Topic 4 :
Chemical hazard &
Biological hazard
Topic Learning outcomes :
1. Describe the definition of chemical and biologi...
Topic Content :
• 4.1 Chemical hazard definition
• 4.2 Identifying ,assessing and control chemical
hazard in industries
• ...
4.1 Chemical hazard Definition
• A chemical hazard is a chemical that because of its
characteristics and effects may cause...
4.1 Chemical hazard Definition
• Routes of entry point of toxic chemical;
Inhalation
• Once a chemical reaches the lower l...
4.1 Chemical hazard Definition
• Time frame the exposure occur;
Acute
exposure
• An exposure to a substance over a brief p...
4.2 Identifying, assessing and control chemical hazard in
industries
• How to identify and assess chemical hazards :
Step ...
4.2 Identifying, assessing and control chemical hazard in
industries
How to implement Step 2 and Step 3:
 Ensure the labe...
4.2 Identifying, assessing and control chemical hazard in
industries
Example of MSDS
4.3 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
 IAQ problem arise in non- industrial buildings (enclosed
work space that is served by a ven...
4.4 Biological Hazard Definition
• Organisms or products of organisms that present a health hazard to humans.
• The most c...
4.4 Biological Hazard Definition
How Biological hazard enter the body :
Inhalation
• Unlike chemical inhalation, we don't ...
4.4 Biological Hazard Definition
Examples of occupations which is exposed to Biological hazard :
4.5 Biological hazard control and prevention strategies
Three approaches to control biological hazard :
Where reasonably p...
Chemical safety and handling procedure:
1. LABELS: Ensure the bottle has the correct product in it and correctly
labeled. ...
Chemical safety and handling procedure:
7. REPORT ALL SPILLS, ACCIDENTS & ILL EFFECTS: Ensure Spill Kits are
available and...
Chemical safety and handling procedure:
15. SAFETY: If in doubt as to the correct use of the chemical, DO NOT USE
16. SMOK...
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Lecture 5-_chemical_hazard_and_biological_hazard

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Lecture 5-_chemical_hazard_and_biological_hazard

  1. 1. Topic 4 : Chemical hazard & Biological hazard Topic Learning outcomes : 1. Describe the definition of chemical and biological hazard. 2. Explains the chemical and biological hazard control and prevent strategies. 3. Explains the Indoor Air quality issue.
  2. 2. Topic Content : • 4.1 Chemical hazard definition • 4.2 Identifying ,assessing and control chemical hazard in industries • 4.3 Indoor Air Quality • 4.4 Biological hazard definition • 4.5 Biological hazard control and prevention strategies
  3. 3. 4.1 Chemical hazard Definition • A chemical hazard is a chemical that because of its characteristics and effects may cause harm to an individual. • Level of harm is impacted by ;  amount of chemical  time frame the exposure occurs  how the exposure occur (route of entry)  characteristic of the individual • Typical chemical hazard includes mists, vapors, gases, dusts and fumes.
  4. 4. 4.1 Chemical hazard Definition • Routes of entry point of toxic chemical; Inhalation • Once a chemical reaches the lower levels of the lungs, it can pass into the bloodstream and travel to a target organ where it will exert its effect Skin absorption Ingestion • Chemical can be absorbed directly through the skin and into the bloodstream • Not a major concern in an industrial setting is entry through the mouth, but may occur if house keeping and personal hygiene practices are not adhered. Injection • Is a route of entry for some chemicals, particularly drugs, where the use of needles is common in product handling, dispensing or delivery.
  5. 5. 4.1 Chemical hazard Definition • Time frame the exposure occur; Acute exposure • An exposure to a substance over a brief period of time (usually 24 hours) that has an immediate or delayed impact on the exposed person. Chronic exposure • An exposure to a substance that occurs over a long period of time, which allow to accumulate and cause toxic effects in the body. • Types of hazardous Chemical.pdf
  6. 6. 4.2 Identifying, assessing and control chemical hazard in industries • How to identify and assess chemical hazards : Step 1 List tasks that the worker performs and environmental factors where the worker is located Step 2 Identify and list the chemicals to which the worker may be exposed Step 3 Identify the potential for exposure to chemical substances through the various routes of entry Step 4 Assess the hazard, evaluate potential exposure and determine the risk for exposure Step 5 Identify appropriate controls following the hierarchy of controls
  7. 7. 4.2 Identifying, assessing and control chemical hazard in industries How to implement Step 2 and Step 3:  Ensure the labels of incoming containers of hazardous chemicals are not removed or defaced.  Retain MSDS/CSDS on Incoming hazardous chemical.  What is MSDS/CSDS? Step 2 Identify and list the chemicals to which the worker may be exposed Step 3 Identify the potential for exposure to chemical substances through the various routes of entry Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)/ Chemical Safety Data Sheet (CSDS) contains precautions for handling and using harmful substances and includes information such as health hazards, fire and explosion hazards, physical characteristics, hazardous ingredients, PPE and spill procedures.
  8. 8. 4.2 Identifying, assessing and control chemical hazard in industries Example of MSDS
  9. 9. 4.3 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)  IAQ problem arise in non- industrial buildings (enclosed work space that is served by a ventilating and air conditioning system where there are person at work).  IAQ and mechanical ventilating and air conditioning system (MVAC) are closely related.  Often cause of poor IAQ can be slipshod maintenance such as failure to keep fans, ductwork and filters clean, particle and gases release by equipment, carpet, paints , solvent etc.  “Sick-building syndrome”- A combination of ailments (syndrome) associated with an individual’s place of work (office building).  Symptom of sick- building syndrome ; building occupants complain of symptoms such as irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, skin irritation.
  10. 10. 4.4 Biological Hazard Definition • Organisms or products of organisms that present a health hazard to humans. • The most common biological hazards include : a) Bacteria – microscopic organisms that live in soil, water, organic matter or the bodies of plants and animals. b) Viruses – a group of pathogens that consist mostly of nucleic acids and that lack cellular structure. c) Fungi – any of a major group of lower plants that lack chlorophyll and live on dead or other living organisms. • Examples of different types of biological hazards : a) Bacteria – Escherichia coli (E.Coli), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) b) Viruses – Influenza, SARS, cold c) Fungi – yeast, athlete's foot • Other concerns from the environment may include: a) Insect stings/ bites b) Allergic reactions e.g. peanuts, bee stings c) Poisonous plants. Animal.
  11. 11. 4.4 Biological Hazard Definition How Biological hazard enter the body : Inhalation • Unlike chemical inhalation, we don't know that we have inhaled a bacteria, virus. It is only when we get symptoms of the infection Absorption • A biohazard can enter the bloodstream through broken skin, such as chapped skin, hangnail or any other break in the skin. Ingestion • Poor hand washing is one of the most common ways that biological hazards can be transmitted. Injection • When something sharp punctures the skin, a biohazard can enter the body
  12. 12. 4.4 Biological Hazard Definition Examples of occupations which is exposed to Biological hazard :
  13. 13. 4.5 Biological hazard control and prevention strategies Three approaches to control biological hazard : Where reasonably practicable, employer must be use engineering controls Employer must use administrative controls that control exposure to the hazard to a level as low as reasonably achievable Employer must ensure that appropriate personal protective equipment is used Employer may use a combination of above mentioned approaches. •Ventilation systems and seals to create negative pressure room. •Bio-safety hoods •Disposal containers •Worker training, •Policies (regular hand washing) •Specific work schedule to limited the times of exposures •Most common PPE are; latex gloves, proper mask and eye protection.
  14. 14. Chemical safety and handling procedure: 1. LABELS: Ensure the bottle has the correct product in it and correctly labeled. Do not use un labelled chemicals. Replace any labels, which are damaged or illegible. 2. CORRECT USE OF CHEMICALS: Always use chemicals as per the instructions on the label, product information sheets, Wall charts and on the Material Safety Data Sheet. 3. READ THE MSDS BEFORE YOU USE ANY CHEMICALS: Not all the information you need is on the label. It is your responsibility to always know where the chemical register is kept. 4. CHEMICALS – SAFE HANDLING: Do not mix chemicals, (It’s hazardous and can be counter productive). Do not “Top Up”, (It’s hazardous and can lead to cross contamination). Always use a clean empty container. Do not overdose. 5. RETURN CHEMICALS AFTER USE: When finished with chemicals, wipe down the bottle and store away safely in chemical cupboard. 6. ALWAYS WEAR APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: i.e. Aprons, Gloves, Goggles or Glasses, Safety Footwear, Masks, etc (As per the MSDS).
  15. 15. Chemical safety and handling procedure: 7. REPORT ALL SPILLS, ACCIDENTS & ILL EFFECTS: Ensure Spill Kits are available and easily accessible. Remove spills as per MSDS directions. If unable to contain spills safely activate code YELLOW. 8. FIRST AID KIT: First Aid Kits should be easily accessible 9. NEVER STACK CHEMICALS MORE THAN 2 DRUMS HIGH: Stacking Chemical drums and boxes more than 2 high is unsafe and may fall causing damage. It is advisable to store powders above liquids. 10. IF IN DOUBT THROW IT OUT: If you are not sure of a product, label, etc. Do not use it, notify your supervisor so it can be disposed of properly. 11. OBSERVE SAFE OPERATION OF DISPENSING EQUIPMENT: Ensure all staff knows how to operate chemical-dispensing systems safely. 12. USE OF CONTAINERS: Seal containers when not in use. Do not open damaged containers, return them or seek advice from your supplier. 13. HYGIENE: Always wash your hands after using chemicals, (even if gloves were worn). 14. VENTILATION: Ensure there is adequate ventilation in the storeroom and when using the chemicals.
  16. 16. Chemical safety and handling procedure: 15. SAFETY: If in doubt as to the correct use of the chemical, DO NOT USE 16. SMOKING: Do not smoke anywhere near the chemicals or whilst you are using the chemicals. 17. FOOD SAFETY: Do not use any chemicals near food. 18. CORRECT CHEMICAL, CORRECT JOB: Always use the right chemicals for the right job 19. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: Always use and clean safety equipment after use. 20. MOST IMPORTANTLY USE COMMONSENSE: We must all take every precaution when using chemicals to ensure that individual safety and responsibility is optimised.

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