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Physics ch 13

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Ch 13 Notes

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Physics ch 13

1. 1. States of Matter - Fluids Ch 13
2. 2. Pressure <ul><li>Force per unit area </li></ul><ul><li>P = F / A </li></ul><ul><li>units are N/m 2 = 1 Pascal (Pa) </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Pressure – pressure exerted by the air above us </li></ul><ul><li>At sea level the atmosperic pressure = </li></ul><ul><li>101300 Pa = 1 atm = 14.7 lb/in 2 = 760 mmHg </li></ul>
3. 3. Pascal’s Principle <ul><li>Pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount </li></ul><ul><li>F 1 /A 1 = F 2 /A 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Hydraulic Jack </li></ul>
4. 4. Density <ul><li>Ratio of mass to volume of a substance </li></ul><ul><li>ρ =m/v </li></ul><ul><li>Units are kg/m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Density of water is 1 g/cm3 (1000 kg/m 3 ) </li></ul>
5. 5. Fluid Pressure <ul><li>The pressure exerted by a fluid is the weight density of the fluid times the depth </li></ul><ul><li>P = ρ g h </li></ul>
6. 6. Bernoulli’s Principle <ul><li>As the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Airplane wing </li></ul>
7. 7. Archimedes’ Principle <ul><li>The buoyant force on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that object. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Cases </li></ul><ul><li>If the object floats (it is less dense than the fluid) then the buoyant force equals the weight of the object; F B = m o g </li></ul><ul><li>If the object sinks then the buoyant force equals the weight of the fluid displaced; F B = ρ F g V </li></ul>
8. 8. Building Upon Archimedes’ Principle <ul><li>If the weight is greater than the buoyant force the object will sink. </li></ul><ul><li>The apparent weight in the fluid can be found as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>W app = W o – F buoyant </li></ul><ul><li>If the object is floating the percentage submerged below the fluid surface can be found as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>% Submerged = (  ) object X 100 (  ) fluid </li></ul>