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Orientation: Human Resource Environment


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Orientation: Human Resource Environment

  1. 1. 1 Orientation: Human Resource Environment Presented By: Muhammad Shafiq ur Rehman Reg: Sp11/MBA-006/Atk Comsats Institute of Information Technology
  2. 2. Introduction Human Resource Management: The policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes, and performance. Human Resource Development: A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands. Human resource management (HRM) encompasses many functions. Human resource development (HRD) is just one of the functions within HRM.
  3. 3. Human Resource Management Practices
  4. 4. Impact of Human Resource Management
  5. 5. Responsibilities of HR Departments
  6. 6. Supervisors’ Involvement in HRM
  7. 7. Role of HRM Every organization is comprised of people. Acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of performance and maintain their commitments. Organizational goals cannot be achieved without human resources. People – not buildings, equipments, or brand names – make a company. The role of human resource managers has changed. HRM jobs today require a new level of sophistication. – Jobs have become more technical and skilled. – Traditional job boundaries have become unclear with the beginning of such things as project teams and telecommuting. – Global competition has increased demands for productivity.
  8. 8. High-Performance Work Systems HRM is playing an important role in helping organization’s gain and keep an advantage over competitors by becoming high-performance work systems. Organizations must make full use of their people’s knowledge and skill, to meet customer demands for high quality and customized products. • Organizations that have the best possible fit between their: – social system (people and how they interact); and – technical system (equipment and processes). • Key trends occurring in today’s high-performance work systems: – reliance on knowledge workers – the empowerment of employees to make decisions – the use of teamwork
  9. 9. Strategic Business Issues Affecting HRM
  10. 10. The Nature of the Employment Relationship is Changing • The employment relationship takes the form of a “psychological contract” that describes what employees and employers expect from the employment relationship. • In the traditional version, organizations expected employees to contribute time, effort, skills, abilities, and loyalty in exchange for job security and opportunities for promotion. • Today, organizations are requiring top performance and longer work hours but cannot provide job security. • Instead, employees are looking for: flexible work schedules, comfortable working conditions, greater autonomy, opportunities for training and development, performance- related financial incentives • This requires planning for flexible staffing levels.
  11. 11. 11 HR Development The need of HRD has become even stronger as organizations grapple with the challenge presented by a fast-paced, highly dynamic, and increasingly global economy. To compete and thrive, many organizations including employee education, training, and development as an important and effective part of their organizational strategy. HRD activities begin when an employees join an organization and continue throughout his or her career, regardless of whether that employee is an executive or a worker. Evolution of HRD: Early Apprenticeship Programs, Vocational Education Programs, Factory Schools, Training for unskilled/semiskilled
  12. 12. 12 Human Relations Movement Factory system often abused workers “Human Relations” movement promoted better working conditions. It provided a more complex and realistic understanding of workers as people instead of merely ‘cogs’ in a factory machine. Start of business & management education Tied to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. He proposed that human needs are arranged in terms of lesser to greater potency. The varied needs and desires of workers can become important sources of motivation in the place. Emergence of HRD: During the 1960s and 1970s, Employee needs extend beyond the training classroom. Includes coaching, group work, and problem solving. Need for basic employee & structured career development
  13. 13. 13 HRD Functions Training and development (T&D) Organizational development Career development
  14. 14. 14 Training and Development Training – improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees for the short-term, particular to a specific job or task – e.g.,  Employee orientation: Basic orientation about job responsibility  Skills & Technical Training: To teach the new employee a particular skill or area of knowledge  Coaching: It involves treating employees as partners in achieving both personal and organizational goals.  Counseling: To help employees deal with personal problems that may interfere with the achievement of these goals
  15. 15. 15 Training and Development Development – preparing for future responsibilities, while increasing the capacity to perform at a current job  Management training  Supervisor development
  16. 16. 16 Organizational Development The process of improving an organization’s effectiveness and member’s well-being through the application of behavioral science concepts Focuses on both macro- and micro- levels HRD plays the role of a change agent
  17. 17. 17 Career Development Ongoing process by which individuals progress through series of changes until they achieve their personal level of maximum achievement.  Career Planning: It involves activities performed by an individual, often with the assistance of counselors to assess his/her skills and abilities in order to establish a realistic career plan.  Career Management: It involves taking the necessary steps to achieve that plan.
  18. 18. 18 Challenges for HRD Changing workforce demographics Competing in global economy Eliminating the skills gap Need for lifelong learning Need for organizational learning
  19. 19. 19 Competing in the Global Economy New technologies Need for more skilled and educated workers Cultural sensitivity required Team involvement Problem solving Better communications skills