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Cannabis: The Insider's Guide to The World's Most Popular Drug.

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Cannabis: The Insider's Guide to The World's Most Popular Drug.

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Everything you need to know about cannabis, including CBD and THC, in an easy-to-understand guide.

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  1. 1. The Insider's Guide to The World's Most Popular Drug. CANNABIS
  2. 2. CANNABIS: THE FACTS Also known as marijuana. The cannabis plant has two main subspecies: Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa. Chemical components of cannabis are called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are chemicals in cannabis that cause drug-like effects throughout the body. The main psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis is delta-9-THC, known more simply as THC. Another active cannabinoid is cannabidiol, more commonly called CBD. CBD does not have a psychoactive effect, meaning it does not make you feel "high." Indica-dominant strains of cannabis have higher CBD content than sativa plants. Sativa-dominant strains have higher THC content than indica plants. There are hundreds of different chemical entities in cannabis. Over 90 are cannabinoids.
  3. 3. DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL (THC) Also known as THC, this is the cannabinoid that makes you "high" THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM When THC enters the body, it acts upon the endocannabinoid system, an important neurotransmitter system. This system is widely distributed in your brain and body, including most glands and organs. The existence of the endocannabinoid system was confirmed fairly recently (in 1992) and we do not yet have a complete understanding of all its functions. What we do know is that the endocannabinoid system helps regulate the neuronal, vascular, metabolic, immune, and reproductory systems. THC EFFECTS THC is best known as the compound in marijuana that makes you feel high. But it also has several other efffects on the body. It has been shown to be an effective muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant, and has some neuroprotective properties. THC has been used successfully as a sedative and antiemetic. THC has also been shown effective in slowing down gastrointestinal movements, increasing appetite, and reducing intraocular pressure.
  4. 4. CANNABIDIOL (CBD) An emerging therapeutic wonder drug that doesn't cause the "high" of THC A WONDER DRUG? PROBABLY. CBD is a promising drug for the treatment of a number of disorders. Initial studies show CBD has beneficial effects for the management of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. CBD also seems to improve cognition and neurogenesis, while having antipsychotic, anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), and antidepressant-like effects. Along with its many benefits, CBD use seems to lack any serious adverse consequences, making it a "wonder drug" of sorts. POORLY REGULATED Decriminalization of cannabis and an evolving regulatory landscape means unscrupulous sellers of CBD are free to operate alongside honest vendors. Some CBD products are marketed with unproven medical claims. CBD has NOT been studied extensively, and we don't know much about its long-term effects on the body. While it lacks potential as a drug of abuse, CBD may possibly injure the liver over time. Furthermore, we don't know if CBD has any long-term effects on special populations (e.g., children).
  5. 5. OTHER KNOWN CANNABINOIDS CBN is the product of delta-9-THC oxidation, and increases as THC degrades in storage. CBN has some therapeutic potential in diseases where cannabinoid receptors are upregulated. Cannabinol (CBN) Delta-8-THC is derived from the isomerization of delta-9-THC (THC), and is considered more stable and less expensive than THC. Delta-8-THC This is a non- psychotropic cannabinoid with some anti-proliferative (inhibits cell growth) and antibacterial activity. Cannabigerol (CBG) CBC is structurally similar to CBD and THC, but is considered much more toxic. CBC seems to exhibit some anti- inflammatory effects. Cannabi- chromene (CBC)
  6. 6. Cannabinoid Consumption Cannabinoids, like THC and CBD, can be taken by mouth, inhaled, or sprayed under the tongue.
  7. 7. BIOAVAILABILITY OF CANNABINOIDS Cannabis products can be taken by mouth through many forms, including pills, "infused" food items, and as oils. Bioavailability through this method is low; roughly 6%, likely as a result of first-pass metabolism. ORAL Cannabis can also be inhaled, by smoking or vaporizing ("vaping"). Bioavailability through this route is about 31%. INHALATION First-pass metabolism reduces drug uptake by first destroying them in the gut, and then in the liver, before they reach the bloodstream. To reduce this effect, cannabinoids are often sprayed under the tongue or inside the cheek, which allows it to absorb directly into the mouth. SUBLINGUAL
  8. 8. BUY SMART. USE SMART. Manufacturers often dilute CBD and THC to keep consumers from taking too much at one time. Because of this, you will need to calculate dosage and measure the right amounts each time you buy a new product. Determine purity. Unscrupulous manufacturers often purposefully confuse consumers with obscure terms and complicated measurements. If it sounds like nonsense, it probably is: find a vendor who makes things clear and easy to understand. Be a smart consumer. Guidelines for Epidiolex, a pure CBD solution, calls for starting at 2.5mg per kilogram of bodyweight, twice a day. After a week, this can be increased to 5mg/kg twice a day. This is CBD's starting dose. Taking more than 600mg of CBD at one time may induce psychotic effects. This is CBD's upper limit. 600mg2.5mg x2
  9. 9. Keep yourself safe. Research studies show that CBD is generally safe to use, though there are some caveats. CBD has not been studied extensively in special populations, like the elderly, in children, or in pregnant women. We have no idea what the long-term effects of routine CBD use will be in these populations. CBD quality is also poorly regulated. A 2017 analysis of CBD content in liquid vape, oil, and tincture products sold online revealed that 69% of these products were mislabeled. It is possible to buy a product labeled as "pure CBD" with little or no CBD in it. CBD USAGE WARNINGS
  10. 10. ABOUT SHADOW FOUNDRY Shadow Foundry is a long-term technology and venture partner for visionary startups. We believe cannabinoids can bring about revolutionary change in the healthcare industry, including driving down sky-high drug prices. We strongly support the cannabis community, and invest in them through sound, science-based educational materials that help consumers avoid fraud and abuse in the marketplace. We believe in transparency and accountability. Please feel free to share this guide with your doctor or other medical professional to vet its accuracy. Download this, any time, for free: https://shadowfoundry.io/downloads WE BUILD CANNABIS TECHNOLOGY
  11. 11. SOURCES Almeida, V., Levin, R., Peres, F.F., Niigaki, S.T., Calzavara, M.B., Zuardi, A.W., et al. (2013). Cannabidiol exhibits anxiolytic but not antipsychotic property as evaluated in the social interaction test. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 41, 30-35. Appendino, G., Chianese, G., & Taglialatela-Scafati, O. (2011). Cannabinoids: occurence and medicinal chemistry. Current Medical Chemistry 18, 1085-1099. Bonn-Miller, M.O., Loflin, M.J.E., Thomas, B.F., Marcu, J.P., Hyke, T.; Vandrey, R. (2017). Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA 318(17), 1708. Pauldel, K.S., Hammell, D.C., Agu, R.U., Valiveti, S., Stinchcomb, A.L. (2010). Cannabidiol bioavailability after nasal and transdermal application: effect of permeation enhancers. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 36(9), 1088-1097. Pisanti, S., Maltano, A.M., Ciaglia, E., Lamberti, A., Ranieri, R., Cuomo, G., et al. (2017). Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmathera.2017.02.041 Volkow, N.D., Baler, R.D., Compton, W.M., Weiss, S.R.B. (2014). Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use. New England Journal of Medicine 370(23), 2219-2227. Welty, T.E., Luebke, A., Gidal, B.E. (2014). Cannabidiol: Promise and Pitfalls. Epilepsy Currents 14, 250-252. Whiting, P.F., Wolff, R.F., Deshpande, S., Di Nisio, M., Duffy, S., Hernandez, A.V., et al. (2015). Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24), 2456-2473.
  12. 12. MAKE THIS BETTER This guide was produced to help you. If there are any specific changes you think would make this better, please let us know so we can add them to future versions: mail@ShadowFoundry.io

Description

Everything you need to know about cannabis, including CBD and THC, in an easy-to-understand guide.

Transcript

  1. 1. The Insider's Guide to The World's Most Popular Drug. CANNABIS
  2. 2. CANNABIS: THE FACTS Also known as marijuana. The cannabis plant has two main subspecies: Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa. Chemical components of cannabis are called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are chemicals in cannabis that cause drug-like effects throughout the body. The main psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis is delta-9-THC, known more simply as THC. Another active cannabinoid is cannabidiol, more commonly called CBD. CBD does not have a psychoactive effect, meaning it does not make you feel "high." Indica-dominant strains of cannabis have higher CBD content than sativa plants. Sativa-dominant strains have higher THC content than indica plants. There are hundreds of different chemical entities in cannabis. Over 90 are cannabinoids.
  3. 3. DELTA-9-TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL (THC) Also known as THC, this is the cannabinoid that makes you "high" THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM When THC enters the body, it acts upon the endocannabinoid system, an important neurotransmitter system. This system is widely distributed in your brain and body, including most glands and organs. The existence of the endocannabinoid system was confirmed fairly recently (in 1992) and we do not yet have a complete understanding of all its functions. What we do know is that the endocannabinoid system helps regulate the neuronal, vascular, metabolic, immune, and reproductory systems. THC EFFECTS THC is best known as the compound in marijuana that makes you feel high. But it also has several other efffects on the body. It has been shown to be an effective muscle relaxant and anti-convulsant, and has some neuroprotective properties. THC has been used successfully as a sedative and antiemetic. THC has also been shown effective in slowing down gastrointestinal movements, increasing appetite, and reducing intraocular pressure.
  4. 4. CANNABIDIOL (CBD) An emerging therapeutic wonder drug that doesn't cause the "high" of THC A WONDER DRUG? PROBABLY. CBD is a promising drug for the treatment of a number of disorders. Initial studies show CBD has beneficial effects for the management of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. CBD also seems to improve cognition and neurogenesis, while having antipsychotic, anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), and antidepressant-like effects. Along with its many benefits, CBD use seems to lack any serious adverse consequences, making it a "wonder drug" of sorts. POORLY REGULATED Decriminalization of cannabis and an evolving regulatory landscape means unscrupulous sellers of CBD are free to operate alongside honest vendors. Some CBD products are marketed with unproven medical claims. CBD has NOT been studied extensively, and we don't know much about its long-term effects on the body. While it lacks potential as a drug of abuse, CBD may possibly injure the liver over time. Furthermore, we don't know if CBD has any long-term effects on special populations (e.g., children).
  5. 5. OTHER KNOWN CANNABINOIDS CBN is the product of delta-9-THC oxidation, and increases as THC degrades in storage. CBN has some therapeutic potential in diseases where cannabinoid receptors are upregulated. Cannabinol (CBN) Delta-8-THC is derived from the isomerization of delta-9-THC (THC), and is considered more stable and less expensive than THC. Delta-8-THC This is a non- psychotropic cannabinoid with some anti-proliferative (inhibits cell growth) and antibacterial activity. Cannabigerol (CBG) CBC is structurally similar to CBD and THC, but is considered much more toxic. CBC seems to exhibit some anti- inflammatory effects. Cannabi- chromene (CBC)
  6. 6. Cannabinoid Consumption Cannabinoids, like THC and CBD, can be taken by mouth, inhaled, or sprayed under the tongue.
  7. 7. BIOAVAILABILITY OF CANNABINOIDS Cannabis products can be taken by mouth through many forms, including pills, "infused" food items, and as oils. Bioavailability through this method is low; roughly 6%, likely as a result of first-pass metabolism. ORAL Cannabis can also be inhaled, by smoking or vaporizing ("vaping"). Bioavailability through this route is about 31%. INHALATION First-pass metabolism reduces drug uptake by first destroying them in the gut, and then in the liver, before they reach the bloodstream. To reduce this effect, cannabinoids are often sprayed under the tongue or inside the cheek, which allows it to absorb directly into the mouth. SUBLINGUAL
  8. 8. BUY SMART. USE SMART. Manufacturers often dilute CBD and THC to keep consumers from taking too much at one time. Because of this, you will need to calculate dosage and measure the right amounts each time you buy a new product. Determine purity. Unscrupulous manufacturers often purposefully confuse consumers with obscure terms and complicated measurements. If it sounds like nonsense, it probably is: find a vendor who makes things clear and easy to understand. Be a smart consumer. Guidelines for Epidiolex, a pure CBD solution, calls for starting at 2.5mg per kilogram of bodyweight, twice a day. After a week, this can be increased to 5mg/kg twice a day. This is CBD's starting dose. Taking more than 600mg of CBD at one time may induce psychotic effects. This is CBD's upper limit. 600mg2.5mg x2
  9. 9. Keep yourself safe. Research studies show that CBD is generally safe to use, though there are some caveats. CBD has not been studied extensively in special populations, like the elderly, in children, or in pregnant women. We have no idea what the long-term effects of routine CBD use will be in these populations. CBD quality is also poorly regulated. A 2017 analysis of CBD content in liquid vape, oil, and tincture products sold online revealed that 69% of these products were mislabeled. It is possible to buy a product labeled as "pure CBD" with little or no CBD in it. CBD USAGE WARNINGS
  10. 10. ABOUT SHADOW FOUNDRY Shadow Foundry is a long-term technology and venture partner for visionary startups. We believe cannabinoids can bring about revolutionary change in the healthcare industry, including driving down sky-high drug prices. We strongly support the cannabis community, and invest in them through sound, science-based educational materials that help consumers avoid fraud and abuse in the marketplace. We believe in transparency and accountability. Please feel free to share this guide with your doctor or other medical professional to vet its accuracy. Download this, any time, for free: https://shadowfoundry.io/downloads WE BUILD CANNABIS TECHNOLOGY
  11. 11. SOURCES Almeida, V., Levin, R., Peres, F.F., Niigaki, S.T., Calzavara, M.B., Zuardi, A.W., et al. (2013). Cannabidiol exhibits anxiolytic but not antipsychotic property as evaluated in the social interaction test. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 41, 30-35. Appendino, G., Chianese, G., & Taglialatela-Scafati, O. (2011). Cannabinoids: occurence and medicinal chemistry. Current Medical Chemistry 18, 1085-1099. Bonn-Miller, M.O., Loflin, M.J.E., Thomas, B.F., Marcu, J.P., Hyke, T.; Vandrey, R. (2017). Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA 318(17), 1708. Pauldel, K.S., Hammell, D.C., Agu, R.U., Valiveti, S., Stinchcomb, A.L. (2010). Cannabidiol bioavailability after nasal and transdermal application: effect of permeation enhancers. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 36(9), 1088-1097. Pisanti, S., Maltano, A.M., Ciaglia, E., Lamberti, A., Ranieri, R., Cuomo, G., et al. (2017). Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmathera.2017.02.041 Volkow, N.D., Baler, R.D., Compton, W.M., Weiss, S.R.B. (2014). Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use. New England Journal of Medicine 370(23), 2219-2227. Welty, T.E., Luebke, A., Gidal, B.E. (2014). Cannabidiol: Promise and Pitfalls. Epilepsy Currents 14, 250-252. Whiting, P.F., Wolff, R.F., Deshpande, S., Di Nisio, M., Duffy, S., Hernandez, A.V., et al. (2015). Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24), 2456-2473.
  12. 12. MAKE THIS BETTER This guide was produced to help you. If there are any specific changes you think would make this better, please let us know so we can add them to future versions: mail@ShadowFoundry.io

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