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Pathophysiology and Classification of diabetes by Dr Selim

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Pathophysiology, Epidemiology and Classification of Diabetes By Dr Shahjada Selim

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Pathophysiology and Classification of diabetes by Dr Selim

  1. 1. Diabetes Mellitus Etiopathogenesis, Classification & Clinical Manifestations Dr Shahjada Selim Assistant Professor Department of Endocrinology Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Email: selimshahjada@gmail.com
  2. 2. Diabetes mellitus Definition: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a state of chronic hyperglycemia due to defect in insulin secretion and or its action. December 11, 2016 Etiopathogenesis of diabetes by Dr Shahjada Selim 2
  3. 3. Diabetes Mellitus- •Diabetes is a complex, chronic illness requiring continuous medical care with multifactorial risk-reduction strategies beyond glycemic control.
  4. 4. Diabetes mellitus (DM) - is endocrine – metabolic disease, which develops due to absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) insulin insufficiency and characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, changes of different systems and organs of patient.
  5. 5. Diabetes: A global burden 5Clinical trial design and results template Source: IDF Diabetes Atlas 7th edition, © International Diabetes Federation, 2015.
  6. 6. Diabetes around the world
  7. 7. Diabetes around the world
  8. 8. South-East Asia At a glance 2015 2040 Adult population (20-79 years) 926 million 1.31 billion Diabetes (20-79 years) Regional prevalence 8.5% (6.8-10.8%‡ ) 10.7% (8.5-13.7%‡ ) Age-adjusted comparative prevalence 9.1% (7.3-11.6%‡ ) 9.9% (7.9-12.8%‡ ) Number of people with diabetes 78 million (63-100 million‡ ) 140 million (112-180 million‡ )Number of deaths due to diabetes 1.2 million - Health expenditure due to diabetes (20-79 years) Total health expenditure, R=2*, USD 7.3 billion 12.9 billion Impaired glucose tolerance (20-79 years) Regional prevalence 4.6% (2.2-6.5%‡ ) 5.6% (2.7-7.4%‡ ) Age-adjusted comparative prevalence 4.7% (2.4-6.7%‡ ) 5.4% (2.5-7.2%‡ ) Number of people with impaired glucose tolerance 42.2 million (20.7-60.2 million‡ ) 73.9 million (35.0-96.9 million‡ )Type 1 diabetes (0-14 years) Number of children with type 1 diabetes 81,400 - Number of newly diagnosed children each year 13,100 - * See Glossar y ‡ Uncertainty inter val IDF Diabetes Atlas · Seventh Edition South-East Asia At a glance 2015 2040 Adult population (20-79 years) 926 million 1.31 billion Diabetes (20-79 years) Regional prevalence 8.5% (6.8-10.8%‡ ) 10.7% (8.5-13.7%‡ ) Age-adjusted comparative prevalence 9.1% (7.3-11.6%‡ ) 9.9% (7.9-12.8%‡ ) Number of people with diabetes 78 million (63-100 million‡ ) 140 million (112-180 million‡ ) Number of deaths due to diabetes 1.2 million - Health expenditure due to diabetes (20-79 years) Total health expenditure, R=2*, USD 7.3 billion 12.9 billion Impaired glucose tolerance (20-79 years) Regional prevalence 4.6% (2.2-6.5%‡ ) 5.6% (2.7-7.4%‡ ) Age-adjusted comparative prevalence 4.7% (2.4-6.7%‡ ) 5.4% (2.5-7.2%‡ ) Number of people with impaired glucose tolerance 42.2 million (20.7-60.2 million‡ ) 73.9 million (35.0-96.9 million‡ ) Type 1 diabetes (0-14 years) Number of children with type 1 diabetes 81,400 - Number of newly diagnosed children each year 13,100 - * See Glossar y ‡ Uncertainty inter val IDF Diabetes Atlas · Seventh Edition
  9. 9. The term DM • refers to the excretion of large quantities of sweet urine. Diabetes is an old word (from Greece “diabaino”) for siphon and means “dieresis”, mellitus (from Latina “mell”) means honey or “sweet” taste of a urine. Banting 1891 - 1941 Best 1899 - 1978
  10. 10. Cell types in pancreatic islets of Langerhans Type of cells Quantity of cells (%) Secreted hormone Α (α) 20 – 25 Glucagon, GLP-1, GLP-2 Β (β) 70 – 80 Insulin, amylin D (δ) 5 – 15 somatostatin F (РР) 5 - 10 pancreatic polypeptide
  11. 11. Insulin • Molecular weight of this peptic substance is 6000. • It consists of 51 aminoacidic parts from 16 different aminoacids
  12. 12. Insulin • The most important biologic stimulator of insulin secretion is glucose
  13. 13. In humans, a study with careful matching of glucose levels after oral versus i.v. administration has shown that the incretin effect contributes to 70–90% of the insulin response to oral glucose. This effect is partially achieved by gastrointestinal hormones that are released during meal ingestion and augment glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; the two most important being glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose- dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP).
  14. 14. Insulin is an anabolic hormone (promotes the synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids). The most important target organs for insulin action are:
  15. 15. Insulin insufficiency • Absolute 1. Genetic disorders 2. Autoimmune damaging of β- cells 3. Damaged caused by virusessuch as mumps, or Coxsackie B4 4. Toxic influence on β-cells 5. Diseases of pancreatic gland Relative - β-cells - Insulin transport - Receptors (tissue insensitivity)
  16. 16. Etiologic classification of DM (1999) I. Type 1 of DM (destruction of β-cells which mostly leads to absolute insulin insufficiency): • autoimmune; • idiopathic. II. Type 2 of DM (resistance to insulin and relative insulin insufficiency or defect of insulin secretion with or without resistance to insulin). III. Other specific types: • genetic defects of β-cells function; • genetic defects of insulin action; • pancreatic diseases (chronic pancreatitis; trauma, pancreatectomy; tumor of pancreatic gland; fibrocalculosis; hemochromatosis); • endocrine disease (acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, Cushing’s syndrome); • drug exposures ; • infections and others. IV. Gestation diabetes.
  17. 17. Type 1, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) • is characterized by pancreatic islet beta -cell destruction and absolute deficiency. • The onset of the disease is generally in youth, but it can occur at any age. Patients have dependence on daily insulin administration for survival.
  18. 18. Pathogenesis of type 1 DM
  19. 19. Type 2, or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) • Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 95 – 90 % of the diabetic population. Most investigators agree that genetic factors underlie Type 2 DM, but it is probably not caused by defects at a single gene locus.
  20. 20. Pathogenetic and clinical difference of type I and type II DM N Signs Type 1 Type 2 2 Beginning of disease Acute Gradual 3 Duration Labile Stable 4 Ketosis, ketoacidosis Often develops Rarely develops 5 Body weight Decreased or normal Obesity in 80-90 % of patients 1 Age Young (under 35) Old, middle
  21. 21. Pathogenetic and clinical difference of type I and type II DM N Signs Type 1 Type 2 6 Treatment Insulin, diet Diet, drugs, insulin 7 Degrees of severity Moderate, Severe Mild, Moderate, Severe 8 Connection with HLA-system Present Absent 9 Level of insulin and C-peptide Decreased or absent Frequently normal level
  22. 22. Pathogenetic and clinical difference of type I and type II DM N Signs Type 1 Type 2 10. Antibodies to β-cells Present in 80-90 % of patients on first week, month Absent 11. Late complications Microangiopathies Macroangiopathies 12. Mortality Less than 10% More than 20% 13. Spreading 10-20% 80-90%
  23. 23. Pathophysiology of DM Defective polymorphonuclear function → infection ↑ Hyperglycemia → glucosurea → polyurea → dehydration Insulin lack ↓ Hyperosmolality Proteolysis → weight loss → muscle wasting → polyphagia Lipolysis → free fatty acid release → ketosis → acidosis
  24. 24. Stages of DM development • I. Prediabetes (risk factors or predispose factors). • II. Impaired glucose tolerance (latent DM). • III. Clinical manifestation of DM.
  25. 25. Prediabetes (risk factors or predispose factors) - obesity; - positive family history of DM; - persons which were born with weight more than 4,0 kg; - women who had =children with weight more than 4,0 kg; =abortions and =dead child in anamnesis; - persons with: = atherosclerosis, hypertension; = auto-immune diseases; = furunculosis; = rubella, mumps, Coxsackie virus, infectious hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, infection mononucleosis; - endocrine disorders
  26. 26. When should we screen for diabetes: • All patients ≥ 45 years of age. • All patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2+any of the following: – Hypertension of ≥140/90 mmHg – HDL < 35 mg/dL, or Triglycerides > 250 mg/dL – Clinical insulin resistance (severe visceral obesity, acanthosisnigricans) – History of cardiovascular disease. – gestational DM, or delivered a baby > 9 lbs – African/Lationo/Native/Asian American or Pacific islander – First degree relative with diabetes – physically inactive • If testing is normal, then repeat screening in 3 years.
  27. 27. For OGTT ~ 10-11 teaspoons 75 g for adults (100 g pregnant women, and 1,75 g/kg of ideal body weight for children)
  28. 28. Glucose tolerance test (GTT)
  29. 29. Degrees of severity of DM Mild Moderate Severe Compensation can be achieved by diet oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin Chronic and acute complications only functional stages not last stages ketosis can occur last stages of chronic complications are present, ketosis is common
  30. 30. Stages of compensation • Criteria of compensative stage. 1.Patient hasn’t new complains. 2.Fast serum glucose level is normal. 3.Glucose in urine is absent. 4.Glucose level fluctuation is under 4.4-5.5 mmol/l during the day . 5. HbA1c is <6,5 for the 1 type of DM, <6,5-7,0 for the 2 type of DM 6.Comatose and precomatose status are absent.
  31. 31. Criteria of decompensative stage: • 1. Postprandial glycemia is >9.0 mmol/l. • 2. HbA1c is higher then 6.5% for the 1 type of DM, 7.0% for the 2 type of DM • 3. Comatose or precomatose status are present.
  32. 32. Clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus is tagged as 3 P’s : • polyurea ( when the level of the blood glucose is more then 9 mmol/l, glucosurea arises). • polydipsia (as more water is excreted, the body requires more water intake); • polyphagia (increased catabolic activity of the body and as its result lack of energy);
  33. 33. Some references would use 5 P’s, with the addition • Pruritus and • Paresthesia which is “a sensation of tingling, burning, pricking, or numbness of a skin. It is more generally known as the feeling of “pins and needles” or of a limb “falling asleep”. .
  34. 34. • loss of weight (energy (calories) is lost as glucose in the urine. Loss of water itself also contributes to weight loss. Increased proteolysis with mobilization of aminoacids leads to progression of protein catabolism and loss of weight, mostly in muscle mass); • fatigue and weakness (probably occur as a result of decreased glucose utilization and electrolyte abnormalities); • acidosis (develops due to increased lipolysis which cause the release of free fatty acids, which are metabolized to ketones by the liver) • blurred vision
  35. 35. Presenting signs and symptoms of type 2 DM include: • Polyurea, • Polydipsia, • Polyphagia…; but they are not prominent The majority of patients (80 – 85 %) are obese, but it can also occur in thin persons. However, many patients with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic, and their disease remains undiagnosed for many years. Among patients with type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, 25% had retinopathy; 9%, neuropathy; and 8%, nephropathy at the time of diagnosis.
  36. 36. I. Diabetic angiopathy: 1. Microangiopathy: 1) nephropathy; 2) retinopathy; 3) angiopathy of lower extremitas. 2. Macroangiopathy: 1) heart (ischemic heart disease); 2) brain 3) angiopathy of lower extremities. II. Diabetic neuropathy: 1) central (encephalopathy); 2) peripheral; 3) visceral (dysfunction of inner organs).
  37. 37. • The long-term degenerative changes in the blood, vessels, the heart, the kidneys, the nervous system, and the eyes as responsible for the most of the morbidity and mortality of DM.
  38. 38. Skin • The skin is dry and itch • Infections of the skin by bacteria and fungi, candidiasis of the external female genitalia, hyperkeratosis, nail disorders are common in the patients with DM but nothing is specific with regard to their development.
  39. 39. • The most common skin lesion is diabetic dermopathy (it is characterized by brown, atrophic, well-demarcated areas in the pretibial region which resemble sears- Necrobiosis lipoidica), besides patients sometimes have xanthoma diabeticorum, which is usually located on the buttocks, elbows and knees, look like eruptions (but is not really diabeticorum since it occurs in the patients with lipoprotein abnormalities, particularly hyperchylomicronemia, whether or not patient has DM)
  40. 40. Bones and joints • Osteoporosis and osteoarthropaphy can be find in patients with DM also. • Diabetic chairopathy (decreasing of the movements of joints)
  41. 41. Gastrointestinal tract • Paradontosis, gastritis with decreased secretion ability, gastroduodenitis, hepatosis are common in patients with DM. • Visceral dysfunction gastrointestinal tract: esophageal neuropathy (disturbances of peristalsis in the body of the esophagus.) diabetic gastroparesis (irregular food absorption and is characterized by nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating and abdomen pain.); diabetic enteropathy (diarrhea (mostly at night time, postural diarrhea), constipation, malabsorption and fecal incontinence)
  42. 42. Cardiovascular system (CVS). • Diabetic autonomic cardiopathy: - orthostatic hypotension (is characterized by dizziness, vertigo, faintness, and syncope upon assumption of the upright posture and is caused by failure of peripheral arteriolar constriction.); - tachicardia (but it does not occur in response to hypotension because of sympathetic involvement). • Dismetabolic cardiomyopathy (IHD, rhythm disturbances)
  43. 43. Ischemic heart disease 1. Cardiovascular changes tend to occur earlier in patients with DM when compared with individuals of the same age. 2. Frequency of myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality is higher in diabetics than that in nondiabetis of the same age. 3. The prognosis is even worse if ketoacidosis, or other complications of DM are present. 4. Diabetic patients have more complications of MI (arrhythmias, cardiogenic shock and others) than nondiabetic ones. 5. Often can observe atypical forms (without pain). 6. Male : female = 1 : 1 (nondiabetics = 10 : 1).
  44. 44. Respiratory system • Mucomycosis of the nasopharinx, sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia (prolonged duration, slow reccurency), tuberculosis are more common in patients with diabetes than in nondiabetics.
  45. 45. Kidneys and urinary tract. • Inflammation processes (10 – 30 %): pyelitis, pyelonephritis, cystitis • Diabetic cystopathy or neurogenic vesicle dysfunction (enlargement of the volume of the cyst bladder, insidious onset and progression of bladder paralysis with urinary retention, decreasing of quantity of urinations) • Diabetic nephropathy Sexual disorders: • retrograde ejaculation (which is caused by dysfunction of the pelvic autonomic nervous system); • impotence, and sometimes decreased libido;
  46. 46. Diabetic nephropathy (by Mogensen) I. Hyperfunction of kidneys - increased renal blood circulation; - increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (> 140 ml/min); - hypertrophy of kidneys; -normoalbuminuria (<30 mg/day). II. Stage of initial changes of kidney structure. -mesangial changes due to accumulation of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM), complement and other nonimmunologic proteins (lipoproteins, fibrin); - high GFR; - normoalbuminuria III. Initial nephropathy. - microalbuminuria (30 to 300 mg/day); - high or normal GFR; - periods of blood hypertension
  47. 47. • • I IV. Nephropathy or nephrotic stage. • - persistent proteinurea (>500 mg/day); • - normal or decreased GFR; • - persistent blood hypertension. • V. Chronic renal failure or uremia. - decreased GFR; - blood hypertension; - increased serum creatinine (CRF) - signs of intoxication.
  48. 48. Eyes • Ceratities, retinatis, chorioretinatis, cataracts, glaucoma • Diabetic retinopathy - Evidence of retinopathy, rarely present at diagnosis in type I DM, is present in up to 20 % of type II DM patients at diagnosis. About 85 % of all diabetics eventually develop some degree of retinopathy - the initial retinal changes (seen on the ophthalmoloscopic examination) does not significantly alter vision, but it can lead to processes that cause blindness
  49. 49. Diabetic retinopathy (is classified according to the changes seen at background during ophthalmoscopic examination) I stage. Background retinopathy is usually the earliest sigh and consists of retinal microaneurysms, hard and soft exudates.
  50. 50. Diabetic retinopathy II stage. Maculopathy or preproliferative retinopathy is characterized by macular edema and/or hemorrhages. III stage. The hallmark of proliferative retinopathy is neovascularization, i.e., growth of new vessels in areas of hypoperfusion. Adhesion of the vessels to the vitreous leads to retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage and others. The prognosis is extremely poor. 5 years after recognition of this complication 50 % of the patients are blind.
  51. 51. Diabetic angiopathy of lower extremities. Atherosclerosis of large vessels (macroangiopathy) leads to intermittent claudication, cold extremities and other symptoms which can be also find while arteriols and capillaries are affected (microangiopathy).
  52. 52. Classification of lower extremities’ angiopathy. I. Nonclinic stage. (Changes could be find only during instrumental examination.) II. Functional stage. (It is characterized by cold extremities, numbness, tingling, pain during physical examination.) III. Organic stage. (It is characterized by trophyc changes: dry skin, hypo- or atrophy of muscles, ulcers, gangrene.)
  53. 53. Neuropathic arthropathy (Charcot’s joints) • is characterized by painless swelling of the feet without edema or signs of infection. The foot becomes shorter and wider, eversion, external rotation, and flattening of the longitudinal arch. This arthropathy is associated with sensory involvelvement, particularly impairment of afferent pain proprioceptive impulses.
  54. 54. Peripheral neuropathy It is characterized by symmetrical sensory loss, pain at night and during the rest, hyporeflexia, decreased responce touch, burning of heels and soles. The skin becomes atrophic, dry and cold, hair loss may be prominent. The decreased response to touch and pain predisposes to burns and ulcers of the legs and toes.
  55. 55. Diabetic foot Appearance of diabetic foot is caused by a combination of vascular insufficiency, neuropathy, and infection. Diabetic foot is divided on: • Ischemic; neuropathy; mixed.
  56. 56. Sign Ischemic Neuropatic Temperature of the skin Decreased normal Color of the skin pallor or cyanotic normal or pink Pulsation on peripheral vessels decreased or absent normal Edema Absent can be Sensibility partly decreased or normal decreased or absent Ulcers peripheral (distant) under the pressure Gangrene dry moist
  57. 57. The diagnosis of DM include: 1. Clinical manifestations of DM. 2. Laboratory findings. • fasting serum glucose (if the value is over 7,0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) on two or more separate days, the patient probably has DM); • the glucose tolerance test (GTT) • glycohemoglobin >6,5 % (this test is an indicator of blood sugar control during the previous 2-to-3-month period); • islet cell antibody levels will be positive prior to any insulin administration in 60 – 80 % of patients with type I DM; • C-peptide (it is not affected by antibodies to exogenous insulin and is used to distinguish type I and II DM if there is still a need after clinical determination); • glucose level in urine; • acetonurea; • blood lipids and others. 3. Instrumental investigations usually are used to diagnose chronic complications of DM.
  58. 58. Connecting (C) peptide is a 31 amino acid peptide that bridges the insulin A and B chains in the proinsulin molecule. It is released in a 1:1 ratio with insulin as this is secreted. C-peptide was considered to be biologically inert • C-peptide is more reliable than insulin as a measure of endogenous insulin secretion, and (not being present in injectable insulin preparations) can also be measured in insulin-treated patients. • Fasting or stimulated serum or plasma C-peptide measurement is used to measure endogenous insulin reserve in people with diabetes.
  59. 59. Diabetes mellitus autoantibodies • Islet cell antibodies (ICA) tests (Islet Cell IgG Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies) - aids in a differential diagnosis between LADA and type 2 diabetes. • Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies tests (Anti-GAD) - making an early diagnosis for type 1 diabetes mellitus, are used for differential diagnosis between LADA and type 2 diabetes • Insulin antibodies (IAA) tests (Anti-IA2) - these tests are also used in early diagnosis for type 1 diabetes mellitus, and for differential diagnosis between LADA and type 2 diabetes, and to monitor prognosis of the clinical progression of type 1 diabetes.
  60. 60. Comparison between LADA, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes Type 1 Type 2 LADA Onset onsets rapidly and at a younger age than does LADA Gradual is slow-onset Type 1 autoimmune diabetes in adulthood Family history There is often a family history of autoimmune conditions .Furthermore, some individuals with LADA may have a family history of T2DM. Antibodies:(GAD , ICA, IA-2) + - + BMI Normal underweight overweight normal underweight overweight Treatment insulin dependent insulin independent lifestyle and medications, sometimes weight loss if needed, slow the progression of beta cell destruction, and people with
  61. 61. • Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. • Gestational diabetes usually starts halfway through the pregnancy. All pregnant women should receive an oral glucose tolerance test between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy to screen for the condition. • Women who have risk factors for gestational diabetes may have this test earlier in the pregnancy.
  62. 62. Risk factors for gestational diabetes • Are older than 25 when is pregnant • Have a family history of diabetes • Baby weigh more than 9 pounds or had a birth defect • High blood pressure • Have too much amniotic fluid • Have had an unexplained miscarriage or stillbirth • overweight before pregnancy
  63. 63. Thanks

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