present Secure Pettenati, et al. (2007) Create Share Creation Codification Sharing Collaboration Organisation Razmerita, Kirchner & Sudzina (2009) Grundspenkis (2007) Gather Classify Store Search Retrieve
  7. 7. Main Processes or Domain of PKM… Jarche (2009) Seek Find Aggregators / Filterers Sense Share Find an Expression Medium Find People with same Passion Martin (2000) Manage Personal Knowledge (Tool: networks) Organise Personal Knowledge (Tool: library, database, etc.) Share Knowledge (Tool: community of practice) Jarche (2010) Aggregate Understand Connect Creation Codification Sharing Collaboration Organisation Razmerita, Kirchner & Sudzina (2009)
  8. 8. PKM over Web 2.0… <ul><li>Both sets of PKM processes flows (shown earlier) are aligned with the concept of PKM over Web 2.0 defined by Razmerita, Kirchner and Sudzina (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>showing the significance of current technology trend in PKM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sets of activities in managing personal knowledge over the emerging technology can be categorised into creation, organisation, sharing, collaboration, and codification (not in any particular order) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the order of activities depends on the individual knowledge workers, since each individual is unique in managing self personal knowledge. </li></ul></ul>Creation Codification Sharing Collaboration Organisation Razmerita, Kirchner & Sudzina (2009) Creation Codification Sharing Collaboration Organisation Razmerita, Kirchner & Sudzina (2009)
  9. 9. “Looking Inward” & “Looking Outward”… <ul><li>Jarche (2009): The in-depth view of PKM processes, in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ looking inward’ (i.e. categorizing, making explicit, going public and retrieval); and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ looking outward’ (i.e. connecting, exchanging and contributing) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 4 Domains in People-Oriented Model… <ul><li>Wright (2005): Since managing personal knowledge is significantly people-oriented, a model to stress the importance of both bonding and bridging networks, with four interrelated domains : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical : involves competencies such as interpretation, envisioning, application, creation, and contextualization; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information : comprises the sourcing, assessment, organization, aggregation, and communication of information; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social : involves finding and collaborating with people, development of both close networks and extended networks, and dialogue; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning : entails expanding pattern recognition and sensemaking capabilities, reflection, development of new knowledge, improvement of skills, and extension to others. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Aim… Findings expectation : The finding is expected to be able to propose a model for software agent to be used to identify and understand knowledge experts through their behaviour, diligence and intention (BDI). Main objective : To understand the processes involved in managing personal knowledge by knowledge experts.
  12. 12. Research Methodology <ul><li>Literature survey and review on managing personal knowledge and PKM. </li></ul><ul><li>A study and analysis on the activities of knowledge experts when they manage their personal knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some hypotheses are drawn up to be quantitatively and/or qualitatively proven. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A conceptual model for a non-agent mediated PKM is drawn to prepare the base for applying a human-agent collaborative framework in further research. </li></ul><ul><li>Formalisation of the conceptual model by analysing a researcher’s way of managing personal knowledge in daily work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>model is based on only the work processes through computer and internet technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where tacit knowledge is expected to be within the embedded processes but may or may not be captured to be explicitly presented </li></ul></ul>A B
  13. 13. Preliminary Findings: Unmediated PKM Researcher 2. Understand / Analyse <ul><li>summarise </li></ul><ul><li>write reviews </li></ul><ul><li>comment </li></ul><ul><li>collect more data through research </li></ul><ul><li>write journal/conference paper </li></ul><ul><li>decide who the knowledge is for </li></ul><ul><li>search </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>RSS feed </li></ul><ul><li>aggregation tool </li></ul><ul><li>online library database search </li></ul><ul><li>auto-feed to email search </li></ul><ul><li>‘ follow’ shared updates </li></ul>1. Get / Retrieve Internet <ul><li>RSS to blog </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>share RSS/link, with reviews </li></ul><ul><li>tag people when sharing link </li></ul><ul><li>wiki </li></ul><ul><li>social bookmark </li></ul><ul><li>chat </li></ul><ul><li>journal/conference </li></ul>3. Share / Publish Internet 4. Connect <ul><li>from comments by others </li></ul><ul><li>from vote by others </li></ul><ul><li>from ‘following’ others’ work/profile </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail and online message </li></ul><ul><li>chat </li></ul><ul><li>connecting profiles </li></ul><ul><li>networking at conference </li></ul>Internet
  14. 14. Preliminary Findings <ul><li>From the overall view of a knowledge expert’s PKM (formalised in the next slide), it is found that a knowledge worker is connected to three different ‘locations’ when managing personal knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet (via proactive search or semantic Web); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge sources (repositories, databases and knowledge bases), and; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other knowledge workers (other individuals or knowledge experts). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Discussions <ul><li>This study uses an exploratory method to understand and formalise the preliminary findings into a conceptual model. </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual knowledge expert has his/her own way of managing personal knowledge, and the range of knowledge experts are very diverse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>researchers, engineers, consultants, lawyers, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In an organisation, even the knowledge workers at the operational level could be experts of their own field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they also use computers and internet technologies in their daily management of personal knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Recommendations of Methodology Thorough research methods (data collection) to understand the aspect of ‘people’ and how they manage personal knowledge Questionnaire survey on PKM based on preliminary findings in this study Theme-based Interview on unique experts in different fields <ul><li>to understand the general processes of managing personal knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>for a big sample size </li></ul><ul><li>2. to verify the preliminary findings of this paper </li></ul>1. to understand a more focused and detailed aspect of PKM processes, 2. could lead to how tacit knowledge is captured, codified, stored and transferred over technologies a multi-agent collaborative framework can be used to further automate software agents to extend the role of humans in a collaborative work process, such as PKM processes
  17. 17. Discussions <ul><li>In this framework, a human and his or her agent constitute a node, in which the agent communicates with other agents in other human-agent nodes, to collaboratively complete a scheduled workflow process. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of an individual knowledge expert in this paper can be extended to a concept of incorporating multiple agents for each node (human knowledge expert). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>OKM starts from the roots where individuals and their PKM styles/characteristics are situated. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to develop a successful OKM strategy there is a need to understand how individuals (i.e. knowledge experts) manage their knowledge at personal level in achieving their personal objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>These individual knowledge experts can be assisted by using agent intelligence to automatically locate experts and knowledge resources through understanding of BDI of the knowledge seeker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>especially in matching its profile with that of the knowledge resources and/or the knowledge experts </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>This study brings forward the aspect of ‘locations’ in managing personal knowledge, which could be further defined in terms of ‘roles’ when the processes of PKM are mediated by software agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Location-based mediation and role-based mediation are possible to be developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with the latter being more complex to be analysed than the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with possibilities of adopting the BDI architecture that includes stronger notions of agency </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Final say… <ul><li>Agent technology could help knowledge experts achieve their personal objectives and goals, through the application of a multi-agent collaborative framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge experts are not limited to researchers, but any individuals who work and manage their knowledge using computer and over the internet technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>This could be further extended to related areas, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agent-mediated PKM for strategic managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agent-mediated personal learning environment (PLE) for students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agent-mediated organisational knowledge management (OKM) for decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc… </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. A glimpse.. SA-2 SA-1 delegate Legend : SA = Software Agent SA-1* = Method 2 for SA KW = Knowledge Worker Internet Knowledge Source Repositories Database Knowledgebase SA-1* Node 1 Human Knowledge Worker SA Node 2 Human Knowledge Worker Non-Expert (without profile) Human KW with or without SA Human KW is assisted by SA Node 3 Human KW without SA <ul><ul><li>Proactive Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web </li></ul></ul>Agent Environment Schedule to pertain Human Knowledge Worker SA-N Expert (with profile)
  22. 22. <ul><li>THANK YOU… </li></ul>?