1         AQU2203Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                    Lecture 1             Introduction to Genetics© Dr. Shahreza...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                    2                        Lecture 1                 In...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan           3                        Lecture 1                 Introduction to Genetics   ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                            4                           Lecture 1                      Co...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                          5                              ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                  6                                                  Cell...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                             7   Organisms are made up of billions of cells   These cel...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                             8          A field of science about hereditary and variation...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                      9                                  ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                           10                                    What is ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                11                                    In an organism, gen...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                             12    A gene or set of genes contains the bl...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                             13                                      How a Characteristic...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                          14  Genotype  Gene     that  controls  a  parti...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                     15  Qualitative Phenotype    Phenotypes that can be described – colo...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                           16                                    Differen...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan   17      © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                18     Qualitative Phenotype – Autosomal      Phenotype t...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan              19     Qualitative Phenotype – Autosomal Body colouration and pattern in so...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                        20     Qualitative Phenotype – Sex-Linked    Phen...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                           21     Qualitative Phenotype – Sex-Linked     ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                            22  Quantitative Phenotype      Phenotypes   ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                              23     Quantitative Phenotype – Sex-Linked ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                              24SPERMATOGENESIS          ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                  25 OOGENESIS                           ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                26                                    Fertilization   Gam...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                       27           Cell Replication                     ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                       28    Expression of a phenotype is caused by react...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                              29     Gene can be expressed in an additive...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                              30     Gene action will give variation in t...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                            31    Most qualitative phenotypes are control...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                           32        Complete                               Incomplete   ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                           33    Occurs when a strong dominant allele pro...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                      34                                          X                      ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                        35                           X   ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                            36                           ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                37    Occurs when the dominant allele exp...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                       38                                           X                    ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                        39                           X   ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                         40                           X  ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                           41    Occurs when no allele is dominant over t...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                         42                                        X                     ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                       43                           X    ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                            44                           ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                  45                                             X       ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                        46   Traits that can be measured   It is complex ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                              47    Growth Rate                                         F...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                  48    In a population, variation of a t...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan         49 Phenotypic Variance (VP) = VG + VE            Where :            VP = Phenoty...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                  50Genetic Variance (VG)  A component th...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                                51Genetic Variance                       ...
AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan                                       52                                       Parent   ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Notes kuliah1 aqu2203 sem_i 201213d

703 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Notes kuliah1 aqu2203 sem_i 201213d

  1. 1. 1 AQU2203Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan Lecture 1 Introduction to Genetics© Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  2. 2. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 2 Lecture 1 Introduction to Genetics Objective : 1) To expose students to the basic concepts of genetic and its relation to fish breeding. 2) To develop understanding about genetic approach in fish production. © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  3. 3. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 3 Lecture 1 Introduction to Genetics Lecture Content : Basic concepts of genetics. Gene Phenotype and Genotype. Gene Interaction © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  4. 4. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 4 Lecture 1 Concepts of Genetics Learning Outcome : At the end of lecture, students should be able to : Explain how certain traits are produced and inherited in fish Characterize the types of phenotypes Differentiate the gene interaction © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  5. 5. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 5 Fish like all living organisms, reproduce and inherit their traits from one generation to the other It involve several processes which ensures that their genetic information are maintained and passed on to the next generation. These information are found in the DNA which is located in the Zygote cell. Egg Fertilization Sperm © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  6. 6. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 6 Cell DNA contains all the biological information of an organism (e.g. type of body colour, scale, pattern, fin, shape) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  7. 7. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 7 Organisms are made up of billions of cells These cells carry all the information about the biological functions of an organism Genetic information is located in the double helix structure called DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) DNA is a chemical structure that forms Chromosome Consist of sequence of bases and nucleotides : (Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T) dan Cytosine (C)) in a double helix structure. Genetic information is coded in the different arrangements of these 4 nucleotides. Contains various sequence that can be identified through various methods in the study of DNA. All living things are made up of DNA © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  8. 8. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 8 A field of science about hereditary and variation Studies the inheritance scientifically A science about gene © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  9. 9. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 9 Flesh Quality Body colour GENE Controls various biological function in organism Growth Body shape Disease resistance © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  10. 10. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 10 What is a Gene ? Sequence of DNA that codes for a certain function (protein, biochemical process, physical characteristics) in an organism Basic unit of hereditary information that can be inherited from one generation to the other. It is made of DNA : - Consist of DNA sequence (nucleotides that codes for a certain function) Exist in a chemical structure of a DNA molecule © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  11. 11. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 11 In an organism, genes are carried on a chromosome that is found in the nucleus of each cell Location of a gene on a chromosome is called locus © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  12. 12. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 12 A gene or set of genes contains the blueprints or chemical instructions for the production of a protein. Proteins – forms or helps produce various phenotypes (body colour, shape, sex, number of rays, body length) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  13. 13. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 13 How a Characteristics of an Organism is Expressed Protein Trancription DNA RNA © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT Translation
  14. 14. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 14 Genotype Gene that controls a particular phenotype of an organism Acts together with environmental factors to form a certain phenotype Phenotype The physical characteristics that is expressed by a particular gene or a group of genes Can be divided into : - Qualitative Phenotype - Quantitave Phenotype © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  15. 15. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 15 Qualitative Phenotype Phenotypes that can be described – colour, sex, scale and colour pattern Usually controlled by one or two genes An alternative form of a phenotype is produced by an alternative form of a gene (allele) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  16. 16. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 16 Different body colouration are due to different allele of colour genes © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  17. 17. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 17 © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  18. 18. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 18 Qualitative Phenotype – Autosomal Phenotype that is controlled by genes located on an autosome They are not related with sex Autosomal genes are inherited and expressed equally in male and female © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  19. 19. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 19 Qualitative Phenotype – Autosomal Body colouration and pattern in some fishes are not controlled by sex and are expressed equally in males and females © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  20. 20. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 20 Qualitative Phenotype – Sex-Linked Phenotype that is controlled by genes located on a chromosome that controls sex Sex-linked genes are inherited and expressed differently in male and female Mostly identified in ornamental fish. e.g. body colour, fin shape © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  21. 21. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 21 Qualitative Phenotype – Sex-Linked Body colouration and fin shape in some fishes are controlled by sex and are expressed differently in males and females Swordtail Guppy © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  22. 22. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 22 Quantitative Phenotype Phenotypes that are measured – length, weight, feed conversion Usually controlled by many genes (up to hundreds of genes) Strongly influenced by environmental variables (size, age, stocking density and water condition) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  23. 23. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 23 Quantitative Phenotype – Sex-Linked Body size in some fishes are controlled by sex and are expressed differently in males and females Example : Male Tilapia and grouper are bigger compared to female Grouper Tilapia © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  24. 24. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 24SPERMATOGENESIS 2N Spermatogonium Mitosis 2N Primary Spermatocyte 2N First Meiotic Division N N Secondary Spermatocyte (haploid)Second MeioticDivision N N N N Spermatid (haploid) N N N N Sperm (haploid) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  25. 25. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 25 OOGENESIS 2N Oogonium Mitosis 2N 2N Primary Oocyte First Meiotic Division N Secondary Oocyte and N First Polar Body Second Meiotic Division N N N Ovum dan Second N Polar Body © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  26. 26. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 26 Fertilization Gamete (n) Gamete (n) Female Male Zygote (2n) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  27. 27. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 27 Cell Replication Formation of Gametes Involves Mitosis and Meiosis •Affect gene interaction and inheritance •Can be manipulated © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  28. 28. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 28 Expression of a phenotype is caused by reaction of 1 or a pair of allele in the genome of an organism Occurs due to reaction of a gene or a group of genes that is responsible towards a specific phenotypic characteristics Interaction of a Interaction of a group of alleles 2N 2N pair of allele © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  29. 29. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 29 Gene can be expressed in an additive or non-additive manner Each allele contributes equally One allele (dominant allele) is to the production of the expressed more strongly than phenotype the other allele (recessive allele) Equally > Expressed or < 2N 2N © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  30. 30. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 30 Gene action will give variation in the phenotypic expression of an organism Phenotypic expression can be divided into 2 major catogories : Qualitative Phenotype and Quantitative Phenotype The result of gene action can be analyzed and determined Example : Example : Colours, sex, scale pattern Length, weight © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  31. 31. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 31 Most qualitative phenotypes are controlled by single autosomal genes with 2 alleles per locus Qualitative phenotypes can also be controlled by 2 autosomal genes (example : scale pattern of common carp; body colour of fighting fish) Different genotype will produce clearly define different phenotype The genetic of qualitative phenotypes is simple and is often called ”Mendelian Genetics”. Single autosomal gene 2 autosomal gene with with 2 alleles per locus 2 alleles per locus 2N 2N © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  32. 32. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 32 Complete Incomplete Dominant Dominant Additive © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  33. 33. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 33 Occurs when a strong dominant allele produces phenotype regardless of the genotype. Recessive allele only produced its phenotypic characteristics when no dominant allele is present. Locus which has 2 dominant alleles will produce only 1 phenotype. Dominant gene action can produce 3 genotypes and 2 phenotypes Genotype Phenotype Homozygous Dominant Dominant Heterozygous Dominant Homozygous Recessive Recessive 2N © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  34. 34. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 34 X A a 2 Phenotype AA 3 Genotype aa Aa A : dominant allele a : recessive allele © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  35. 35. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 35 X X AA AA AA aa AA AA AA AA Aa Aa Aa Aa Genotype:Genotype :100% AA X 100% Aa Phenotype :Phenotype : AA Aa 100% dominant100% Dominant Genotype : 50% AA : 50% Aa Phenotype : © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT AA Aa AA Aa 100% dominant
  36. 36. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 36 X X Aa Aa Aa aa AA Aa Aa aa Aa Aa aa aa Genotype :Genotype : X 50% Aa : 50% aa25% AA : 50% Aa :25% aa Phenotype :Phenotype : aa aa 50% Dominant : 50% recessive75% Dominant :25% recessive Genotype : 100% aa Phenotype : 100% recessive © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT aa aa aa aa
  37. 37. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 37 Occurs when the dominant allele expresses itself more strongly than the recessive allele but not strong enough to suppress the recessive allele in the heterozygous genotype. Dominant phenotype can be produced only when individual has 2 copies of the dominant allele (Homozygous dominant, example : AA) Heterozygous individuals will produced a phenotype that resembles but not identical to the dominant phenotype Each set of genotype produces its own phenotype : 3 Genotypes dan 3 Phenotypes Genotype Phenotype Homozygous Dominant Dominant Heterozygous Heterozygous Homozygous Recessive Recessive > 2N © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  38. 38. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 38 X A a 3 Phenotype AA Aa aa 3 Genotype A : dominant allele a : recessive allele © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  39. 39. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 39 X X AA AA AA aa AA AA AA AA Aa Aa Aa AaGenotype : Genotype :100% AAPhenotype : X 100% Aa Phenotype :100% Dominant AA Aa 100% Semi-Dominant Genotype 50% AA : 50% Aa Phenotype : 50% Dominant : 50% © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT AA Aa AA Aa Semi-Dominant
  40. 40. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 40 X X Aa Aa Aa aa AA Aa Aa aa Aa Aa aa aaGenotype : Genotype :25% AA : 50% Aa :25% aa X 50% Aa : 50% aa Phenotype :Phenotype : aa aa 50% Semi-Dominant25% Dominant : 50% : 50% recessiveSemi-Dominant :25% recessive Genotype : 100% aa Phenotype : 100% recessive © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT aa aa aa aa
  41. 41. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 41 Occurs when no allele is dominant over the other allele. Both alleles contribute equally to the production of the phenotypes. Heterozygous genotype (A a) produces a phenotype that is intermediate between the 2 homozygous genotypes (A A or a a). In additive gene action, 3 types of genotypes will produce 3 types of phenotypes. Genotype Phenotype Homozygous Dominant Dominant Heterozygous Heterozygous Homozygous Recessive Recessive 2N © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  42. 42. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 42 X C C’ 3 Phenotype CC CC’ C’C’ 3 Genotype © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  43. 43. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 43 X X AA AA AA aa AA AA AA AA Aa Aa Aa Aa Genotype:Genotype : X 100% Aa100 AA Phenotype :Phenotype : AA Aa 100% Co-Dominant100% Dominant Genotype : 50% AA : 50% Aa Phenotype : AA Aa AA Aa 50% Dominant : © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT 50% Co-Dominant
  44. 44. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 44 X X Aa Aa Aa aa AA Aa Aa aa Aa Aa aa aa Genotype :Genotype : X 50% Aa : 50% aa25% AA : 50% Aa :25% aa Phenotype :Phenotype : aa aa 50% Co-Dominant : 50% recessive25% Dominant :50% Co-Dominant :25% recessive Genotype : 100% aa Phenotype : 100% recessive © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT aa aa aa aa
  45. 45. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 45 X A a AA Aa aa X A a AA Aa aa X C C’ CC © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT CC’ C’C’
  46. 46. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 46 Traits that can be measured It is complex because it involves interaction of more than 2 genes. Influenced by environmental factors. Can be determined based on MEASUREMENT and DIMENSION Interaction of several genes 2N © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  47. 47. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 47 Growth Rate Fecundity FCR (Feed Conversion Efficiency) Dressout percentage Tolerance to temperature, salinity or low dissolve oxygen © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  48. 48. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 48 In a population, variation of a trait forms a continuum rather than discrete phenotypic classes. Individual Length Weight 1 20.5 210.4 2 21.0 200.0 3 22.0 205.5 4 20.0 212.4 5 20.2 207.8 6 19.6 203.3 7 21.4 209.6 Example of a continuous data © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  49. 49. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 49 Phenotypic Variance (VP) = VG + VE Where : VP = Phenotypic variance VG = Genetic Variance VE = Environmental variance © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  50. 50. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 50Genetic Variance (VG) A component that breeders try to manipulate in a breeding programme Genetic variance is the sum of 3 components ADDITIVE GENETIC VARIANCE Superior genetic traits GENETIC VARIANCE DOMINANCE EPISTATIC GENETIC VARIANCE GENETIC VARIANCE © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT
  51. 51. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 51Genetic Variance VG = VA + VD+ VI Contribution of alleles Interaction between towards the phenotypic pairs of alleles Interaction Between Loci production of a fish Interaction Among Loci ADDITIVE DOMINANCE EPISTATIC GENETIC VARIANCE (VA) GENETIC VARIANCE GENETIC VARIANCE © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT (VD) (VI)
  52. 52. AQU2203 Teknik Pembiakbakaan Ikan 52 Parent Male Female XContribution of alleles towards the Interaction between phenotypic production of a fish pairs of alleles ADDITIVE DOMINANCE GENETIC VARIANCE (VA) Progeny GENETIC VARIANCE (VD) © Dr. Shahreza, FPAI, UMT

×