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Plastic Recycling

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This poster describes the affects of plastic used plastic goods that do not biodegrade naturally on environment and how plastic recycling can play a great role in playing the savior on the case.

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Plastic Recycling

  1. 1. Plastics are polymers, chains of molecules produced by smaller molecules called monomers. Light weight, long durability and comparative low production price have made plastic and polymer an irreplaceable part of industrial activities. However, they are inert to the microbial degradation and therefore harmful to the environment in many ways. In the developing countries like Bangladesh due to low labor cost and less legitimate obstacles plastic recycling can be a pretty good way to utilize waste non degradable plastics to reduce environment pollution. Nowadays demand of plastic and synthetic products in the commercial and industrial arena is growing quite enormously, which patronizes technological advancement, but on the other hand is proving to be a fatal threat to the environment due to their non-biodegradable nature. In this poster, we are bringing forth the consequences to which our atmosphere is exposed and providing a potential solution based on developing countries like ours, which is plastic recycling. ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION Greenhouse Gases: Fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil and coal are used in production process of plastic, emitting dangerous greenhouse gases and toxic chemicals. As plastic decomposes gases are produced, particularly methane. Natural Resources: Plastics are made from non- renewable resources that, once depleted, cannot be replaced. Landfill Space: Waste Plastic occupies large area in landfill causing dire problems. Persistence in the Environment: Most plastic is not biodegradable and will survive in the environment for hundreds of years. Rather than biodegrading, plastic photo-degrades, breaking down into smaller and smaller pieces. Plastic is can float easily in air and water, and travel long distances. Threat to Marine Life: Every year more than 6 million tons of rubbish are dumped into the world’s oceans. 80% of this waste is plastic, with an estimated 46,000 pieces of plastic per square mile of ocean. Turtles, whales, and sea birds mistake rubbish for food or get entangled in it causing painful injuries or even death. It is estimated that marine rubbish, mostly plastic, is killing more than a million seabirds and 100,000 mammals every year. Effects on Environment Past Plastic Waste Management: In the past, solid waste management was merely collection and disposal. In Sanitary landfill method wastes were brought to disposal site and leveled. Workers sprayed disinfectant and insecticide which were mixture of Izol, gamaxene and antimalarialoil or Dipthroxhas. The waste was covered with one layer of sand. Overall, plastics in landfills are fairly inert. The majority of common polymers are not biodegradable. By contrast, the amount of plastic waste is growing. Polymers have lower density; consequently plastic waste takes up a larger volume for relatively little mass as compared to the other household and industrial wastes. Solid Waste Management= Collection + Disposal .Collection: Plastics can be collected from different agricultural, industrial, municipal and commercial areas. It can be collected manually as labour cost is comparatively low in our country. Cleaning and Sorting: Once the plastic has been collected, it will have to be cleaned and sorted using various techniques suitable for respective purpose. Size Reduction: Size reduction is done to convert waste into small pieces so that they can be used properly for further processing. Main steps are: 1. Cutting 2. Shredding 3. Agglomeration Extrusion and Pelletizing: Polymer pieces are fed into the extruder, are heated to induce plastic behavior and then forced through a die to form a plastic spaghetti. The pelletization process is used to reduce the ‘spaghetti’ to pellets which can then be used for the manufacture of new products. Plastic Recycling Process It is both tough and unacceptable to collect the used plastic and re-use them after cleaning or washing only. Reduce means bio-degradation of plastic wastes which is also quite troublesome considering most of the plastics are not bio-degradable or very slowly bio- degradable. But, considering the situation in a developing country like Bangladesh plastic recycling can be very useful for the following factors: Low labour and transportation Cost. Fewer laws to control the standards of the recycled materials. Original raw materials are costly Innovative use of machineries often leads to low entry costs for manufacture. Why Recycle Plastic Not all plastics are recyclable. There are first only 4 of the following 7 types of are commonly recycled: Contamination of recyclables is a problem because it raises the costs for collectors, recyclers and the community. Plastic bags, bin liners, and cling wrap are not recyclable. These plastics can get stuck in the sorting equipment in recycling facilities causing it to stop or break. Often bottle tops and lids cannot be recycled with the bottle as they may be made of a different type of plastic. Polystyrene foam is generally not recyclable. This includes the spongy black foam trays that meat is often packaged and takeaway containers and hot drink cups. Recyclable & Non-Recyclable Plastics Plastic Waste Reuse Reduce Recycle PET Polyethylene terephthalate HDPE High-density polyethylene PVC Polyvinyl chloride LDPE Low density polyethylene PP Polypropylene PS Polystyrene Plastic Recycled Products It takes 25 two liter plastic bottles to make an adult fleece jacket. The rings from bottlenecks and six-pack holders need to be cut when you dispose of them to reduce harm to animals. The energy saved by recycling one plastic drink bottle will power a computer for 25 minutes. 4% of oil consumption in Europe is used for the manufacture of plastic products Recycling plastic saves twice energy than burning it in an incinerator. Plastic Recycling Facts CONCLUSION In summary, recycling is one strategy for end-of-life waste management of plastic products. It makes increasing sense economically as well as environmentally and recent trends demonstrate a substantial increase in the rate of recovery and recycling of plastic wastes. These trends are likely to continue, but some significant challenges still exist from both technological factors and from economic issues relating to the collection of recyclable wastes, and substitution for virgin material. Recycling of a wider range of post-consumer plastic packaging will further enable improvement in recovery rates of plastic waste and diversion from landfills. Therefore, recycling of waste plastics is an effective way to improve the environmental performance of the polymer industry. 1. Recycling of Plastic Bottles: Bangladesh Perspectives/M. Serajul Islam, Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, BUET/Engineering News, IEB/Sept-Oct 2002. 2. UNEP, Marine Litter: A Global Challenge (2009)/ www.unep.org/publications/search/ pub_details_s.asp?ID=4021 3. Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. www.environment.gov.au 4. Recycle now, www.recyclenow.com/why_recyclin g_matters.html 5. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities: Jefferson Hopewell, Robert Dvorak & Edward Kosior. 6. Fisher M. 2003. Plastics recycling, In Plastics and the environment (ed. Andrady A., editor. ), pp. 563–627 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Inter science. 7. Shaxson L. 2009. Structuring policy problems for plastics, the environment and human health: reflections from the UK. Phil. Trans. R. Sc. B 364, 2141– 2151 (doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0283) 8. Fletcher B., Mackay M. 1996. A model of plastics recycling: does recycling reduce the amount of waste? Resour. Conserv. Recycling 17, 141–151 (doi:10.1016/0921-3449(96)01068-3) 9. Plastic Recycling-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_recycling References Md. Mezbah Uddin Shafiul Munir Tanvir Ahmed Authors Plastic Recycling: Choice is yours- Save it or Waste it !

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