Constitution

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Constitution

  1. 1. United States Constitution
  2. 2. 1781 Articles of Confederation 1797 Constitution
  3. 3. Articles of Confederation Weaknesses • 1) Under the Articles there was only a unicameral legislature so that there was no separation of powers. • 2) The central government under the Articles was too weak since the majority of the power rested with the states. • 3) Congress, under the Articles, did not have the power to tax which meant that they could never put their finances in order. • 4) In order to change or amend the Articles, unanimous approval of the states was required which essentially meant that changes to the Articles were impossible. • 5) For any major laws to pass they had to be approved by 9 or the 13 states which proved difficult to do so that even the normal business of running a government was difficult. • 6) Under the Articles, Congress did not have the power to regulate commerce which will cause competition between states as well as diplomatic issues,
  4. 4. Written 1787 Approved 1788
  5. 5. The ultimate strength of the U.S. Constitution is that it not only establishes a government, but it establishes a government which, to use Thomas Jefferson's words, can quot;govern itself.quot;
  6. 6. PREAMBLE (Introduction) - Explains that the Constitution proposes to establish a more perfect government complete with justice, tranquility, and liberty ARTICLE I - Establishes the Legislative Branch (House of Representatives and the Senate). ARTICLE II - Establishes the Executive Branch (headed by the President). ARTICLE III - Establishes the Judicial Branch (a system of courts and judges). ARTICLE IV - Establishes the relationship between the states and the federal government. Describes how to admit new states to the Union. ARTICLE V - Describes how to amend the Constitution. ARTICLE VI - Establishes the Constitution as the supreme law of the USA. Authorizes the national debt (Congress can borrow money). Public officials must take an oath to support the Constitution. ARTICLE VII - Lists the requirements for ratification of the Constitution.
  7. 7. AMENDMENTS 1-10 (THE *BILL OF RIGHTS**) (added in 1791) - Preserves the rights of the people. Amendment 1 - Freedom of religion, press, speech Amendment 2 - Right to bear arms Amendment 3 - Limits the quartering of soldiers Amendment 4 - Search and seizure of property Amendment 5 - Right to a trial if accused, no self-incrimination required, no double-jeopardy (you cannot be tried twice for the same crime), right to compensation for takings by gov't. Amendment 6 - Right to a speedy trial by jury and confrontation of witnesses Amendment 7 - Right to a trial by jury in civil cases Amendment 8 - Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment Amendment 9 - People may have other rights, even if they are not listed here Amendment 10 - The federal government's powers are limited to those listed in the Constitution
  8. 8. AMENDMENTS 11-27 Amendment 11 (1798) - Judicial limits Amendment 12 (1804) - Method for choosing the President, Vice President Amendment 13 (1865) - Abolished slavery Amendment 14 (1868) - Rights of citizenship to all people born in USA or naturalized Amendment 15 (1870) - Gives the right to vote to all citizens, regardless of color or race, but women are not mentioned Amendment 16 (1913) - Income tax authorized Amendment 17 (1913) - Senators elected by the popular vote Amendment 18 (1919) - Prohibition - Liquor prohibited Amendment 19 (1920) - Women's suffrage (voting rights) Amendment 20 (1933) - New terms of office for the President and Congress Amendment 21 (1933) - Amendment 18 repealed (overturned) Amendment 22 (1951) - Presidential term limited Amendment 23 (1961) - Presidential vote given to Washington, D. C. Amendment 24 (1964) - Poll taxes barred (you cannot charge people to vote) Amendment 25 (1967) - Presidential disability and succession Amendment 26 (1971) - Voting age lowered to 18 years old (same as the age at which men can be drafted into the army) Amendment 27 (1992) - Congressional pay increases go into effect only during the next Congressional session. Worksheets and
  9. 9. What can the gov’t do and not do? • In your notebook list five things the Constitution states the government can and can’t do • List the Article, section for each one • Do not list any Amendments
  10. 10. ARTICLE I - House of Representatives and the Senate ARTICLE II - President ARTICLE III - Establishes the Judicial Branch ARTICLE IV - Establishes the relationship between the states and the federal government. Describes how to admit new states to the Union. ARTICLE V - Describes how to make changes to the Constitution. ARTICLE VI - Establishes the Constitution as the supreme law of the USA. Authorizes the national debt (Congress can borrow money). Public officials must take an oath to support the Constitution.

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