Notes lecture 2 AQU2203

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Notes lecture 2 AQU2203

  1. 1. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan LECTURE 2TYPES OF FISH BREEDING TECHNIQUES IN FISH PRODUCTION © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  2. 2. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 2 Lecture 1 TYPES OF FISH BREEDING TECHNIQUES IN FISH PRODUCTION Objective : 3)To expose students to the different types of breeding for stock improvement 5)To develop understanding about fish breeding techniques in fish production. © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  3. 3. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 3 Introduction Types of Breeding Crossbreeding Hybridization Monosex Culture Chromosome Manipulation © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  4. 4. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 4 Lecture 1 TYPES OF FISH BREEDING TECHNIQUES IN FISH PRODUCTION Learning Outcome : At the end of lecture, students should be able to : Explain the breeding techniques in fish production Diferentiate the different breeding techniques in fish production © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  5. 5. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 5 IMPROVEMENTS IN AQUACULTURE• IMPROVEMENT IN REPRODUCTION• IMPROVEMENT IN GROWTH AND NUTRITION• IMPROVEMENT IN HEALTH• IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY AND VALUE• CONSERVATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES• IMPROVEMENT IN BIOMEDICINAL VALUE INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  6. 6. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 6 Increase ProductivityEnvironmental Manipulation Genetic Manipulation Culture System Feed Additives – hormone, © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT probiotic, chemicals
  7. 7. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 7 GENETIC IMPROVEMENT IN FISH BREEDING A method to increase the quality or to obtain the desired traits using various selected breeding techniques Involves genetic manipulation in which the traits can be modified and inherit © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  8. 8. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 8 BREEDING Main Aim : Increase quality of stocks (stock improvement) Produce high commercial value and profitable cultured fish © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  9. 9. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 9 Increase productivity which can benefit the consumers Example. Fish that has high growth rates Solving problems in occurrence of pathogens Example. Production of disease resistant and hardy fish Reduce inbreeding in wild and cultured population © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  10. 10. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 10 Improvements in quality of stock through management of broodstock and seedlings - Able to select and identify quality broodstock and seed for breeding Creation of new export comodity in the industry Example. Production of fish with new characteristics © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  11. 11. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 11 BREEDING Traits that are desired in fish production: High growth rate High dressing percentage (more meat less waste) Resistant to disease Hardy (able to tolerate harsh condition) Good food conversion ratio (FCR). Variability in body colours and patterns © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  12. 12. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 12 BREEDING There are several types of fish breeding techniques commonly used in fish production : Crossbreeding Hybridization Sex Reversed Population (Monosex) Chromosome Manipulation © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  13. 13. 13Mating or crossing 2 different strains or varieties of the samespeciesAlso known as Intraspesific HybridizationA breeding program that increases the breeding value - resulted in production of new strain X Same species (goldfish) but different strain
  14. 14. 14Application of Crossbreeding : Increase performance of the entire stocks Producing progeny that has intermediate performance obtained from the broodstocks Produce and increase the quality or performance of a new pure stock (pure breed). To exploit heterosis Heterosis : increase in performance of progeny that exceed the performance of the broodstock.
  15. 15. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 15 Mostly applied in ornamental fish breeding program More focused on the production of colours, patterns and shapes © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  16. 16. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 16 Define as mating of two different species Also known as Interspesific Hybridization. Main Purpose : To combine the main traits of both species. X © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT Breeding of 2 different species (goldfish) and carp
  17. 17. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 17 Conducted between species that are closely related - same family or same genus. Breeding can occur naturally or induced using hormone Hybrids are generally intermediate (can be distinguished between parents). However hybrids are biased towards one parent Example of hybridization : Hybrid Striped Bass X White Bass Hybrid Channel Catfish X Blue Catfish Nile Tilapia X Blue Tilapia © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  18. 18. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 18 Production of a population with single sex characteristics Conducted to control production of certain sex for growth. Avoid occurrence of breeding during grow-out. Main purpose of Monosex production in a population advantage of certain sex desire for certain sex avoid reproduction during culture avoid aggressive behaviour which normally exist during reproduction © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  19. 19. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 19 Perform due to interest towards a certain gender which has a better performance compared to the other gender Produced using hormone tratment All produced seeds will be either 100% male or 100% female XX OR XY 100% 100% Female Male © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  20. 20. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 20 Feminization Changes in sex of individuals to female through administration of estrogen hormones Hormone Seed Female Estrogen Example : salmon Masculinization Changes in sex of individuals to male through administration of andogen hormones Hormone Seed Male Androgen Example : Tilapia, channel catfish © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  21. 21. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 21 Example : Tilapia - male are more desired due to faster growth rate compared to female Salmon – female are more desired due to bigger size and faster growth rate Channel catfish Channel catfish Tilapia Salmon © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  22. 22. 36Manipulation of the whole genome of an organismat the chromosomal level to obtain desiredcharacteristics. Manipulation is done to the whole chromosome set and not at the DNA strands Main Purpose : production of sterile fish Production of monosex population Attain higher growth rate Applied to eggs or spermatozoa or fertilized eggs
  23. 23. 38 3 Main TecniquesPolyploidy Androgenesis Addition in the Limiting inheritance to thechromosome number paternal parent Limiting inheritance to the Gynogenesis maternal parent

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