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Thyroiditis by Dr Selim

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Thyroiditis: Evaluation and Management.

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Thyroiditis by Dr Selim

  1. 1. Thyroiditis Dr Shahjada Selim Department of Endocrinology Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Email: selimshahjada@gmail.com
  2. 2. THYROIDITIS A heterogeneous group of inflammatory disorders involving the thyroid gland, of which the etiologies range from autoimmune to infectious origins. The clinical course may be acute, subacute, or chronic.
  3. 3. Classification of Tyroiditis: 1. Acute thyroiditis Infectious Non-infectious 2. Subacute thyroiditis
  4. 4. Classification of Thyroiditis: 3.Autoimmune thyroiditis a. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis: o Hashimoto’s thyroiditis o Atrophic thyroiditis o Focal thyroiditis o Juvenile thyroiditis b. Silent thyroiditis c. Postpartum thyroiditis 4. Riedel’s thyroiditis
  5. 5. ACUTE INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS Rare, serious, bacterial inflammatory disease of the thyroid.
  6. 6. Protective mechanisms of the thyroid gland: very good perfusion efficient lymphatic drainage capsulation of the thyroid high concentration of iodine
  7. 7. Etiologic agents: Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus pneumoniae Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa Salmonella typhi anaerobes of the oropharyngeal cavity.
  8. 8. Rare Forms of Infectious Thyroiditis The thyroid is rarely the seat of tuberculosis, syphilis, fungal infections (Aspergillus species), or parasites. Pneumocystis carinii infection of the thyroid has been reported in patients with AIDS.
  9. 9. hematogenous seeding from distant foci extension from adjacent infected structures direct trauma through a persistent thyroglossal duct Infection to the thyroid occurs by:: How thyroid becomes infected
  10. 10. Clinical Picture of Acute Infectious Thyroiditis severe anterior neck pain of abrupt onset, pain may radiate to the ear, mandible, or occiput; dysphagia, dysphonia, fever, rigor, diaphoresis palpation shows a unilateral or less-frequently bilateral tender swelling of the thyroid which is associated with cervical lymphadenopathy
  11. 11. Clinical Picture of Acute Infectious Thyroiditis the skin over the infected area is erythematous and warm the white cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are elevated thyroid antibodies are absent serum T4 and T3 levels are usually normal as well as thyroid RAIU
  12. 12. Clinical Picture of Acute Infectious Thyroiditis the isotope scans reveal a “cold” defect in the involved lobe ultrasonography shows an enlarged irregular mass of mixed echogenicity the presence at fine-needle aspiration of purulent material is confirmatory of suppurative thyroiditis and allows for the identification of the causative agent
  13. 13. Ultrasonography of acute bacterial thyroiditis
  14. 14. Ultrasonography of acute bacterial thyroiditis
  15. 15. Treatment of Infectious Thyroidtis •This type of thyroiditis requires the administration of appropriate antibiotics based on the findings of the culture from a fine-needle aspirate, and surgical drainage (or excision) of any area of fluctuance or abscess.
  16. 16. Before the results of the culture a combined regimen of nafcilin and gentamicin or a third generation cephalosporin would be appropriate treatment.
  17. 17. NON-INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS Clinical picture depends on causative agents
  18. 18. NON-INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS AFTER 131 I THERAPY (hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer) tender swelling of the thyroid itching of the skin over thyroid subfebrile body temperature
  19. 19. NON-INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS AFTER RADIOTHERAPY (external radiotherapy of the thyroid cancer, complementary external radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer): asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic course, leading into hypothyroidism
  20. 20. NON-INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS After Neck Trauma (bleeding to thyroid parenchyma or thyroid cyst) severe anterior neck pain of abrupt onset, swelling of the thyroid, fluctuation
  21. 21. NON-INFECTIOUS THYROIDITIS TREATMENT In milder cases disappear spontaneously In some cases: Salicylates or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(Polopiryni S 2-3 g/day, Paracetamol 1.5-2.0g/day) Exceptionally: Corticosteroids (Prednisone 20-30mg/day)
  22. 22. SUBACUTE (GRANULOMATOUS) THYROIDITIS (DE QUERVAIN’S DISEASE) A spontaneously remitting, painful, inflammatory disease of the thyroid, probably of viral origin. It is the most frequent cause of anterior neck pain. Most prevalent in the temperate zone. Afflicts more frequently women between the third and sixth decades of life.
  23. 23. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS ETIOLOGY Probably viral infections; There are some evidence: Often preceded by an upper respiratory tract viral infection Prodromal viral symptoms Seasonal distribution (summer and fall)
  24. 24. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS ETIOLOGY Occurs in coincidence with outbreaks of viral diseases (mumps, measles, influenza) Elevated titers of viral antibodies (coxsackievirus, adenovirus, mumps) have been found in convalescent sera of patients with subacute thyroiditis
  25. 25. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES  infiltration with neutrophils and mononuclear cells,  disruption of follicles,  typical lesion characterized by a central core of colloid surrounded by a large number of individual histiocytes (giant multinucleated cells).
  26. 26. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE There is usually a viral prodrome with:  myalgias,  low-grade fever,  sore-throat  dysphagia
  27. 27. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE • Anterior neck pain occurs abruptly, which is sometimes unilateral, and may radiate to the ear, mandible or occiput • pain may shift to the contralateral lobe (creeping thyroiditis) moving the head, swallowing, or coughing aggravate the pain.
  28. 28. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis may occur  the release of performed thyroid hormones from disrupted follicles
  29. 29. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE On palpation:  the thyroid is slightly to moderately enlarged,  sometimes asymmetrical or even nodular  Firm, tender, and painful
  30. 30. Laboratory Findings of Subacute Thyroiditis  elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (>55mm/h),  normal or slightly elevated leukocyte counts,  increased serum IL-6 and Tg concentrations during the thyrotoxic phase,  thyroid antibodies are transiently detectable at low titers in a minority of patients
  31. 31. THE PHASES OF SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS THYROTOXIC:  high T4 and/or T3 level,  low TSH level,  RAIU value <5% (isotope scans show a cold area in the involved section of the gland or no uptake at all)
  32. 32. THE PHASES OF SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS HYPOTHYROID:  low T4,  high TSH level,  normal RAIU value
  33. 33. THE PHASES OF SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS RECOVERY:  normal T4 and T3 level,  normal TSH level,  normal RAIU value
  34. 34. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS The course of the disease may last 2 to 6 months without treatment. Recurrences of the subacute thyroiditis are reported in about one-fifth of the patients. Permanent hypothyroidism is rare (1-5%). The disease may evolve into chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.
  35. 35. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS TREATMENT In milder cases:  salicylates or non steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs provide some relief of pain and tendernees.
  36. 36. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS TREATMENT In more severe cases:  corticosteroids (prednisone 40- 60mg/day) have a more dramatic and rapid effect; the corticosteroid is slowly tapered over the next 6 to 8 weeks and then discontinued.
  37. 37. SUBACUTE THYROIDITIS TREATMENT Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis should be managed with B-adrenergic blocking agents (Propranolol 20-40mg, 3 to 4 times daily) In patients with hypothyroidism L-T4 replacement is needed.
  38. 38. a goitrous form (Hashimoto thyroiditis) an atrophic form (atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema) AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis Presents with 2 Clinical Entities:
  39. 39.  Treatment with immunosuppressive agents (corticosteroids) is not recommended in autoimmune thyroiditis.  Lifelong substitution therapy with L- thyroxine is indicated in hypothyroid patients. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS
  40. 40.  Among children living in areas of iodine sufficiency, juvenile lymphocytic thyroiditis is the cause of euthyroid goiter in about one-half to two-thirds of patients.  Silent thyroiditis is characterized by transient thyrotoxicosis with low thyroid radioiodone uptake and a small, painless, nontender goiter. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS
  41. 41.  The postpartum rebound of immunity may be accompanied by destructive thyroiditis (postpartum thyroiditis), resulting in transient thyrotoxicosis evolving to hypothyroidism, or hypothyroidism alone, followed by gradual recovery. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS
  42. 42.  Organ-specific autoimmunity is the cause of the disease,  the thyroid is infiltrated by lymphocytes,  thyroid antibodies are present in serum,  and there is a clinical or immunological overlap with other autoimmune diseases. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS ETIOLOGY
  43. 43.  Activated, autoreactive T-helper recruit in the thyroid: cytotoxic T cells (T cells may kill directly thyroid cells or also cause tissue injury by release of cytokines) and B cells (are transformed into plasmacytes which produce antithyroid antibodies) AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS ETIOLOGY
  44. 44. ANTITHYROID ANTIBODIES:  thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb),  thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb),  TSH-blocking antibodies AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS ETIOLOGY
  45. 45. Environmental factors (infectious agents, therapeutically administered interferon alpha, physical and emotional stress, and increased iodine intake) may be important for the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS ETIOLOGY
  46. 46.  the disease is most often diagnosed between the ages of 50 - 60 years,  5 to 7 times more frequently in women than in men;  the prevalence of thyroid antibodies (which correlates with autoimmune thyroiditis) is higher in communities with sufficient iodine intake and increases from 6% to 27% in the second to sixth decades of life in women. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS ETIOLOGY
  47. 47.  Patients may present a goiter with or without hypothyroidism.  A feeling of tightnees in the neck may occur, but compression of the trachea is uncommon. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS Clinical Feature
  48. 48.  On physical examination  most Hashimoto’s glands are diffusely enlarged, but one lobe may be larger than the other, and the pyramidal lobe may be palpable;  the goiter is generally moderate in size, though massive enlargements may occur; AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS Clinical Feature
  49. 49.  On physical examination  the gland is nontender, firm or rubbery in consistency, with a bosselated surface;  the thyroid gland is reduced in size in atrophic thyroiditis. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS Clinical Feature
  50. 50. Thyrotoxicosis (Hashitoxicosis) rarely occurs, due to a combination of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with Graves’ disease in the same patient or to the transient discharge of performed thyroid hormones as a result of the inflammatory process. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS Clinical Feature
  51. 51. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES TSH, FT4 and FT3 serum levels HASHITOXICOSIHASHITOXICOSI SS FTFT44 FTFT33 TSHTSH HYPOTHYROIDISHYPOTHYROIDIS MMFTFT44 FTFT33  ↔↔ TSHTSH 
  52. 52. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES Antithyroid antibodies are positive: • TPOAb ⇒95% patients • TgAb ⇒60-80% patients In a few patients antithyroid antibodies are in low or undetectable titers (seronegative Hashimoto’s thyroiditis)
  53. 53. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES Thyroid radionuclide scan and radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) are not crucial to the diagnosis (normal, low, or high). An ultrasound pattern of the thyroid:  diffusely reduced echogenicity
  54. 54. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES • FNAB- cytological smears of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are rich in lymphocytes and oxyphil cells(it is advisable in patients with suspicious nodules or a rapidly enlarging goiter in order to rule out malignancy).
  55. 55. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is a component of type 2 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, a condition characterized by a coexistence of two or more of the following disorders: Addison’s disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, atrophic gastritis with or without pernicious anemia, vitiligo, alopecia, myasthenia gravis, and hypophysitis.
  56. 56. AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS TREATMENT Corticosteroids are not recommended Substitution therapy with L-T4 at a dose that normalizes serum TSH levels : the average daily replacement dose of L-T4 in adults is 1.6ug/kg body weight =75-100ug/day in women and 100-150ug/day in men.
  57. 57. SILENT (PAINLESS) THYROIDITIS is characterized by transient thyrotoxicosis with low RAIU, and a small, painless, nondender goiter. Thyrotoxicosis results from damage of follicular cells by the inflammatory process, with leakage of performed thyroid hormones in the bloodstream. SILENT (PAINLESS) THYROIDITIS
  58. 58. The overall prevalence of silent thyroiditis as a cause of thyrotoxicosis ranges from 4 to 15%; greater prevalence in previously iodine- deficient areas, but recently exposed to sufficient iodine; the female/male ratio is ~ 2:1; SILENT (PAINLESS) THYROIDITIS
  59. 59. SILENT THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE Silent thyroiditis presents with a relatively abrupt onset of symptoms of mild thyrotoxicosis: tachycardia heat intolerance Sweating nervousness weight loss. Serum Tg and urinary iodine concentrations are increased
  60. 60. SILENT THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE THERE ARE 3 PHASES: thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, recovery. Persistent hypothyroidism may also develop in about 5%.
  61. 61. SILENT THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE Differentiation from Graves’ hyperthyroidism is important. In silent thyroiditis  abrupt onset thyrotoxicosis less severe duration of thyrotoxicosis < 3 months,
  62. 62. SILENT THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE thyroid bruit, ophthalmopathy and dermopathy absent, T3/T4 ratio < 20/1,  RAIU low, TSH-R antibodies usually negative, thyrotoxicosis transient.
  63. 63. SILENT THYROIDITIS TREATMENT Anti-thyroid drugs or radioiodine are inappropriate for treatment of silent thyroiditis. In thyrotoxic phase: β-adrenergic blocking agents In hypothyroid phase: L-T4 replacement therapy
  64. 64. During pregnancy all autoimmune reactions are inhibited by a number of physiologic factors, and following delivery there is a reversal of these alterations with rebound of autoimmune phenomena. POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS (PPT)
  65. 65. The incidence of PPT ranges from 1% to 16% of women during the first year after delivery. POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS (PPT)
  66. 66. Risk factors for the development of PPT include: positive TPOAb in the first trimester of pregnancy,  type 1 diabetes mellitus, a history of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves’ disease, or a previous episode of PPT during a preceding pregnancy. POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS (PPT)
  67. 67. The clinical course and treatment are the same as described above for silent thyroiditis POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS (PPT)
  68. 68. It is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by dense fibrosis involving the thyroid and adjacent tissues, and extracervical areas (fibrous mediastinitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, retro- orbital fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, and pancreatitis). It occurs mainly in middle-age or elderly women. RIEDEL’S THYROIDITIS (SCLEROSING THYROIDITIS, INVASIVE FIBROUS THYROIDITIS)
  69. 69.  A patient will present with a long history of a painless, progressively increasing anterior neck mass.  Pressure symptoms: dysphagia, cough, hoarseness, stridor, attacks of suffocation) may appear. Most patients are euthyroid RIEDEL’S THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE
  70. 70. On physical examination:  a stony-hard or woody thyroid mass that varies in size from small to very large, may involve one or both lobes, and is fixed to surrounding structures. RIEDEL’S THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE
  71. 71.  Thyroid antibodies are present in up to 45% of patients.  Serum calcium may be low due to parathyroid invasion.  Differentiation from thyroid carcinoma or lymphoma of the thyroid requires open biopsy, since FNAB may be difficult to interpret. RIEDEL’S THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE
  72. 72.  Surgical treatment is necessary to relieve pressure on the trachea and to establish diagnosis.  Corticosteroids are of little or no value.  The course of the lesion may be slowly progressive, may stabilize, or remit.  Extrathyroidal fibrotic lesions may complicate the prognosis. RIEDEL’S THYROIDITIS CLINICAL PICTURE
  73. 73. Thanks

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