sociology theory

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sociology theory

  1. 1. Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Behavioral PsychologyBehavioral Psychology Dr. Bill Bauer EDUC 202
  2. 2. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Overview Understanding Learning Early Explanations of Learning Contiguity and Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Applied Behavior Analysis Behavioral Approaches to Teaching & Management Recent Approaches: Self-Regulated Learning & Cognitive Behavior Modification Problems & Issues
  3. 3. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Concept Map for Chapter 6 Behavioral Views of Learning Understanding Learning Early Explanations of Learning Contiguity and Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Applied Behavior Analysis Behaviorism, Teaching & Management Self-Regulated Learning & Cognitive Behavior Modification Problems & Issues Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  4. 4. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Permanent change Change in behavior or knowledge Learning is the result of experience Learning is not the result of maturation or temporary conditions (illness) Definition of Learning
  5. 5. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Contiguity Learning Learning by simple associations: Pairing Stimulus → Response Examples:  Golden Arches = McDonalds  Times tables (7 X 8 = 56)  States & capitals (Lansing, MI)
  6. 6. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Pavlov: Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s dilemma Involuntary responses: Respondents Generalization Discrimination Extinction
  7. 7. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Classical Conditioning
  8. 8. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Neutral Stimulus Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Stimulus Classical Conditioning
  9. 9. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Neutral Stimulus Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Stimulus Repeat pairing US with NSRepeat pairing US with NS Classical Conditioning
  10. 10. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Neutral Stimulus Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Conditioned Response Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Stimulus Repeat pairing US with NSRepeat pairing US with NS Classical Conditioning
  11. 11. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Classical Classroom Examples A first grader feels ill when recess time approaches because he was beat up on the playground the last 3 days in a row. Certain smells that can elicit nauseous sensations (Hopefully NOT from the cafeteria!) Speech phobia : cold sweat, shaking knees and hands Phobias in general
  12. 12. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Skinner: Operant Conditioning Operants : Deliberate actions Thorndike’s Law of Effect ABC’s Reinforcement Punishment
  13. 13. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Types of Consequences
  14. 14. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement Examples:  Praise  Teacher attention  Rewards Negative reinforcement  Avoid the loss of privileges  Take away an aversive stimulus
  15. 15. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Types of Punishment Presentation Punishment  Detention  Extra work Removal Punishment  Loss of recess  Loss of privileges
  16. 16. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Kinds of Reinforcement & PunishmentKinds of Reinforcement & Punishment Behavior encouragedBehavior encouraged Behavior suppressedBehavior suppressed Stimulus presented Stimulus presented Stimulus removed or withheld Stimulus removed or withheld Positive Reinforcement: Praise / reward Presentation Punishment: Detention / extra work Negative Reinforcement Avoid losing points Removal Punishment Loss of recess / grounded! See Woolfolk, Figure 6.1, p. 208 and Table 6.1, p. 209
  17. 17. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Interval Ratio Fixed Ratio Interval Variable Intermittent Types of Reinforcement Schedules Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  18. 18. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Reflection Questions What is the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement? What schedule of reinforcement is best for building persistence? Why? What happens when all reinforcement is withdrawn?
  19. 19. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Controlling Antecedents
  20. 20. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Antecedents Providing previous information about expected behaviors Signaling when a behavior should be emitted Cueing: Lights off means “Be quiet!” Prompting: Verbal reminder after students do not get quiet after lights were turned off : they missed the cue.
  21. 21. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Applied Behavior Analysis Baseline behavior Target behavior Classroom application: 1 - Specify the desired behavior 2 - Plan a specific intervention 3 - Keep track of the results
  22. 22. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Interventions: Encouraging Positive Behavior Teacher attention Premack principle Shaping Positive practice See Guidelines, Woolfolk, pp. 214 & 217
  23. 23. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Coping with Undesirable Behaviors Negative reinforcement: ‘No recess until…’ Satiation: ‘I would like 1000 of those perfect spit wads, please!’ Reprimands: soft & private Response cost Social isolation Punishment See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 220
  24. 24. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Coping with Undesirable Behaviors Cautions: Use a two pronged approach: Punishment for undesired behavior Clarify and reinforce desired behavior
  25. 25. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Behavioral Approaches to Teaching & Management
  26. 26. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Teaching : Mastery Learning Students must demonstrate competence before moving to next unit Mastery means 80 – 90% correct Focuses on basic skills
  27. 27. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Behavioral Management Group consequences Token reinforcement Contingency contracts
  28. 28. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Recent Approaches: Self-Regulation & Cognitive Behavior Modification The object of teaching a child is to enable him to get along without his teacher. Elbert Hubbard
  29. 29. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Self-Regulated Learning Self management  Set goals and make the goals public  Note: Standards and effect on performance  Evaluate & record performance  Promote self-reinforcement  See Family & Community Partnerships, Woolfolk, p. 227
  30. 30. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Cognitive Behavior Modification & Self-Instruction Similar to self- regulated learning Adds thinking and self-talk More cognitive than behavioral approach
  31. 31. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Cognitive Behavior Modification & Self-Instruction Teaching self-talk:  Demonstrate & supervise  Talk out loud while practicing, student imitates  Whisper while practicing, student imitates  Work toward private speech while practicing See Woolfolk, Figure 6.4, p. 229
  32. 32. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Reflection Question What is a habit you would like to change? How would you implement the steps of cognitive behavior modification to change your habit? Make a graphic organizer or flow chart to illustrate your goal and steps toward meeting that goal.
  33. 33. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Problems & Issues Extrinsic rewards may lead to loss of interest in learning for learning’s sake Decrease in motivation Motives for influencing student behaviors: control? See Point▼Counterpoint, Woolfolk pp. 230-231
  34. 34. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Summary Understanding Learning Early Explanations of Learning Contiguity and Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Applied Behavior Analysis Behavioral Approaches to Teaching & Management Recent Approaches: Self-Regulated Learning & Cognitive Behavior Modification Problems & Issues
  35. 35. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Review Questions Define learning. How does a neutral stimulus become a conditioned stimulus? Discriminate between generalization and discrimination. What defines a consequence as a reinforcer? As a punisher? How are negative reinforcement and punishment different?
  36. 36. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Review Questions How can you encourage persistence in a behavior? What is the difference between a prompt and a cue? What are the steps in applied behavior analysis? How can the Premack principle help you identify reinforcers? When is shaping an appropriate approach?
  37. 37. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Review Questions What are some cautions in using punishment? What is mastery learning? Describe group consequences, token programs, and contracts. What are the steps in self-management? What are the main criticisms of behavioral approaches?
  38. 38. ht 2001 by Allyn and Bacon End Chapter 6

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