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Terrorism

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Terrorism

  1. 1. Terrorist objectives, methods, and their psychological impact
  2. 2.  To affect political, social, economic, or religious change through the use of fear and intimidation ◦ unable to accomplish objectives through legitimate or democratic process ◦ unable to directly confront their opposition militarily
  3. 3.  Terror involves inflicting fear and anxiety on the victim(s) Terror can be either goal oriented or it can be for any unnecessary reason.
  4. 4.  PRINCIPLE: A special type of principle followed by the group of people. A person does not follow terrorism, but his path is called terrorism after the judgement done by other third parties.
  5. 5.  It stops the developmental activities. Social disorder. Invites Violence. Creates Fear. Mass destruction. Affects economical. Death of innocent people.
  6. 6.  To instill “terror” in target audience ◦ by using the most terrifying means available, including  kidnapping, assassination, bomb blasts, etc. ◦ by affecting many more people than directly affected by physical actions  media and government-response play a critical role in the impact of terrorism
  7. 7.  Hard targets ◦ high-ranking government officials ◦ military bases ◦ fortified police stations (e.g., Northern Ireland) Soft targets ◦ individual civilians ◦ shopping areas ◦ schools ◦ cultural, sporting, & religious venues
  8. 8. Terrorist tactics probably work best againstdemocracies, where targeting civilian populationshas the greatest effect (i.e., civilians elect thegovernment which sets the policy the terroristswish to change)
  9. 9. 209 Killed 1,202 physically injured9,000+ psychologically ‘injured’ 10,000’s terrorized
  10. 10. 178 Killed 1000’s physically injured10000’s psychologically ‘injured’ 100,000’s terrorized
  11. 11. 3,025 Killed 1,000’s physically injured10,000+ psychologically ‘injured’ A nation terrorized
  12. 12.  Response to terrorism is determined by social cognition and other dynamics ◦ Madrid train bombing (11 March 2004)  elect new government  withdraw troops from Iraq ◦ 9/11 attack on America  solidify government support  Bush doctrine: hunt & kill
  13. 13.  What are the methods of terrorists? (e.g. targeting civilian populations) Why do terrorists use the tactics of terrorism? End of Part I
  14. 14. Considerations for developing effective counter- terrorist strategies
  15. 15.  “One person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter” ◦ organized terrorism is seldom rooted in mental illness  there is often some legitimate goal for the terrorist organization  there is usually a broad support base ◦ but very few terrorists are open to compromise
  16. 16.  Most terrorists seek national or regional change Some terrorists seek global change ◦ most have specific, tangible objectives (even if irrational) ◦ a few have apocalyptic motives
  17. 17.  Their demands usually involve radical change in the status quo ◦ uniting Northern Ireland with the Republic of Ireland in the south ◦ formation of the state of Palestine ◦ overthrow of the secular Egyptian government ◦ establishment of an Islamic state in Iraq & removal of Western influence
  18. 18.  The more one ‘invests’ in a cause, the stronger that cause is psychologically defended The transition from activist to terrorist (and the willingness to use violent methods) involves psychological changes that tend to dichotomize the ‘world’
  19. 19.  Show the terrorists to be irrational fanatics who threaten global peace and stability Develop allies who have a common interest in neutralizing the terrorist threat Develop a clear multinational plan for combating terrorism
  20. 20.  Minimize social-political conditions that spawn terrorism Isolate the terrorists Divide political factions Rally allies against terrorism Harsh and severe retaliatory action Temper media coverage
  21. 21.  There are many cases in the 20th Century where terrorist tactics were effectively used to force change or to right an injustice ◦ Republic of Ireland (although the Northern1921 counties remain in dispute) ◦ State of Israel (although national boundaries1948 remain in dispute)1950s ◦ De-colonization & sovereignty of African nations &1960s
  22. 22.  Diplomacy when possible, but ◦ unlikely to work in most situations ◦ reinforces terrorist tactics Undermine terrorist support Direct physical confrontation ◦ hunt and kill ◦ neutralize “breeding grounds” Temper media coverage
  23. 23.  Conditions have changed radically ◦ national sovereignty is no longer the primary force behind many terrorist organizations ◦ some terrorist organizations seek global changes extending well beyond their social, political, economic, or religious spheres of influence (e.g., a “New World Order”)
  24. 24.  Diplomacy when possible, but ◦ unlikely to work in most situations ◦ reinforces terrorist tactics Undermine terrorist support
  25. 25.  Diminish social-economic conditions that present legitimate grievances ◦ food and economic aid ◦ combat social, religious, economic, and political suppression Provide alternative, rational plan for resolving the conflict
  26. 26.  Neutralize support base ◦ foreign governments ◦ popular/civilian sympathizers ◦ other terrorist organizations
  27. 27.  Exploit differences and conflicts among individual factions of the terrorist movement Consider supporting factions willing to adopt a non-terrorist approach to achieving objectives
  28. 28.  Diplomacy when possible, but ◦ unlikely to work in most situations ◦ reinforces terrorist tactics Undermine terrorist support Direct physical confrontation ◦ hunt and kill ◦ destroy or neutralize “breeding grounds”
  29. 29.  Minimize social-political conditions that spawn terrorism (first priority from list of responses) Covert operations when feasible Direct military action when appropriate (e.g. Bush doctrine)
  30. 30.  Diplomacy when possible, but ◦ unlikely to work in most situations ◦ reinforces terrorist tactics Undermine terrorist support Direct physical confrontation ◦ hunt and kill ◦ neutralize “breeding grounds” Temper media coverage
  31. 31.  The media are (mostly unwilling) allies of the terrorists The media need to self-censor coverage and not just push the most sensationalistic story ◦ confirm story & factual information ◦ present clear & balanced perspective ◦ consider impact of coverage
  32. 32.  Terrorism is a global problem that is not going away without direct action ◦ terrorism affects many people far removed from the terrorist activity ◦ terrorists seldom compromise An effective response to terrorism requires decisive and often harsh action, uncharacteristic of the traditional American Psyche
  33. 33.  What terrorist groups were active in previous generations? Did they achieve their goals? What are some of the major terrorist groups active today? Which are the most serious threat worldwide?

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