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- 1. Nuclear Chemistry Chemistry I – Chapter 25 SAVE PAPER AND INK!!! When you print out the notes on PowerPoint, print "Handouts" instead of "Slides" in the print setup. Also, turn off the backgrounds (Tools>Options>Print> Uncheck "Background Printing")!
- 2. Radioactivity <ul><li>One of the pieces of evidence for the fact that atoms are made of smaller particles came from the work of ________ (1876-1934). </li></ul><ul><li>She discovered ________ , the spontaneous disintegration of some elements into smaller pieces. </li></ul>
- 3. Nuclear Reactions vs. Normal Chemical Reactions <ul><li>Nuclear reactions involve the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>The nucleus opens, and protons and neutrons are rearranged </li></ul><ul><li>The opening of the nucleus releases a tremendous amount of energy that holds the nucleus together – called binding energy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Normal” Chemical Reactions involve electrons , not protons and neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear reactions are not affected by surrounding conditions such as pressure or temperature while chemical reactions are affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear reactions cannot be speeded up or slowed down or turned off. </li></ul>
- 4. Mass Defect <ul><li>Some of the mass can be converted into energy </li></ul><ul><li>Shown by a very famous equation! </li></ul><ul><li>E=mc 2 </li></ul>Energy Mass Speed of light
- 5. Types of Radiation <ul><li>Alpha ( ά ) – a positively charged helium isotope - we usually ignore the charge because it involves electrons, not protons and neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Beta ( β ) – an electron </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma ( γ ) – pure energy; called a ray rather than a particle </li></ul>
- 6. Penetrating Ability
- 7. Balancing Nuclear Reactions <ul><li>In the reactants (starting materials – on the left side of an equation) and products (final products – on the right side of an equation) </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic numbers must balance </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Mass numbers must balance </li></ul><ul><li>Use a particle or isotope to fill in the missing protons and neutrons </li></ul>
- 8. Nuclear Reactions <ul><li>Alpha emission </li></ul><ul><li>92 U 238 90 Th 234 + 2 He 4 (α emission) </li></ul>Note that mass number goes down by 4 and atomic number goes down by 2. Nucleons (nuclear particles… protons and neutrons) are rearranged but conserved Uranium 238 Thorium 234 Radioactive decay
- 9. Nuclear Reactions <ul><li>Beta emission </li></ul>Note that mass number (A) is unchanged and atomic number (Z) goes up by 1 . 6 C 14 7 N 14 + -1 e 0 ( β emission) Carbon-14 Nitrogen
- 10. Nuclear Reactions <ul><li>Gamma emission </li></ul><ul><li>A high energy photons is emitted by the radioisotope is called gamma rays. </li></ul><ul><li>The high-energy photons are electromagnetic radiations. </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma rays are often released along with alpha or beta particles. </li></ul>
- 11. Nuclear Reactions <ul><li>Gamma emission </li></ul><ul><li>Since gamma rays have no mass and no electrical charge the emission does not alter either the mass number of the atomic number . </li></ul><ul><li>90 Th 230 88 Ra 226 + 2 He 4 + γ </li></ul><ul><li>Thorium -230 Radon-226 Alpha Gamma </li></ul><ul><li>particle rays </li></ul>
- 12. Transmutation Reactions <ul><li>The conversion of an atom of an element to an atom of another element is called transmutation. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmutations occur by spontaneous radioactive decay or by bombarding the nucleus of a radioactive element with a projectile. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmutation can occur naturally. </li></ul>
- 13. Examples of Transmutation Reactions <ul><li>7 N 14 + 2 He 4 9 F 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Alpha particle Flourine </li></ul><ul><li>The fluorine quickly decomposes to a stable isotope of oxygen and a proton. </li></ul><ul><li>9 F 18 8 O 17 + 1 H 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorine -18 Oxygen-17 Proton </li></ul>
- 14. Learning Check <ul><li>What radioactive isotope is produced in the following bombardment of boron? </li></ul><ul><li>10 B + 4 He ? + 1 n </li></ul><ul><li>5 2 0 </li></ul>
- 15. Write Nuclear Equations! <ul><li>Write the nuclear equation for the beta emitter Co-60. </li></ul>
- 16. Kinetics of Radioactive Decay <ul><li>For each duration (half-life), one half of the substance decomposes. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Ra-234 has a half-life of 3.6 days If you start with 50 grams of Ra-234 </li></ul>After 3.6 days > 25 grams After 7.2 days > 12.5 grams After 10.8 days > 6.25 grams
- 17. Half-Life <ul><li>HALF-LIFE is the time that it takes for 1/2 a sample to decompose. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of a nuclear transformation depends only on the “reactant” concentration. </li></ul>
- 18. Half-Life Decay of 20.0 mg of 15 O. What remains after 3 half-lives? After 5 half-lives?
- 19. Learning Check! <ul><li>The half life of I-123 is 13 hr. How much of a 64 mg sample of I-123 is left after 39 hours? </li></ul>
- 20. Artificial Nuclear Reactions <ul><li>New elements or new isotopes of known elements are produced by bombarding an atom with a subatomic particle such as a proton or neutron -- or even a much heavier particle such as 4 He and 11 B. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions using neutrons are called reactions because a ray is usually emitted. </li></ul><ul><li>Radioisotopes used in medicine are often made by reactions. </li></ul>
- 21. Nuclear Fission http://library.thinkquest.org/17940/texts/fission/fission.html
- 22. Nuclear Fission <ul><li>Fission is the splitting of atoms </li></ul><ul><li>These are usually very large, so that they are not as stable </li></ul><ul><li>Fission chain has three general steps: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Initiation. Reaction of a single atom starts the chain (e.g., 235 U + neutron) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Propagation . 236 U fission releases neutrons that initiate other fissions </li></ul><ul><li>3. __Termination_________ . </li></ul>
- 23. Representation of a fission process.
- 24. Nuclear Fission <ul><li>In a chain reaction some of the neutrons produced react with other fissionable atoms producing more neutrons which react with still more atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>For a chain fission reaction to occur the mass of the fissionable material must not be less than the critical mass . </li></ul><ul><li>Critical mass is the smallest amount of fissionable material needed for a sustained chain nuclear reaction. </li></ul>
- 25. Nuclear Fission & POWER <ul><li>Currently about 103 nuclear power plants in the U.S. and about 435 worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>17% of the world’s energy comes from nuclear. </li></ul>
- 26. Figure 19.6: Diagram of a nuclear power plant.
- 27. Fission Reactor <ul><li>The water around the reactor acts both as a coolant and also to heat the water and change it to steam. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutron moderation , it is a process that slows down the neutrons to make sure that the neutrons are absorbed by the Uranium-235 nucleus which in turn breaks down in the fission reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutron Absorption, is a process that decreases the number of slow moving neutrons to prevent the chain reaction from going too fast. </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.visionlearning.com/library/flash_viewer.php?oid =3602&mid=59 </li></ul>
- 28. Nuclear Fusion <ul><li>Fusion </li></ul><ul><li>small nuclei combine </li></ul><ul><li>2 H + 3 H 4 He + 1 n + </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the sun and other stars </li></ul>Energy
- 29. Nuclear Fusion <ul><li>Fusion </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive heat can not be contained </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts at “cold” fusion have FAILED. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hot” fusion is difficult to contain </li></ul>
- 30. Effects of Radiation
- 31. Geiger Counter <ul><li>Used to detect radioactive substances </li></ul>
- 32. Radiocarbon Dating <ul><li>Radioactive C-14 is formed in the upper atmosphere by nuclear reactions initiated by neutrons in cosmic radiation </li></ul><ul><li>14 N + 1 o n ---> 14 C + 1 H </li></ul><ul><li>The C-14 is oxidized to CO 2 , which circulates through the biosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>When a plant dies, the C-14 is not replenished. </li></ul><ul><li>But the C-14 continues to decay with t 1/2 = 5730 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Activity of a sample can be used to date the sample. </li></ul>
- 33. Nuclear Medicine: Imaging Thyroid imaging using Tc-99m
- 34. Food Irradiation <ul><li>Food can be irradiated with rays from 60 Co or 137 Cs. </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiated milk has a shelf life of 3 mo. without refrigeration. </li></ul><ul><li>USDA has approved irradiation of meats and eggs. </li></ul>

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