Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 The Rise of Christianity Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Christianity and Judaism • Jesus of Nazareth • The Spread of Christianity • Map: The Spread of Christianity • The Early Christian Church
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 The Rise of Christianity Main Idea A new religion called Christianity developed within the Roman Empire and gradually spread throughout the Roman world. Reading Focus • How was Christianity rooted in the teachings of Judaism? • What were the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth? • How did Christianity spread throughout the Roman world? • What was the early Christian Church like?
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Christianity and Judaism Judaism in the Roman World Roman Compromise • Teachings of Jesus of Nazareth • Jews had to pay tribute to developed into new religion— Romans but unwilling to Christianity abandon religion for polytheistic religion of Romans • Many of teachings rooted in beliefs, customs of Judaism • Roman leaders allowed Jews to practice religion as long as they • 63 BC, Romans conquered paid tribute, maintained civic Judaea, chose new ruler for order region, installed him as king
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Judaism in the Roman World Reactions to Roman Rule • Judaism had different branches, varying ideas on cooperation with Romans • Zealots called on fellow Jews to drive Romans from Judaea, reestablish Kingdom of Israel Zealots • Zealots formed pockets of resistance against Romans of Judaea • After mass uprising AD 66–70, Romans sacked Jerusalem, killed thousands of Jews, destroyed Second Temple Messianic Prophecies • After revolt in 130s, all Jews banned from Jerusalem • Not all Jews willing to take up arms; others waited coming of Messiah— spiritual leader prophesied to restore ancient kingdom, bring peace to world
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Make Generalizations What were two Jewish reactions to Roman rule? Answer(s): refused to give up religion; Zealots wanted to rise up against Roman rule
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Jesus of Nazareth Against this background, a spiritual leader named Jesus of Nazareth emerged, teaching people to prepare for God’s Judgment Day. Life Preaching • Nearly all knowledge of Jesus • Jesus preached message of comes from Gospels—first four renewal and warning books of New Testament • Gathered group of disciples • New Testament and books of • Created excitement by Hebrew Bible make up today’s performing miracles of healing; Christian Bible defending poor, oppressed • Jesus born in Bethlehem, near • Instructed people to repent of Jerusalem sins, seek God’s forgiveness • Learned carpentry, studied • Must love God above all, love writings of Jewish prophets others as much as self
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Death and Resurrection Jesus’s popularity, crowds alarmed authorities who feared political uprisings • Jesus arrested, tried, sentenced to death • According to New Testament, after crucifixion – Jesus rose from dead – Spent 40 days teaching disciples – Ascended into heaven • Followers believed Resurrection, Ascension revealed Jesus as the Messiah
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Summarize What was the main message of Jesus’s teaching? Answer(s): Followers must love God above all else, and love others as they loved themselves.
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 The Spread of Christianity After Jesus’s death, his disciples began teaching that all people could achieve salvation—the forgiveness of sins and the promise of everlasting life. Apostles Paul of Tarsus Conversion • Jesus’s 12 • Paul, originally • Paul had disciples worked known as Saul, conversion on way to spread message born in Tarsus, in to Damascus, Asia Minor became Christian • Earliest Christian missionaries • Had actively • If not for his work, opposed those Christianity might • Apostles traveled teaching that Jesus have remained a widely, teaching was the Messiah branch of Judaism mostly in Jewish communities
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Converting the Gentiles • Paul believed God sent him to convert non-Jews, or Gentiles • Paul helped make Christianity broader religion, attracted many new followers • Helped establish Christian churches throughout eastern Mediterranean • Paul’s epistles, or letters, to those churches later became part of the New Testament Roman Christianity • Paul found some Jewish customs hindered missionary work among non- Jews, dispensed with those requirements for Christians • Paul emphasized new doctrines that helped distinguish Christianity from Judaism • Christianity spread; message of love, eternal life after death found appealing • By AD 300, some 10 percent of Roman people were Christian
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Persecution Results • As Christianity spread through Roman world, some local officials feared Christians conspiring against them; arrested, killed many Christians • Those killed seen by Christians as martyrs, people who die for their faith Threat • Christians persecuted at local level, but large-scale persecution rare during first two centuries after Jesus’s life • Large-scale persecution by Romans grew as rulers saw Christianity as threat Imperial Approval • Spread of Christianity hastened by conversion of emperor Constantine • AD 313, Constantine made Christianity legal within empire, Edict of Milan • By late 300s, polytheism gradually disappeared from empire
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Find the Main Idea What helped spread Christianity through the Roman world? Answer(s): Paul of Tarsus and other disciples; Constantine’s conversion; outlawing of public non- Christian sacrifices by Theodosius
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 The Early Christian Church Communities Complex • Earliest Christian churches not • Support included burial only spiritual organizations but services, food, shelter close-knit communities • Christianity grew; organization • Provided all kinds of support for became more complex members Deepening Faith Ceremonies • Ceremonies developed to • During Eucharist, people eat inspire people’s faith, make bread, drink wine in memory of them feel closer to Jesus Jesus’s death, resurrection • One ceremony was Eucharist • With baptism, people are admitted to the faith
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Expansion of the Church By about 100, priests who were trained in these ceremonies became prominent within Christianity. The authority of the priests was based on the authority Jesus gave the Apostles. This spiritual authority distinguished the priests from the general congregation of the church. Administrative Structure Peter the Apostle • Church expanded, developed • Many believed Peter founded administrative structure Roman Church, was first bishop • Bishop oversaw church affairs, had • Later bishops of Rome, popes, authority over other priests Peter’s spiritual heirs • 300s, heads of oldest • Gospel of Matthew: Jesus gives congregations, patriarchs, had Peter keys to kingdom of heaven authority over other bishops • Therefore future popes inherit keys Patriarchs did not recognize the popes’ supremacy claims at first, but over time popes gained more influence within the Christian Church.
Rome and Early Christianity Section 4 Summarize How did the Christian Church change as it grew? Answer(s): Special ceremonies and rituals developed; priests became a special class within Christianity; bishops had authority over priests; the bishop of Rome became a pope.