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c2329- Lecture3

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c2329- Lecture3

  1. 1. POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern Architecture Lecture 03: International Style • De stijl •Constructivism • The Bauhauswww.shahrilkhairi.com Prepared by SKA
  2. 2. POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureDE STiJL (the style) Piet MondrianTheo van DoesburgPiet MondrianGerrit Thomas Rietveld Theo van Doesburg Gerrit RietveldFounded in 1915 (Holland) by Theo van Doesburg, a painter and later an architect.Also known as“neoplasticism”, the movement focusing on radical transformation of art in contrast to the “visionary +dynamic” confusion. (termed by Mendelsohn).This Dutch artistic movement is based on a journal/magazine published by Theo van Doesberg ; De Stijlmeans “The Style”. The magazine de stijl been a dialectic tool of a group of commercial painters (PietMondrian), artists, architects who embraced the ideals of rhythm, economy of expressive means,rigorous construction.INTERNATIONAL STYLE : DE STIJL Prepared by SKA
  3. 3. POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureSchroder’ House, UtrechtThe Netherlands 1924Resident House of Mrs. Truus Schröder-SchräderGerrit Thomas RietveldAs in Mondrian’s paintings, the building are distinguishedby vertical and horizontal lines, primary colours (red,yellow, blue) and smooth planes.Designed by Rietveld for Mrs. Schroder and her threechildren. It become an icon of De Stijl architecture and in2000 become one of UNESCO World Heritage Site-Changeable open plan- sliding panels & partitions- interlocking planes-Collage of square & rectangles- surface with primary values : gray & white- highlights using primary coloursINTERNATIONAL STYLE : DE STIJL Prepared by SKA
  4. 4. POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureCONSTRUCTIVISMVladimir Tatlin (father of constructivism)El LissitzkyKonstantin S.Mel’nikovThe constructivist are among pioneers ofphotomontage.- Collage with photo and painting together. Wolkenbügel (Cloud-iron). 1925 A photomontage of a building designed, but never built, by Lissitzky.Photomontage of illustrated Alexander Rodchenko.Mayakovsky’s poem, "About album cover by FranzThis," in 1923. Ferdinand (2007) Melnikov House (1927-1929) Konstantin Melnikov Rusakov Workers’ Club (1890-1974) Konstantin MelnikovINTERNATIONAL STYLE : CONSTRUCTIVISM Prepared by SKA
  5. 5. POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureMonument to the Third International,St. Petersburg, Moscow 1920Monument, Tower (never actually built)Vladimir Tatlin (father of constructivism)Constructivist art is committed tocomplete abstraction with a devotion tomodernity, where themes are oftengeometric, experimental and rarelyemotional.a 22-ft-high (6.7-m) iron frame on whichrested a revolving cylinder, cube, andcone, all made of glass which wasoriginally designed for massive scale.CHARACTERISTICS of CONSTRUCTIVISM:-geometric abstraction & pattern- experimental geometry with universalmeaning- minimal, basic elements- industrial material; glass, steel andplastic- clearly defined arrangement- machine-made building parts- technological details such asantennae, signs and projection screens- a sense of movementINTERNATIONAL STYLE : CONSTRUCTIVISM Prepared by SKA
  6. 6. POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureThe Bauhaus, Dessau, German 1925School of ArchitectureWalter Gropius Bauhaus = "House of -existed in 3 German cities: Building" or "Building - Weimar (1919-1925) School“ - Dessau (1925-1932) -a school in Germany that - Berlin (1932-1933) combined crafts and the fine arts - 3 different architect-directors: - operated from 1919 to - Walter Gropius (1919-1927) 1933 - Hannes Meyer (1927-1930) - founded by Walter - Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Gropius (1930-1933) - founded with the idea of - was closed under pressure creating a total work of art from the Nazi regime. in which all arts would be brought together. - became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design - influenced developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography. GROPIUS MEYER MIESINTERNATIONAL STYLE : THE BAUHAUS Prepared by SKA
  7. 7. POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureThe Bauhaus, Dessau, German 1925School of ArchitectureWalter GropiusBauhaus Style = International Style- Absence of ornamentation.- Harmony between function and design.- Arts & Crafts + Technology (machines)- Simplified forms- Mass production/ Standardized Design- FunctionalityBauhaus Building (1925–26), architect: Walter GropiusThis building, especially the School’s bright colour scheme, brings togethersharp visual dissections, block colours and geometric shapes. The buildingbecame icon of Modernism, its decoration-free, clean style, a modernapproach and a special, fully built-in the architectural solution, use of colour. Marcel Breuer: Wassily Chair Bauhaus Philosophy - Artist should be trained to work with the industryINTERNATIONAL STYLE : THE BAUHAUS Prepared by SKA

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