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MeMorY human Behaviour

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MeMorY human Behaviour

  1. 1. MEMORY
  2. 2. Chapter 5 MEMORY :Module 1: The foundations of memoryModule 2: Recalling long term memoriesModule 3: Forgetting: When memory fails or why weforget?
  3. 3. Content :What is memory?Three – stage model of memoryThree types of memory: SM, STM, LTMRecalling long term memoriesWhy do we forget?How can you improve your memory?References
  4. 4. What ismemory?Memory - is the process by which weencode , store , and retrieveinformation.
  5. 5. Encoding-initial recording ofinformationStorage-informationsaved for future use.Retriever- recovery ofstored information.Memory is built on three basic processes:
  6. 6. Three-stage model of memory
  7. 7. Sensory memorySensory memory - The ability to look at an item, andremember what it looked like with just a second ofobservation, or memorization, is an example ofsensory memory.Sensory memory lasts only an instant.Types of sensory memory:•Iconic memory•Echoic memory•Haptic memory
  8. 8. Short-term memoryShort-term memory -is the capacity forholding a small amount of information inmind in an active, readily available state fora short period of time.Short-term memory lasts from a fewseconds to a minute.
  9. 9. Long-term memoryLong Term Memory -contains information that you haverecorded in your brain in the past.Long-term memory can last as little as a few days or aslong as decadesLong-term memory modules :-Declarative memory*Semantic memory*Episodic memory-Procedural memory
  10. 10. Recalling Long-Term MemoriesCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
  11. 11. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesTip-of-the-tongue phenomenonInability to recall information thatone realizes one knowsRetrieval cueStimulus that allows us to recallmore easily information that islocated in long-term memoryCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
  12. 12. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesRecallMemory task in which specific information must beretrieved.RecognitionMemory task in which individuals are presented with astimulus and ask whether they have been exposed to it inthe past or to identify it from a list of alternatives.Copyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
  13. 13. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesLevels-of-processing theoryEmphasizes the degree to whichnew material is mentally analyzedExplicit memoryImplicit memoryCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
  14. 14. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesExplicit memory: intentional or consciousrecollection of informationImplicit memory: memories of which people arenot consciously aware, but which can affect subsequentperformance and behavior.Copyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.
  15. 15. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesFlashbulb memoriesMemories around a specific,important, or surprising event thatare so vivid they represent a virtualsnapshot of the eventCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
  16. 16. Constructive Process inMemoryConstructive processProcesses in which memories areinfluenced by the meaning that we giveto eventsSchemasOrganized bodies of information storedin memory that bias the way newinformation is interpreted, stored, andrecalledCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Joshua Ets-Hokin/Getty Images
  17. 17. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesMemory in the courtroomRepressed memoryFalse memoryAutobiographical memoryRecollections ofcircumstances and episodesfrom our own livesCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.PhotoLink/Getty Images
  18. 18. Copyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Module 22: Forgetting- WhenMemory FailsRoyalty-Free/CORBIS
  19. 19. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: HermanEbbinghaus
  20. 20. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: WhenMemory FailsFailure of encodingDecay (lapse of time)InterferenceCue dependant forgettingMeaningless materialIncomplete practiceExcessive materialUnorganized materialHead injurySimilarityBiological reasons
  21. 21. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: WhenMemory FailsFailure of encodingFailure to pay attention to the material in thefirst place. Or material that is not encoded inthe LTM.DecayLoss of information through nonuseAssumes that when new material is learned amemory trace appears (actual physicalchange in the brain
  22. 22. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: WhenMemory FailsInterferenceInformation in memory displaces orblocks out other information, preventingits recallProactive & Retroactive interference:the before and after of forgetting
  23. 23. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.ProactiveInterferenceInformation learned earlier interferes with recall ofnewer material
  24. 24. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.RetroactiveInterferenceDifficulty in recall of information because of laterexposure to different material
  25. 25. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: WhenMemory FailsCue dependant forgettingForgetting that occurs when there areinsufficient retrieval cues to regenerateinformation that is in memory.Biological reasons
  26. 26. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Memory DysfunctionsAlzheimer’s diseaseAn illness that includes among itssymptoms severe memoryproblemsKorsakoff’s syndromeA disease afflicting long-termalcoholics
  27. 27. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Memory DysfunctionsAmnesiaMemory loss that occurs withoutother mental difficultiesRetrograde amnesiaMemory is lost for occurrencesprior to a certain eventAnterograde amnesiaLoss of memory occurs for eventsfollowing an injuryKeith Brofsky/Getty Images
  28. 28. How can you improve your memory?Sleep wellOrganize your lifeEat well and eat rightKey words / take effective notesPractice and rehearseDon’t’ believe claims about drugs that improvememory
  29. 29. Conclusion :In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain,and recall information and experiences. Memory is one of themost important things to our life. It helps us to improve ourability to understand the world. Memory traditionally can bedevided into three parts : sensory , short-term and long-termmemory.
  30. 30. Conclusion :Memory loss through decay come from nonuse of the memory;memory loss through interference is due to the presence ofother information in memory, whereas, cue dependant forgettingis due to insufficient cues available to retrieve information frommemory.
  31. 31. References :Information was taken on September 16thRobert Feldman. “Understanding Psychology”, New York (N.Y.) : McGraw-Hill, 2008http://www.wikihow.com/Improve-Your-Memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declarative_memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episodic_memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_memory
  32. 32. Pictures references:All pictures were picked on September 16thhttp://www.montonfashion.com/lit/wp212/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/smelio-laikrodis.jpghttp://www.kaunozinios.lt/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/klaustukas_sxc.jpghttp://www.trukme.lt/uploads/images/LMDP/Lamiga/23_m0204_pilka.jpghttp://blog.wonghongting.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/thinking-pic.jpghttp://ims.mii.lt/klav/nuotrauka1.gifhttp://hdnaujienos.lt/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/1-13-09-samsung_p2370.jpghttp://www.tykiai.lt/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/deze-300x300.jpghttp://blog.cyclope-series.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/idea_bulb.jpghttp://www.nurseweb.villanova.edu/womenwithdisabilities/Stress/Thought2.jpghttp://www.dynamicflight.com/avcfibook/learning_process/1-9.gif

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