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3D Holographic Projection Technology

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3D Holographic Projection Technology

  1. 1. B.Tech SeminarReport 3D HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TECHNOLOGY Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology inElectronics and Communication Engineering of The University of Kerala Submitted by SHAHID S(Register No: 12416055) Under the guidance of Mr. SAFUVAN T Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering YOUNUS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY KOLLAM-10 NOVEMBER 2015
  2. 2. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering YOUNUS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY KOLLAM-10 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “3D HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TECHNOLOGY”is a bonafide record of the work done by SHAHID S(Reg: no:12 416 055)of 7th semester during the year 2015 under my supervision and guidance, in the partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in “Electronics and Communication Engineering” from the University of Kerala. Seminar Guide Seminar Co-ordinators Mr. SAFUVAN T Mr. RIYAS A NMr. ANEESH P THANKACHAN Asst.Professor Asst.Professor Asso.Professor Dept. of ECE Dept. of ECE Dept. of ECE YCET YCET YCET Mr. RAJEEV. S K Head of the Department Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Younus College of Engineering & Technology Internal Examiner External Examiner
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, I would like to thank the Lord Almighty for the blessings towards the successful completion of our seminar. I would like to express our sincere thanks to Dr. M Abdul Majeed, The Principal, Younus College of Engineering & Technology,forproviding support and necessary facilities for doing this seminar. I sincerely thank Mr. Rajeev.S K, Head of the Department, Department of Electronics & CommunicationEngineering for his support and encouragement that led to the completion of this seminar. I would like to thank Mr. Aneesh P Thankachan, Associate Professor and Mr. Riyas A N, Assistant Professor,Department of Electronics andCommunication Engineering,for giving us technical advice and timely instructions, without which I could never have been able to complete the work in time. I also wish to thank Mr. Safuvan T, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics andCommunication Engineering, for providing valuable guidance. Last, but not least I would like to thank, our parents and friends for all the moral support during the preparation of this seminar. SHAHID S
  4. 4. ABSTRACT The holographic projection is a kind of 3D technology of without wearing any glasses, and viewers can see the three-dimensional virtual character.This seminar examines the new technology of Holographic Projections. It highlights the importance and need of this technology and how it represents the new wave in the future of technology and communications, the different application of the technology, the fields of life it will dramatically affect including business, education, telecommunication and healthcare. The paper also discusses the future of holographictechnology and how it will prevail in the coming years highlighting how it will also affect and reshape many other fields of life, technologies and businesses. We can often see the three- dimensional holographic communication technology in science fiction movies,using the principle of three-dimensional computer graphics, and the distant person or thing can been projected in the air in the form of three-dimension.
  5. 5. i CONTENTS CHAPTER No: TITLE PAGE No: List of Abbreviations iii List of Figures iv 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 3D HOLOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY 3 2.1 Holograms 3 2.2 Types Of Holograms 4 2.2.1 Reflection Hologram 4 2.2.2 Transmission Holograms 4 2.2.3 Computer Generated Holograms 5 3 3D HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION SYSTEM PRINCIPLE 6 4 IMPORTANCE AND NEED OF HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 9 4.1 Hologram Properties 11 5 3D HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TECHNOLOGY TYPES 12 6 WORKING OF HOLOGRAM 13 6.1 Reflection Holograms 14 6.1.1Recording Reflection Holograms 14 6.1.2 Reconstructing Reflection Holograms 15 6.2 Transmission Holograms 16 6.2.1 Recording Transmission Holograms 16 6.2.2 Reconstructing Transmission Holograms 16
  6. 6. ii 7 WORKING OF 3D HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TECHNOLOGY 18 7.1 Display Setup 20 7.2 Components Required 20 8 ADVANCEMENT IN HOLOGRAPHIC TECCHNOLOGY 21 8.1 Touchable Holograms 21 8.2 Tactile Display With Feedback 21 8.3 User Interfacing Integrated Display 21 8.4 360 Degree 3D System 21 9 APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE 22 9.1 Marketing With 3D Holographic Display 22 9.2 Holography In Education 22 9.3 Holography In Entertainment Industry 22 9.4 Projection Displays 23 10 ADVANTAGES OF HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 24 11 CONCLUSION 25 REFERENCE 26
  7. 7. iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 3DHT - 3D Holographic Technology CGH - Computer Generated Hologram DLP - Digital Light Processing LCD - Liquid Crystal Display SLM - Spatial Liquid Modulator TFT - Thin Film Transistor
  8. 8. iv LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE No: TITLE PAGE No: 3.1 Holographic projection schematic 6 3.2 Computer generated holographic principle 8 6.1 Recording of reflex hologram 14 6.2 Image recording of reflection hologram 15 6.3 Image reconstruction of reflection hologram 15 6.4 Image recording of transmission hologram 16 6.5 Image reconstruction of transmission hologram 17 6.6 Image reconstruction, Primary image 17 6.7 Image reconstruction, Secondary image 17 7.1 Recorded hologram from coherent beam of light 19 7.2 Appearance of virtual image through reconstructed waveform 19 7.3 3D Holographic projection 20
  9. 9. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 1 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION It can often see the three-dimensional holographic communication technology in science fiction movies, using the principle of three-dimensional computer graphics, and the distant person or thing can been projected in the air in the form of three- dimensional. With the development of science, all the equipment are miniaturization and precision, while the display device cannot match, and people have a demand for a new display technology to solve the problem. The 3D holographic projection is precisely as this role. The word, hologram is composed of the Greek terms, "holos" for "whole view"; and gram meaning "written". A hologram is a three-dimensional record of the positive interference of laser light waves. A technical term for holography is wave front reconstruction. Dennis Gabor, the Hungarian physicist working on advancement research for electron micro-scopes, discovered the basic technology of holography in 1947. However, the technique was not fully utilized until the 1960s, when laser technology was perfected. 3D Holographic Technology (3DHT) created in 1962. Holography, means of creating a unique photographic image without the use of a lens. The photographic recording of the image is called a hologram, which appears to be an unrecognizable pattern of stripes and whorls but which when illuminated by coherent light, as by a laser beam organizes the light into a three dimensional representation of the original object. 3D Holographic projection technology is the new sign of future technology and communications. This technology first received attention worldwide in 2008 when Prince Charles addressed the World future energy summit and made his first appearance as a hologram in a bid to reduce the royal carbon footprint. In past, American leader Al Gore launched Live Earth Tokyo in a high-tech, virtual way – as a hologram using Holographic Projection. This technology has been used widely to launch the products and create fun. The 3D holographic projection technology is also known as ''Musion Eyeliner.'' Musion Eyeliner – is a variation on the Pepper‟s Ghost stage illusion. Here, the images used are three-dimensional images, but projected as
  10. 10. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 2 YCET Kollam two-dimensional images (2D/3D) into a 3D stage set, therefore the mind of the audience create the 3D illusion. Subjects are filmed in HDTV and broadcast on to the foil through HDTV projection systems, driven by HD Mpeg2 digital hard disc players, or uncompressed full HDTV video players. This means that production costs are minimal, needing only the single camera lenses for filming and a single projector for the playback hence the phrase „Glasses-free viewing‟. With the different application of this technology, it will dramatically affect all the fields of life including business, education, telecommunication and healthcare.
  11. 11. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 3 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 2 3D HOLOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY Holography is a diffraction-based coherent imaging technique in which a complex three-dimensional object can be reproduced from a flat, two-dimensional screen with a complex transparency representing amplitude and phase values. It is commonly agreed that real-time holography is the ne plus ultra art and science of visualizing fast temporally changing 3-D scenes. The integration of the real-time or electro-holographic principle into display technology is one of the most promising but also challenging developments for the future consumer display and TV market. Only holography allows the reconstruction of natural-looking 3-D scenes, and therefore provides observers with a completely comfortable viewing experience. A holoprojector will use holographic technology to project large-scale, high- resolution images onto a variety of different surfaces, at different focal distances, from a relatively small-scale projection device. To understand the technology used in holographic projection, we must understand the term „Hologram‟, and the process of making and projecting holograms. Holography is a technique that allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed. The technique to optically store, retrieves, and process information. The holograms preserve the 3-D information of a holographed subject, which helps to project 3D images. 2.1 HOLOGRAMS A hologram is a physical component or device that stores information about the holographic image. For example a hologram can be a grating recorded on a piece of film. It is especially useful to be able to record a full image of an object in a short exposure if the object or space changes in time. Holos means “whole” and graphein means “writing”. Holography is a technique that is used to display objects or scenes in three dimensions. These 3D images are called holograms. A photographic record produced by illuminating the object with coherent light (as from a laser) and, without using lenses, exposing a film to light reflected from this object and to a direct beam of
  12. 12. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 4 YCET Kollam coherent light. When interference patterns on the film are illuminated by the coherent light a three-dimensional image is produced. 2.2 TYPES OF HOLOGRAMS A hologram is a recording in a two-or three-dimensional medium of the interference pattern formed when a point source of light (the reference beam) of fixed wavelength encounters light of the same fixed wavelength arriving from an object (the object beam). When the hologram is illuminated by the reference beam alone, the diffraction pattern recreates the wave fronts of light from the original object. Thus, the viewer sees an image indistinguishable from the original object. There are many types of holograms, and there are varying ways of classifying them. For our purpose, we can divide them into three types: reflection hologram, transmission holograms and computer generated holograms. 2.2.1 Reflection Hologram The reflection hologram, in which a truly three-dimensional image is seen near its surface, is the most common type shown in galleries. The hologram is illuminated by a “spot” of white incandescent light, held at a specific angle and distance and located on the viewer‟s side of the hologram. Thus, the image consists of light reflected by the hologram. Recently, these holograms have been made and displayed in colour their images optically indistinguishable from the original objects. If a mirror is the object, the holographic image of the mirror reflects white light. 2.2.2 Transmission Holograms The typical transmission hologram is viewed with laser light, usually of the same type used to make the recording. This light is directed from behind the hologram and the image is transmitted to the observer‟s side. The virtual image can be very sharp and deep. Furthermore, if an undiverged laser beam is directed backward (relative to the direction of the reference beam) through the hologram, a real image can be projected onto a screen located at the original position of the object.
  13. 13. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 5 YCET Kollam 2.2.3 Computer Generated Holograms Computer Generated Holography (CGH) is the method of digitally generating holographic interference patterns. A holographic image can be generated e.g. by digitally computing a holographic interference pattern and printing it onto a mask or film for subsequent illumination by suitable coherent light source. Alternatively, the holographic image can be brought to life by a holographic 3D display (a display which operates on the basis of interference of coherent light), bypassing the need of having to fabricate a "hardcopy" of the holographic interference pattern each time. Consequently, in recent times the term "computer generated holography" is increasingly being used to denote the whole process chain of synthetically preparing holographic light wave fronts suitable for observation. Computer generated holograms have the advantage that the objects which one wants to show do not have to possess any physical reality at all (completely synthetic hologram generation). On the other hand, if holographic data of existing objects is generated optically, but digitally recorded and processed, and brought to display subsequently, this is termed CGH as well.
  14. 14. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 6 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 3 3D HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION SYSTEM PRINCIPLE The holographic projection is a kind of 3D technology of without wearing glasses, and viewers can see the three-dimensional virtual character. This technology is more in some museum applications. Three-dimensional holographic projection equipment is not the use of digital technology, but the projection equipment projects the different angle image to the holographic projection membrane, so that you can see other images that are not belong to your own point of view, and thus achieve a true three-dimensional holographic image. 360 degree phantom imaging is a three-dimensional screen that imaging is suspended in mid-air imaging in the real, creating magic and real atmosphere, and the effect is peculiar, with a strong sense of depth. The object can be conjunct with the phantom in the air, also be available with touch screen interaction with the audience. Holographic interactive display system is a combination with nanometer touch sensitive membrane and scattering rear-projection imaging technology, andit is a novel and extraordinary presentation. Visitors can interact with holographic display glass, and be given a mysterious and magical fantasy feeling and provided the modern, stylish, interactive tools for the query of the display. 3D holographic projection is the technology that record and reproduce objects in real 3D image with using of interference and diffraction theory. Holographic projection schematic is been shown in Fig.3.1 Fig.3.1. Holographic projection schematic
  15. 15. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 7 YCET Kollam The first step is to record the object light wave information by interference principle, namely, the shooting process: the subject under laser irradiation forms a diffuse object beam; another part of the laser as a reference beam shines on the holographic film, and the object beam is been superimposed and produce interference, converts the phase and amplitude of object light waves to the intensity in space changes, thus records all the information of the object light waves with using of contrast and spacing in interference strips. The film, recording the interference stripes, after developing and fixing handler, will become a hologram or holographic photo. The second step is by diffraction theory to that reproduce the object light wave information, which is the imaging process: the hologram is like a complex grating, in coherent laser, the sine-hologram diffraction light waves of a linear record of generally give two the original image (also known as the initial image) and the conjugate image. The image of reproduction has the strong three-dimensional sense, and a real visual effect. Every part of the hologram recorded the light of the object, so in principle, every part can reproduce the original image, a number of different images can be recorded on a film by multiple-exposure and showed each other without disturbing. Holographic projection technology is holography displayed reversely. In essence, it is the formation of three-dimensional images on the air or a specialthree- dimensional lens. This technology breaks throughthe limitations of traditional sound, light, power, andthe image is color, the contrast and clarity are veryhigh. Unlike the flat screen projection displaying thestereoscopic perception only in the two- dimensionalsurface by the effect of perspective and shadows,holographic projection technology isthe real rendering of 3D images, which different sides of the image can be viewed from any angle of 360 degree. Decorative and practicality are blended, and the strong sense of space and perspective are the most attractive place of this technique. The holographic projection is expected to become the ultimate show solutions beyond the current 3D technology.The computer-generated holographic principle can be including the calculation process and the reproduce, which shown in Fig.3.2
  16. 16. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 8 YCET Kollam Fig.3.2. Computer generated holographic principle The calculation process transforms the three-dimensional information into a holographic stripe, which there are two methods based on interference and diffraction. The interference and diffraction are all the basic nature of light. Interference is more than two (or two) light waves with the same frequency, the same vibration direction and the constant phase difference, in the superposition of the space, and forms the constant strengthening and weakening in the overlap area. Diffraction is that the light waves display the derivative phenomenon in the communication process through the edges or porosity of the obstacles. The greater the wavelength, the smaller the pore, the exhibition derivative phenomenon is more obvious. The reproduce process is the holographic stripes generated by the spatial light modulator (SLM) modulated the incident light, and converts stripes into visible three- dimensional images. In essence, the calculated hologram information produced and reproduced by computer-controlled graphics device on the physical media.
  17. 17. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 9 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 4 IMPORTANCE AND NEED OF HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION The interest in 3D viewing is not new. The public has embraced this experience since at least the days of stereoscopes, at the turn of the last century. New excitement, interest, and enthusiasm then came with the 3D movie craze in the middle of the last century, followed by the fascinations of holography, and most recently the advent of virtual reality. Recent developments in computers and computer graphics have made spatial 3D images more practical and accessible. The computational power now exists, for example, for desktop workstations to generate stereoscopic image pairs quickly enough for interactive display. At the high end of the computational power spectrum, the same technological advances that permit intricate object databases to be interactively manipulated and animated now permit large amounts of image data to be rendered for high quality 3D displays. Modern three-dimensional (”3D”) display technologies are increasingly popular and practical not only in computer graphics, but in other diverse environments and technologies as well. Growing examples include medical diagnostics, flight simulation, air traffic control, battlefield simulation, weather diagnostics, entertainment, advertising, education, animation, virtual reality, robotics, biomechanical studies, scientific visualization, and so forth. The increasing interest and popularity are due to many factors. In our daily lives, we are surrounded by synthetic computer graphic images both in principle and on television. People can nowadays even generate similar images on personal computers at home. We also regularly see holograms on credit cards and lenticular displays on cereal boxes. There is also a growing appreciation that twodimensional projections of 3D scenes, traditionallyreferred to as “3D computer graphics”, can be insufficient for inspection, navigation, and comprehension of some types of multivariate data. Without the benefit of 3D rendering, even high quality images that have excellent perspective depictions still appear unrealistic and flat. For such application environments, the human depth cues of stereopsis, motion parallax, and (perhaps to a
  18. 18. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 10 YCET Kollam lesser extent) ocular accommodations are increasingly recognized as significant and important for facilitating image understanding and realism. In other aspects of 3D display technologies, such as the hardware needed for viewing, the broad field of virtual reality has driven the computer and optics industries to produce better stereoscopic helmet mounted and boom-mounted displays, as well as the associated hardware and software to render scenes at rates and qualities needed to produce the illusion of reality. However, most voyages into virtual reality are currently solitary and encumbered ones: users often wear helmets, special glasses, or other devices that present the 3D world only to each of them individually. A common form of such stereoscopic displays uses shuttered or passively polarized eyewear, in which the observer wears eyewear that blocks one of two displayed images, exclusively one each for each eye. Examples include passively polarized glasses, and rapidly alternating shuttered glasses. While these approaches have been generally successful, they have not met with widespread acceptance because observers generally do not like to wear equipment over their eyes. In addition, such approaches are impractical, and essentially unworkable, for projecting a 3D image to one or more casual passersby, to a group of collaborators, or to an entire audience such as when individuated projections are desired. Even when identical projections are presented, such situations have required different and relatively underdeveloped technologies, such as conventional auto stereoscopic displays. Thus, a need still remains for highly effective, practical, efficient, uncomplicated, and inexpensive auto stereoscopic 3D displays that allow the observer complete and unencumbered freedom of movement. Additionally, a need continues to exist for practical auto stereoscopic 3D displays that provide a true parallax experience in both the vertical as well as the horizontal movement directions. A concurrent continuing need for such practical auto stereoscopic 3D displays that accommodate multiple viewers independently and simultaneously. A particular advantage would be afforded if the need could be fulfilled to provide such simultaneous viewing in which each viewer could be presented with a uniquely customized auto stereoscopic 3D image that could be entirely different from that
  19. 19. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 11 YCET Kollam being viewed simultaneously by any of the other viewers present, all within the same viewing environment, and all with complete freedom of movement therein. Yet another urgent need is for an unobtrusive 3D viewing device that combines feedback for optimizing the viewing experience in combination with provisions for 3D user input, thus enabling viewing and manipulation of virtual 3D objects in 3D space without the need for special viewing goggles or headgear. In view of the ever increasing commercial competitive pressures, increasing consumer expectations, and diminishing opportunities for meaningful product differentiation in the marketplace, it is increasingly critical that answers be found to these problems. Moreover, the ever- increasing need to save costs, improve efficiencies, improve performance, and meet such competitive pressures adds even greater urgency to the critical necessity that answers be found to these problems. 4.1 HOLOGRAM PROPERTIES  Appears as a real object from different angles.  Usually just look like a sparkly pictures or smears of color.  Each cut views the entire holographic image.
  20. 20. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 12 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 5 3D HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TECHNOLOGY TYPES There are the following categories about the holographic projection technology broadly: In Massachusetts, a 29-year-old and technology graduate, called Chad Dyne invented an air projection and interactive technology, which is a milestone of the display technology, and it can wall project images with interactive features in the airflow. The technology is the principle of the mirage, and the image is projected on the water vapor, and it can form images the strong level and three-dimensional sense on the molecular vibration is not balanced. Science and Technology, the Japanese company, had invented the 3D images by the laser beam projecting the entity. This technique is that the mixed gas of nitrogen and oxygen, when they disperse in the air, becomes the hot syrupy substance, and forms a transient 3D image in the air. This approach is achieved by a small blasting constantly in the air. The researchers in the Innovation and Technology Institute, University of South California, announced that they successfully developed a 360-degree holographic display, and this technique is that the images are projected on a high-speed rotating mirror, which achieve the three-dimensional images. A pseudo-holographic projection is applied in commercial purposes, which has two categories: the projector directly is rear projection on holographic projection membrane, and the other, a projector or other display light is refracted 45 degrees imaging in the holographic projection on the phantom, which imaging results are relatively bright and dazzling, but the cost is relatively much higher and the site constraints are also more.
  21. 21. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 13 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 6 WORKING OF HOLOGRAM The time-varying light field of a scene with all its physical properties is to be recorded and then regenerated. Hence the working of holography is divided into two phases:  Recording  Reconstruction Recording of hologram: Basic tools required to make a hologram includes a red lasers, lenses, beam splitter, mirrors and holographic film. Holograms are recorded in darker environment; this is to avoid the noise interference caused by other light sources. The recording of hologram is based on the phenomenon of interference. It requires a laser source, a plane mirror or beam splitter, an object and a photographic plate. A laser beam from the laser source is incident on a plane mirror or beam splitter. As the name suggests, the function of the beam splitter is to split the laser beam. One part of splitted beam, after reflection from the beam splitter, strikes on the photographic plate. This beam is called reference beam. While other part of splitted beam (transmitted from beam splitter) strikes on the photographic plate after suffering reflection from the various points of object. This beam is called object beam. The object beam reflected from the object interferes with the reference beam when both the beams reach the photographic plate. The superposition of these two beams produces an interference pattern (in the form of dark and bright fringes) and this pattern is recorded on the photographic plate. The photographic plate with recorded interference pattern is called hologram. Photographic plate is also known as Gabor zone plate in honour of Denis Gabor who developed the phenomenon of holography. Each and every part of the hologram receives light from various points of the object. Thus, even if hologram is broken into parts, each part is capable of reconstructing the whole object.
  22. 22. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 14 YCET Kollam There are two basic types of holograms:  Reflection holograms  Transmission holograms Reflection holograms form images by reflecting a beam of light off the surface of the hologram. This type of hologram produces very high quality images but is very expensive to create. Transmission holograms form images by transmitting a beam of light through the hologram. This type of hologram is more commonly seen since they can be inexpensively mass-produced. Embossed holograms, such as those found on credit cards, are transmission holograms with a mirrored backing. 6.1 REFLECTION HOLOGRAMS 6.1.1 Recording of Reflection Holograms The laser provides a highly coherent source of light. The beam of lighthits the beam splitter, which is a semi-reflecting plate that splits the beam into two: anobject beam and a reference beam.The object beam is widened by a beam spreader and the lightis reflected off the object and is projected onto the photographic plate.The reference beam is also widened by a beam spreader and the light reflects off a mirror and shines on the photographic plate as shown in the Fig.6.1. Fig.6.1. Recording of Reflex holograms
  23. 23. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 15 YCET Kollam The reference and object beams meet at the photographic plate and create the interference pattern that records the amplitude and phase of theresultant wave as shown in the Fig.6.2. Fig.6.2. Image recording of Reflection hologram 6.1.2 Reconstructing of Reflection Holograms A reconstruction beam of light is used to reconstruct the object wave front. The reconstruction beam is positioned at the same angle as the illuminating beam that was used during the recording phase.The virtual image appears behind the hologram at the same position as the object as shown in the Fig.6.3. Fig.6.3. Image reconstruction of Reflection hologram
  24. 24. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 16 YCET Kollam 6.2 TRANSMISSION HOLOGRAMS 6.2.1Recording of Transmission Holograms As with reflection holograms, a laser is used to provide a highly coherent source of light. A beam splitter and beam spreaders are also used in the recording of transmission holograms.After the object beam passes through the beam spreader, the light is reflected off a mirror and onto the object. The object beam is then reflected onto the photographic plate.The reference beam is also reflected off a mirror and shines on the photographic plate.The incoming object and reference beams create a resultant wave. The amplitude and phase of the resultant wave is recorded onto the photographic plate as an interference pattern as shown in the Fig.6.4. Fig.6.4. Image recording of Transmission hologram 6.2.2 Reconstructing of Transmission Holograms A reconstruction beam is used to illuminate the hologram and is positioned at the same angle as the reference beam that was used during the recording phase.When the reconstruction beam is placed at the right angle, three beams of light will pass through the hologram.An undiffracted beam (zeroth order) will pass directly through the hologram but will not produce an image.A second beam forms the primary (virtual) image (first order) that is diffracted at the same angle as the incoming object beam that was used during recording.A third beam forms the secondary (real) image (first order).As we can see in the Fig.6.5., the beams that form the images are diffracted at
  25. 25. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 17 YCET Kollam the same angle, from the undiffracted beam. Between the image beams, the angle is twice as large. Fig.6.5. Image reconstruction of Transmission hologram If we look at the hologram at the same angle as the primary image beam (also same angle as recording object beam), we will see a virtual image of the object located behind the hologram as shown in the Fig.6.6. Fig.6.6. Image reconstruction, primary image If we look at the hologram at the same angle as the secondary image beam, we will see a real image of the object located in front of the hologram as shown in the Fig.6.7. Fig.6.7. Image reconstruction, secondary image
  26. 26. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 18 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 7 WORKING OF 3D HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TECHNOLOGY This is entirely a Latest and vary unique Hi Definition 3D Projection Technology in which a person is captured in 3Ddimentional Aspect with a Sp. Hi Definition Camera on a specially built stage And Projected “As Is” at various Distant Locations “At a Time”. Viewers at the other end will feel the presence of REAL Person in front of them and also interact with projected „Virtual” person, without wearing any kind of 3D glasses, as they interact with „Actual Person‟. Holography is a technique that enables a light field, which is generally the product of a light sources scattered off Objects, to be recorded and Later reconstructed when the original light field is no longer present, due to the absence of the original objects. Holography can be thought of as somewhat similar to sound recording, whereby a sound field created by vibrating matter like musical instruments or vocal cords, is encoded in such a way that it can be reproduced later, without the presence of the original vibrating matter. It starts with the patented foil, completely invisible to the naked eye.Right at 45° across the stage and the bounce content off a projector screen. This is then reflected upwards, reflects off the foil and gives s the impression of a real 3D volumetric image on stage. A hologram is recorded by exposing a light- sensitive sensor (for example, photographic film, or a high-resolution CCD) simultaneously to a coherent beam of light and the reflection of that beam of light from the scene being recorded. The sensor records not an image of the scene, but the interference (typically taking place at the surface of a sheet of film) between the image and the original coherent light. This interference pattern contains all the information in the light field at the sensor.
  27. 27. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 19 YCET Kollam Fig.7.1. Recorded hologram from coherent beam of light To play back a hologram, the interference pattern of the original hologram is reproduced, and a coherent beam of light (typically having the same wavelength as the original laser illumination source) is directed onto the pattern along the same direction as was the reference beam. The reconstruction beam is diffracted from the interference pattern, and thereby reproduces the 3D image information of the subject of the hologram. For us, a glowing but seemingly solid image suddenly appears floating in space. Fig.7.2. Appearance of Virtual Image through reconstructed waveforms With video displays being of considerably greater value than static 3D picture frames, a dynamic substitute for photographic film has long been sought, with varying degrees of success. An active holographic display is based on a spatial light modulator
  28. 28. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 20 YCET Kollam (SLM), a device that changes the intensity and/or the phase of a beam of light. A simple example is an overhead projector, wherein the transparency acts as an SLM. 7.1 DISPLAY SETUP Display setup need ideally minimum height of 9 ft and footprint of 10 ft square to show full size human figure. Fig.7.3. 3D Holographic projection 7.2 COMPONENTS REQUIRED The primary components of projecting the subject are; A video projector, preferably DLP with an HD card/minimum native resolution of 1280 x 1024 and brightness of 5000+ lumens, for smaller cabinet installations, a high quality TFT Plasma or LCD screen, a hard-disc player with 1920 x 1080i HD graphics card, Apple or PC video server, DVD player, a specialized foil + 3D set/drapes enclosing 3 sides and lighting and audio as required and who controller (on site or remote) Subjects are filmed in HDTV and broadcast on to the foil through HDTV projection systems, driven by HD Mpeg2 digital hard disc players, or uncompressed full HDTV video/Beta-Cam players.
  29. 29. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 21 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 8 ADVANCEMENT IN HOLOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY 8.1 TOUCHABLE HOLOGRAMS The importance of haptic interaction techniques gathers much more attention with the progress of the computer graphics, the physical simulation and the visual display technologies. There have been a lot of interactive systems which aim to enable the users to handle 3D graphic objects with their hands. If tactile feedback is provided to the user‟s hands in 3D free space, the usability of those systems will be considerably improved. 8.2 TACTILE DISPLAY WITH HAPTIC FEEDBACK “Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display” is a tactile display which provides tactile sensation onto the user‟s hand. It utilizes the nonlinear phenomenon of ultrasound; acoustic radiation pressure. When an object interrupts the propagation of ultra-sound, a pressure field is exerted on the surface of the object. 8.3 USER INTERFACING INTEGRATED DISPLAYS While camera-based and marker-less hand tracking systems are demonstrated these days, we use Wiimote (Nintendo) which has an infrared (IR) camera for .simplicity. A retro reflective marker is attached on the tip of user‟s middle finger. IR LEDs illuminate the marker and two Wiimotes sense the 3D position of the finger. Owing to this hand-tracking system, the users can handle the floating virtual image with their hands. 8.4 360-DEGREE 3D SYSTEM The system was made possible by projecting high-speed video on a spinning mirror. As the spinning mirror changes direction, different perspectives of the projected image is shown. The University of Southern California project is more realistic compared to other holographic attempt.
  30. 30. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 22 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 9 APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE 9.1 MARKETING WITH 3D HOLOGRAPHIC DISPLAY This world‟s innovative technology can enable observers to see lifelike images that float deep inside and project several feet in front of a display screen. Dimensional Studios, a leader in 3D visual display solutions has recently introduced its unparalleled digital signage in the UK. This world‟s innovative technology can enable observers to see 3D holographic-like images that float deep inside and project several feet in front of an LCD or plasma display screen. Its aim is for advertising agencies and consumer products who wish to catch a huge impact from this new break through media. 9.2 HOLOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION Holography being in its infant stage has not being widely used in education. However, application of holography in education is not new. Although, the distance of transition was minimal, long distance projection is possible since the images are transmitted over the internet. Holography differs from video conferencing because the teacher appears to be in the classroom. While in video conferencing users can easily notice a screen and a camera. 9.3 HOLOGRAPHY IN ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY When one thinks about holography in the entertainment industry, the movies Star Trek and Star Wars come into mind. In these movies, people relate with holograms as they would relate with real human. Although, what people see in these movies are not real holograms, they depict what a real hologram looks like and future capabilities of holography. In the musical industry, holography is being used for concerts. In this case, the musicians can be far away in New York while performing in several cities around the world. Today, three dimensional television and cinemas are becoming common, and there is more to come.3D movies in home theatres require
  31. 31. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 23 YCET Kollam chunky glasses which may be uncomfortable for some people to wear. Also experts found that viewing 3D television over a long period can cause headache and eye strain due to new sensory experience. Since holography makes beamed image look like real, it should not have any future strain on the eyes nor generate headache. 9.4 PROJECTION DISPLAYS Future colour liquid crystal displays (LCD‟s) will be brighter and whiter as a result of holographic technology. Scientists at Polaroid Corp. have developed a holographic reflector that will reflect ambient light to produce a white background. Holographic televisions may be possible within a decade but at a high price. MIT researchers recently made a prototype that does not need glasses, but true holographic commercial TV will take a year to appear. One day all TVs could be holographic, but will take 8-10 years. In future, holographic displays will be replacing all present displays in all sizes, from small phone screen to large projectors
  32. 32. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 24 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 10 ADVANTAGES OF HOLOGRAPHIC PROJECTION The interest in 3D viewing is not new. The public has embraced this experience since at least the days of stereoscopes, at the turn of the last century. New excitement, interest, and enthusiasm then came with the 3D movie craze in the middle of the last century, followed by the fascinations of holography, and most recently the advent of virtual reality. Recent developments in computers and computer graphics have made spatial 3D images more practical and accessible. Modern three dimensional (”3D”) display technologies are increasingly popular and practical not only in computer graphics, but in other diverse environments and technologies as well. A concurrent continuing need is for such practical auto stereoscopic 3D displays that can also accommodate multiple viewers independently and simultaneously. A particular advantage would be afforded if the need could be fulfilled to provide such simultaneous viewing in which each viewer could be presented with a uniquely customized auto stereoscopic 3D image that could be entirely different from that being viewed simultaneously by any of the other viewers present, all within the same viewing environment, and all with complete freedom of movement therein. A high resolution three dimensional recording of an object. Another feature is that these are glasses free 3D display. This 3D technology can accommodate multiple viewers independently and simultaneously, which is an advantage no other 3D technology can show. The 3D holographic technology does not need a projection screen. The projections are projected into midair, so the limitations of screen are not applicable for 3D holographic display
  33. 33. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 25 YCET Kollam CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Holography may still be in its infant stage, but its potentials applications are aspiring. Holographic Technology and Spectral Imagining has endless applications, as far as the human mind can imagine. Holography being the closest display technology to our real environment may just be the right substitute when reality fails. With holography, educational institutions may become a global village sooner that people thought, where information and expertise are within reach. Knowledge sharing and mobility will only cost a second and learning will become more captivating and interactive. First, there is an urgent need to address the infrastructural deficiencies limiting the application of holography in education. More interestingly, the display medium of holography is very important. A 360 viewing angle is especially what is needed to maximize the use of holography in education. Being able to display a 3D hologram in free air is also vital, because interacting with holograms in a covered display may be cumbersome. In order not to limit the use of holography to a non-interactive display medium, incorporation with feedback technologies is mandatory. The haptic technology which makes it possible to touch and manipulate virtual object is especially important. As the field of hapticscontinues to grow and integrates with holography, interaction with holograms becomes limitless. In future, holographic displays will be replacing all present displays in all sizes, from small phone screen to large projectors.
  34. 34. 3D Holographic Projection Technology Seminar Report 2015 Dept. of ECE 26 YCET Kollam REFERENCE [1] Ahmed Elmorshidy, Ph.D ; “Holographic Projection Technology: The World is Changing.”; JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2,MAY 2010. [2] Thomas J. Naughton; “Capture, processing, and display of real-world 3D objects using digital holography”; 2010 IEEE Invited Paper. [3] Takayuki Hoshi, Masafumi Takahashi, Kei Nakatsuma; “Touchable Holography”; The University of Tokyo; 2009. [4] Stephan Reichelt, Ralf Haussler, Norbert Leister, Gerald Futterer, Hagen Stolle and Armin Schwerdtner; “Holographic 3-D Displays - Electro- holography within theGrasp of Commercialization”; Advances in Lasers and Electro Optics (April 2010). [5] “3D Holographic Projection – The Future of Advertising”, Article Base 2009, viewed 9 Jun 2013. [6] Wang Liming. “Three-dimensional graphics appliance in electrocardiogram “[J].Network Information, 2006, (6):41-42. [7] Wu Guoliang. “Research of stereo display algorithm in the virtual reality system” [J]. Journal Naval Aeronautical Engineering Institute, 2001, (16):341-342.

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