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Presentation on Condition Monitoring


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This presentation is designed with vibration analysis, Oil Analysis, Thermal Analysis and Ultrasound analysis.

Published in: Technology, Business
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Presentation on Condition Monitoring

  1. 1. Presentation on Condition Monitoring Technology Presented By Engr. Md. Shahin Manjurul Alam Saj Engineering & Trading Company
  2. 2. Company Profile Saj Engineering & Trading Company is established in 1998 to provide the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Condition Monitoring (CM) solution in Bangladesh industrial Market. Since then we are providing the NDT and CM solution in different types of industries like power generation, fertilizer, chemical, aviation shipbuilding, gas production and distribution, cement, welding, paper, sugar, pharmaceuticals, research and educational institutions. For the automobile and industrial market we are supplying lubricants, filter, radiator and spark plug. For our products we represent the most renowned manufacturers in the world. As we have all sorts of latest NDT and CM products we have developed an industrial inspection service provider under the name of Saj Industrial & Inspection Company. And till now we have completed 40 Projects successfully and some projects is in our hand.
  3. 3. Automobile & Heavy Duty Filter Different types of Scientific Equipments Non Destructive Testing (NDT) Products Lubricants/Engine Oil/ Motor oil Condition Monitoring Products Predictive Maintenance Services MRO & Packaging Products Cold Welding Materials & Services
  4. 4. SAJ SERVICES Video- Borescopic Inspection Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) Magnetic Particle Testing Dye Penetrant Testing Transformer Oil Leakage Repair Hardness Testing Thermography Inspection Dynamic Mass Balancing Vibration Analysis
  5. 5. www.sajetc.comObjective • Condition Monitoring (CM) • Condition Monitoring Techniques • Vibration Analysis • Oil Analysis • Thermal Analysis • Ultrasound Analysis
  6. 6. Types of machines Motors Pumps Fans Gearboxes Engines Compressors Steam Turbines Generators Gas Turbines Hydro Turbines Rotating Or Reciprocating Machines
  7. 7. www.sajetc.comWhat type of Maintenance Do we Have
  8. 8. EquipmentPerformance Time FF PP Lubrication Excellence Proactive Precision Maintenance Alignment, Balance, etc. Select Suppliers Supplier Specifications Metrics Equipment Ranking RCM TPM RCA/FMEA RCD Training Programs Written Procedures Job Planning/Scheduling CMMS Predictive Reactive We are in here Machine Condition Chart
  9. 9. Condition monitoring is the process of monitoring a parameter of condition in machinery, such that a significant change is indicative of a developing failure. It is a major component of Predictive Maintenance (PdM). The use of conditional monitoring allows maintenance to be scheduled, or other actions to be taken to avoid the consequences of failure, before the failure occurs. Condition Monitoring
  10. 10. Condition Monitoring Techniques 1) Vibration Analysis 2) Oil Analysis 3) Thermal Analysis 4) Ultrasound Analysis A wide range of Condition monitoring techniques is available in the industries over the world and some have become standards in many industries. The "standard" technologies are:
  11. 11. Condition Monitoring For your Plant Vibration Analysis Oil Analysis Ultrasound Analysis Thermal Analysis If you think this is your plant, then your plant is stand on this 4 technologies
  12. 12. Vibration Analysis
  13. 13. What Is Vibration ? Vibration is a "back and forth" movement of a structure. It can also be referred to as a "cyclical" movement
  14. 14. Vibration Analysis More than 20 years ago someone made the statement, “The vibrations produced in a machine are the best indication of the machine’s health.” This statement still holds true today. Of all the predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies, vibration analysis remains the best measure of machine health. This is true because vibration monitoring can alert us to so many different conditions that may indicate potential machine failures. Unbalance, misalignment, bearing faults, resonance, looseness, cavitations and electrical problems are just a few of the many problems that can be detected with vibration monitoring.
  15. 15. Common Problems that Generate Vibration 1. Misalignment 2. Unbalance 3. Worn belts & pulleys 4. Bearing Defects 5. Hydraulic Forces 6. Aerodynamic Forces 7. Reaction Forces 8. Reciprocating Forces 9. Bent Shafts 10.Rubbing 11.Gear Problems 12.Housing Distortion 13.Certain Electrical Problems 14.Frictional Forces
  16. 16. What we Measure for Vibration Analysis Amplitude: How Much Movement Occurs or severity of the vibration. Amplitude measures as 1. Displacement: mm, mils (0.001”) 2. Velocity: mm/sec, in/sec 3. Acceleration: G’s (1g= Force of gravity) or rms (root mean square) Frequency: How Often The Movement Occurs. How many "cycles" in a period of time: a second or a minute Unit: Cycle per second (Hz) Cycle per Minute (CPM) Phase: In What Direction Is The Movement. It also called phase angle. Unit: Degree
  17. 17. www.sajetc.comVibration Transducer Sensors…Transducers…Probes…What is it? ….It basically converts mechanical vibration to an electrical signal Accelerometer Charge Type & Line Drive Constant Voltage & Constant Current Velocity Transducer Displacement Shaft Riders Proximity Probes (Eddy Current Probes)
  18. 18. How we Measure: Probe Orientation Axial: Axial direction is always on the parallel to the shaft axis. Vertical: A Transducer Mounted Vertically "Sees“ Only Vertical Movement Horizontal: A Transducer Mounted Horizontally "Sees" Only Horizontal Movement
  19. 19. Radial Horizontal Radial Vertical Vertical Axial Horizontal Mounting Direction
  20. 20. www.sajetc.comMounting Direction Vert. Axial Hori. Vert. Axial Hori. For detail study of vibration dynamics of machine – vertical, horizontal and axial at each bearing location For monitoring – one point per bearing and add axial when There is a thrust bearing or axial potential faults eg. misalignment
  21. 21. Machinery Health Monitoring Strategy ~125 Machines ~1375 Machines ~500 Machines ~500 Machines Total # Machines 2,500 Typical Industrial Process Plant 5% Critical 25% Essential 30% Important 20% Secondary 20% Non-Essential Turbines Generators Compressors Motors Pumps Fans Gears Application at Typical Plant Online Solutions for critical machinery Wireless Transmitters Multi Technologies Portable Solutions
  22. 22. www.sajetc.comDate Representation Wave Form Plot or Domain Plot FFT Spectrum Plot Orbit PlotWaterfall Plot
  23. 23. Mass Unbalance Misalignment Structural Looseness Bearing Looseness Structural Resonance Sleeve Bearing Looseness/Rubs Gear Problem Misalignment Pump Cavitation FFT Spectrum Plot for some Problems X=RPM=CPM CPM=Cycle per minute=60Hz 1X=1xRPM=1xCPM 2X=2xRPM=2xCPM 3X=3xRPM=3xCPM
  24. 24. Oil Analysis
  25. 25. Oil Analysis OIL . . . your engine’s lifeblood . . . can reveal its internal condition……
  26. 26. What is Oil Analysis Oil analysis is a quick, nondestructive way to gauge the health of an engine by looking at what's in the oil. It is as like as medical blood test, where we can know about our diseases from our blood. Oil Analysis Blood Test
  27. 27. All Test of Your Oil 1. Elemental Analysis (Spectral Analysis) 2. Particle count, 3. Particle Shape Analysis 4. Parts per million (PPM) distribution , 5. ISO codes and ASTM standard 6. Ferrography 7. Oil Chemistry ( Dielectric, TBN, TAN, Oxydation, Nitration, Sulfations, Glycol, Soot etc.) 8. Water-in-oil, 9. Viscosity 10.Wear Debris Analysis (WDA)
  28. 28. Elemental Analysis No. Element Symbol Readout Range in PPM 1 Aluminum Al 0-1,000 2 Barium Ba 5-6,000 3 Boron B 0-1,000 4 Cadmium Cd 0-1,000 5 Calcium Ca 0-6,000 Carbon C Reference 6 Chromium Cr 0-1,000 7 Copper Cu 0-1,000 Hydrogen H Reference 8 Iron Fe 0-1,000 9 Lead Pb 0-1,000 10 Magnesium Mg 0-6,000 11 Manganese Mn 0-1,000 12 Molybdenum Mo 0-1,000 13 Nickel Ni 0-1,000 14 Phosphorus P 10-6,000 15 Potassium K 0-1,000 16 Silicon Si 0-1,000 17 Silver Ag 0-1,000 18 Sodium Na 0-6,000 19 Tin Sn 0-1,000 20 Titanium Ti 0-1,000 21 Vanadium V 0-1,000 22 Zinc Zn 0-6,000 23 Lithium Li 0-1,000
  29. 29. Wear Metal Trends on F-15 F100-100 Engine Hours Reason Fe Ag Al Cr Ni Ti Action 424 R 4 0 0 0 1 1 A 426 R 4 0 2 1 1 1 A 427 R 4 0 2 1 1 1 A 428 R 4 0 2 1 1 1 A 430 R 11 0 2 1 1 1 B 430 R 12 0 2 1 1 1 G 430 L 12 0 2 1 1 1 T R = Routine; L = Lab Requested; B = Submit Special Sample ASAP A = No Recommendation, Continue Routine Sampling G = Sample After Each Flight - DO NOT FLY UNTIL RESULTS ARE KNOWN; T = GROUND UNIT, Examine for Discrepancy,Advise Lab No. 4 Bearing Missing Parts Failure detected based on increase in iron wear metal concentration Elemental Analysis – Case Study
  30. 30. Particle Count and Shape Analysis Sliding WearCutting Wear NonmetallicFatigue Wear Particle Counting Particle Shape Analysis
  31. 31. www.sajetc.comFerrography
  32. 32. Oil Chemistry Engine Hydraulic Synthetic Gas Turbine Compressor/ transmission Gear/Turbine Water (ppm) Oxidation (abs/mm2) TAN (mg KOH/g) TBN (mg KOH/g) Alien fluid (%) Anti-Oxidant Additive (%) Anti-wear Additive (%) Nitration (abs/mm2) Sulfation (abs/mm2) Soot (%) Glycol (%)
  33. 33. Wear Debris Analysis
  34. 34. PLATELETS: Two dimensional particles produced by metal to metal sliding. SPHERICAL: Produced by bearing fatigue or by lubrication failure resulting in local overheating. SPIRALS: Similar in appearance to machining swarf, and are produced by a harder surface abrading into a softer CHUNCKY: Produced by a fatigue mechanism WDA Images
  35. 35. Infra-Red Thermography
  36. 36. Thermography Infra Red Thermography is a technique for producing a visible image of invisible (to our eyes). Infra red radiation emitted by objects due to their thermal conditions. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore, thermography allows one to see variations in temperature.
  37. 37. Why Thermography? • Non Contact • Rapid Scanning • Data can be recorded in differing formats • Images produced are comprehensive & reliable
  38. 38. Advantages • Non Contact • Non Intrusive • Can work at a distance • Fast and Reliable • Portable • Convincing Results
  40. 40. Thermal Images
  41. 41. Thermal image showing water ingress (dark areas) on illustrated section of aircraft
  42. 42. Boeing 737 Turbine. Shows the heat pattern in the turbine of this jet.
  43. 43. Boeing 737 front wheel. Thermal imaging provided by the Camera shows no uneven wear or heating on this plane wheel.
  44. 44. Jet Engine analysis
  45. 45. Electrical • Switch Gear • Fuse boxes • Cable runs • Electrical connectors • Insulation • Transformers
  46. 46. Fan 1 3 2 2 3 3 R 0 1
  47. 47. Fuse Box 2 3 2 3 3 L I 0
  48. 48. Electrical Connections Used for the detection of; • Corroded connections • Slack / loose connectors • Connectors at too high an operating temperature • Hot spots
  49. 49. Electronics
  50. 50. Electric Motor Bearing
  51. 51. Electrical Motor
  52. 52. High Voltage Substation
  53. 53. Process Plant • Hot spots • Cold spots (Cryogenics) • Damaged or missing insulation • Tank levels
  54. 54. Ultrasound Analysis
  55. 55. www.sajetc.comWhat is Ultrasound High frequency (ultrasound) sound Waves range in size from 1/8” (0.34 cm) To 5/8” (1.7 cm) (Assuming ultrasound range from 20 khz-100khz) Low frequency sound waves range in size from 3/4” (1.88 cm) to 56’ (16.9 m) (Assuming the average hearing range from 20Hz to 20KHz)
  56. 56. Advantages of Ultrasound •Directional •Locatable •Multiple applications •Utilizable in all environments •Early warning failure indication •Supports other technologies
  57. 57. Application Groups • Leak detection – Compressed air – Specialty gasses – Vacuum – Steam traps / valves • Electrical Inspection • Mechanical Inspection – Slow speed bearings – Lubrication
  58. 58. 59 Ultrasonic Leak Detector • Locate the leak • Measure the Leak • Calculate costs • Calculate Greenhouse Gas emission reduction
  59. 59. How Leaks Develop • Fluid: Liquid or gas • Turbulent Flow Produces Ultrasound PRESSURE VACUUM
  60. 60. Good Valve – Bad Valve
  61. 61. Electric Inspection • Switchgear • Transformers • Insulators • Relays • Breakers 26.8 24.4 *>28.4°F *<23.0°F 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.0 28.0
  62. 62. Electric inspection • Corona • Tracking • Arcing • Good for medium and high voltage 26.8 24.4 *>28.4°F *<23.0°F 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.0 28.0
  63. 63. Bearing Inspection • Very effective on S L O W S P E E D ! • 3 Types of testing performed – Comparison – Historical Trending – Spectrum Analysis: • Fault frequency identification UE SYSTEMS INC. All Rights Reserved
  64. 64. Levels of Severity Db levels over baseline 8 db LUBRICATION 12 db minor damage-microscopic faults 16 db damage-visual faults 35+ db catastrophic failure imminent UE SYSTEMS INC. All Rights Reserved
  65. 65. What’s In Your PDM Toolbox? • One Technology CAN NOT do Everything!!!!!! • Successful Integration is the key to getting the most out of your resources: – Awareness – Proper training – Documentation
  66. 66.