SUBJECT-ETHICS AND GOVERNANCE
TYBMS – B
TOPIC – URBAN POVERTY
PROF. SWAPNA JOSHI
SHAH HETVI -558
CAUSES OF URBAN POVERTY
DIMEMSIONS OF URBAN POVERTY
NATIONAL SLUM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (NSDP)
PROS AND CONS OF NSDP
DEMISE OF STATE AND PUBLIC SERVICES
REPORT ON URBAN POVERTY
URBAN POVERTY AND ETHICS
Urban poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon. The urban
poor live with many deprivations.
Urban poverty exists everywhere, although on different levels,
from poor to rich countries. You recognise it in substandard living
conditions and incomes along with deficient provision of basic
public services (running water, electricity, etc).
But urban poverty is not just a collection of characteristics, it is
also a dynamic condition of vulnerability or susceptibility to risks.
CAUSES FOR URBAN POVERTY
• Over Population
• Droughts and floods
• Pickers v/s Collectors
• Improper training
• Unequal distribution of Income
Slow Job Growth
Terrorism and War Cons
Migration from Rural to Urban
Livelihood issues and Financial crisis
Dimensions of urban poverty
•Limted asset base for individuals,households or communities.
•Inadequate provision of ‘public’ infrastructure of services.
•Inadequate protection by law.
•‘Voice-less-ness’ and powerlessness within the political system.
•Exploitation and discrimination.
•Limitd access to employment opportunities,adequate health and
•Inadequate and insecure housing and unhealthy environment.
National Slum Development Program
NSDP was launched in 1997-98.
It was sponsored by the Central Government.
The Objective of NSDP is up-gradation and improvement
of infrastructure, water supply, sanitation, education
facilities, health care, housing and environmental
improvements through the sustainable support systems.
Funding pattern will be allocated to states on basis on
Pros & Cons of NSDP
Provision of physical
Community primary health
care centre buildings.
Provision for shelter.
Illegal and notified slums.
In actuality, the NSDP is
targeting only about 50% of
Reduction or development of
slum is nullified.
Demise of the State & Public Services
Public and Private Sector Together.
Social Corruption and Rivalries.
Local Corruption and Embezzlement.
Report on urban population
The UNDP INDIA: Urban poverty report summarizes that urban areas play a
critical role in economic development of a country and is also giving rise to
the growing concern about increasing poverty in urban centers.
Urbanization of poverty increases as people migrate to cities in search of
The report estimates that 50%of slums are in 5 big metros.
Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata account for over 50% of India's slums
66% of statutory towns have slums.
137.49 lakh household living in 1.08lakh slums in India.
17.4% of urban households live in slums, according to 2011 census.
Slum dweller spend nearly 50% of income on foods.
Urban poverty unlike rural poverty, imposes considerable negative
externalities on the society and economy.
As the reports point out that the urban poverty poses the problems of
housing and shelters, water, sanitation, health, education, social
security, and livelihoods along with special needs of vulnerable groups
like women, children, and aged people.
Over crowded slums without access to these basic amenities and
social welfare nets, and with constant uncertainty associated with
evictions and loss of livelihoods gives fuel to social evils like drugs or
Reports says that 32.7% of the people living on $1.25 per day and below
the international extreme poverty line, India houses to one third of the
It says that India have lifted only 38 million people out of extreme
poverty since 1980s
Poverty is still prevalent in rural areas than urban areas but the gap is
gradually closing, many Indian states report a higher poverty figure in
Some organization are only willing to serve those who are belonging to a
specific community or caste.
ETHICS CAN BE SEEN FROM 3
POINT OF VIEW
PERSONAL-SPEND LESS ,SAVE MORE/NEED NOT WANT
SOCIAL-Remove the social structure that emphasises on
wants rather than needs.
Government-Create a urban environment that provides
basic necessasites to its every citizen.(food ,shelter,
Urban middle class has a standard to maintain,clothes and
the grooming,lunches and dinners,olas and the ubers,the
starbucks coffee you have to buy because that’s where your
job interview is,Jimmy choo and Louis viutonn ,rolex and
omegas,nothing is enough.
As the bank balances passes zero by 22nd of the month but
stil; somehow we manage and sail the boat to the shore
because we have an image to maintain.
There are two types of urban poor first is unepmloyed and
other one is employed but have limited disposable income.
Both are considered to be urban poor and sufficient steps
have to be taken to overcome both the aspects.
Emphasizing on needs rather than wants, inculcating saving
habits,taking propereconomical and political mesures
We dress according to the jobs we want,forgetting the most
salaries are tailored to afford dressing for the jobs we have.
Because if we buy things we don’t need, we have to sell
things we need (Warren Buffet).