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Laurie baker, the brick master of Kerala

About the brick master of Kerala, "LAURIE BAKER"

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Laurie baker, the brick master of Kerala

  1. 1. : :
  2. 2.  LAURIE BAKERWAS AN AWARD-WINNING BRITISH-BORN INDIAN ARCHITECT, RENOWNED FOR HIS INITIATIVES IN COST-EFFECTIVE ENERGY-EFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE AND FOR HIS UNIQUE SPACE UTILIZATION AND SIMPLE BUT BEAUTIFUL AESTHETIC SENSIBILITY. IN TIME HE MADE A NAME FOR HIMSELF BOTH IN SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AS WELL AS IN ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE.  HE WENT TO INDIA IN 1945 IN PART AS A MISSIONARY AND SINCE THEN LIVED AND WORKED IN INDIA FOR OVER 50 YEARS. HE OBTAINED INDIAN CITIZENSHIP IN 1989 AND RESIDED IN TRIVANDRUM, KERALA, SINCE 1970, WHERE HE LATER SET UP AN ORGANIZATION CALLED COSTFORD (CENTRE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT), FOR SPREADING AWARENESS FOR LOW COST HOUSING.
  3. 3. • BAKER STUDIEDARCHITECTURE AT BIRMINGHAM INSTITUTE OF ART AND DESIGN AND GRADUATED IN 1937, AGE 20. • HIS INITIAL COMMITMENT TO INDIA HAD HIM WORKING AS AN ARCHITECT FOR WORLD LEPROSY MISSION, AN INTERNATIONAL AND INTERDENOMINATIONAL MISSION DEDICATED TO THE CARE OF THOSE SUFFERING FROM LEPROSY IN 1945. • AS NEW MEDICINES FOR THE TREATMENT OF THE DISEASE WERE BECOMING MORE PREVALENT, HIS RESPONSIBILITIES WERE FOCUSED ON CONVERTING OR REPLACINGASYLUMS ONCE USED TO HOUSE THE OSTRACIZED SUFFERERS OF THE DISEASE - "LEPERS".
  4. 4.  BAKER FOUND HIS ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION EDUCATION TO BE INADEQUATE FOR THE TYPES OF ISSUES AND MATERIALS HE HAS FACED WITH TERMITES AND THE EARLY MONSOON AS WELL AS LATERITE COW DUNG AND MUD WALLS  BAKER HAD NO CHOICE BUT TO OBSERVE AND LEARN FROM THE METHODS AND PRACTICES OF THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE.  HE SOON LEARNED THAT THE INDIGENOUS ARCHITECTURE AND METHODS OF THESE PLACES WERE IN FACT THE ONLY VIABLE MEANS TO DEAL WITH HIS ONCE DAUNTING PROBLEMS.  INSPIRED BY HIS DISCOVERIES HE BEGAN TO TURN HIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE TOWARDS ONE THAT RESPECTED THE ACTUAL CULTURE AND NEEDS OF THOSE WHO WOULD ACTUALLY USE HIS BUILDINGS, RATHER THAN JUST PLAYING TO THE MORE "MODERNISTIC" TUNES OF HIS PAYING CLIENTS.
  5. 5.  1938 ASSOCIATE OF THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS.  1970 FELLOWOF INDIAN INSTITUTE OFARCHITECTS  1983 MEMBER OF BRITISH EMPIRE.  1987 FIRST INDIAN NATIONAL HABITATAWARD  1989 I.I.A. MEDAL FOR OUTSTANDING ARCHITECT OF THE YEAR  1990 GREAT MASTERS ARCHITECT OF THE YEAR. PADMASHREE  1992 U.N.O. HABITATS AWARD U.N. ROLL OF HONOR  1993 INTERNATIONAL UNION OFARCHITECTS (I.U.A.) AWARD  1994 PEOPLE OF THE YEAR AWARD I.I.A. BABU RAO MAITRE GOLD MEDAL  1995 DOCTORATE OF UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ENGLAND.  2003 BASHEER PURASKARAM.
  6. 6.  “ A SITE IS IDEAL ONLY IN THE UNDISTURBED NATURAL STATE AND A BUILDING MUST RENEW AND REINFORCE THE ORIGINAL SITE CONDITIONS IN ORDER TO BE ACCOMMODATED”  “ THE ARCHITECTURE SHOULD MERGE WITH THE SURROUNDING LANDSCAPE, RATHER THAN STANDING OUT. IT SHOULD NOT BE IN COMPETITION WITH THE NATURE, BUT IN HARMONY WITH IT”  “ THE ARCHITECTURE AT A PLACE SHOULD BE RESPONSIVE TO THE CLIMATE, CONTEXT AND THE AVAILABLE RESOURCES – IT SHOULD BE FOR THE PEOPLE, THEIR NEEDS AND HOPES, IRRESPECTIVE OF TREND OR STYLE".  “ THE OUTER FORM ALONE IS MEANINGLESS, IT HAS TO BE COMPLEMENTED OR OVERSHADOWED BY THE INNER CONTENTS SINCE, THE SPATIAL EXPERIENCE OF AN INHABITANT IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN PURE VISUAL FORMS” .
  7. 7. ONLY ACCEPT A REASONABLE BRIEF AND ONE WHICH YOU THINK YOU ARE CAPABLE OF CARRYING THROUGH. DISCOURAGE EXTRAVAGANCE & SNOBBERY AND DON’T TAKE ON A JOB WHICH IS EITHER.  ALWAYS STUDY YOUR SITE , SOIL, TOPOGRAPHY, WATER CLIMATE & NEIGHBOURS (NOISY TEMPLES, SMELLY FACTORIES, ETC)  SEE POTENTIAL SERVICES –WATER, DRAINAGE, ACCESS, POWER, FUEL, PHONE, ETC. IF NOT POSSIBLE OR AVAILABLE, WHAT WILL YOU DO?  YOU, YOURSELF, GET ACCURATE DETAILS OF THE SITE, WITH IN-SITU FACTS SUCH AS TREES, ROCKS, A WELL, WIND & RAIN DIRECTIONS  EVERY BUILDING SHOULD BE UNIQUE NO TWO PEOPLE, OR FAMILIES ETC ARE ALIKE, SO WHY SHOULD THEIR HOMES ALL BE THE SAME?
  8. 8.  STUDY & KNOW LOCAL MATERIALS – THEIR AVAILABILITY, PERFORMANCE, COSTS, TECHNIQUES & WORKMEN WHO KNOW HOW TO USE THEM.  STUDY & KNOW ENERGY USED IN THE MANUFACTURE & TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS, AVOIDING USING ENERGY INTENSIVE MATERIALS WHERE POSSIBLE.  BUILDING CODES ARE ADVISORY & NOT MANDATORY! READ THE FIRST CHAPTERS OF OUR NATIONAL BUILDING CODE!  DON’T ROB NATIONAL RESOURCES & DO NOT USE THEM EXTRAVAGANTLY OR UNNECESSARILY  BE HONEST & TRUTHFUL IN DESIGN & MATERIAL USAGE, CONSTRUCTION, COSTS, AND ABOUT YOUR OWN MISTAKES!
  9. 9. GET YOUR CONSCIENCE OUT OF DEEP FREEZE & USE IT. LET ALL YOU DO BE HONEST & TRUTHFUL – NOT ONLY YOUR BUILDINGS. LOOK CLOSELY AT YOUR OWN PREJUDICES. QUESTION THEM AND SEE IF THEY ARE STILL JUSTIFIABLE. HAVE FAITH IN YOUR OWN CONVICTIONS & HAVE COURAGE TO STICK TO THEM – BUT RESPECT THOSE OF OTHER PEOPLE. MAKE COST-EFFICIENCY YOUR WAY OF LIFE – NOT MERELY “LOW COST FOR THE POOR”. PRACTICE WHAT YOU PREACH. KEEP YOUR INFORMATION & KNOWLEDGE ‘UP-TO-DATE’, BUT MAKE SURE THE LATEST ‘FASHIONS’ ARE BETTER THAN ESTABLISHED WAYS BEFORE CHANGING. DON’T DO THAT WHICH IS NOT NECESSARY. EXPLAIN THIS TO YOUR CLIENTS WHEN YOU THINK THEIR DEMANDS ETC. ARE NOT NECESSARY
  10. 10. AVOID OPULENCE & ‘SHOWING OFF’, & DON’T USE CURRENTLY FASHIONABLE GIMMICKS ABOVE ALL USE COMMON SENSE (I THINK YOU HAD BETTER NOT ASK ME WHAT ‘COMMON SENSE’ IS!) & HAVE FUN IN DESIGNING. TRIM YOUR DRAWINGS, STAFF, EQUIPMENT, TRAVEL & TRANSPORT, PAPER & EXPENSES
  11. 11.  ONE OF HIS INFLUENCES HAS BEEN MAHATMA GANDHI, FOR HIM PROPER DEVELOPMENT CAN BE DONE IF RAW MATERIAL IS BROUGHT FROM A PLACE IN A RANGE OF 5-10 KMS.  HE CRITICIZED THE WORKS OF LE CORBUSIER, HIS STRUCTURES WERE CHARACTERLESS. LAURIE BAKER’S ARCHITECTURE WAS A CONTEMPORARY VERSION OF THE VERNACULAR.  ANOTHER INSPIRATION FOR HIM HAS BEEN ORDINARY MEN.
  12. 12. • THE DIRECT & HONEST USE OF LOCAL MATERIALS CREATED ITS OWN EXPRESSION OF STRUCTURAL NECESSITY, OF UNECONOMICAL RESTRAINT.CONFRONTED WITH BUILDING MATERIALS LIKE ROCK, MUD, LATERITE & COW DUNG, BAKER’S ARCHITECTURAL PRACTISE IN THE HIMALAYAS WAS ANYTHING BUT CONVENTIONAL. • ACCORDING TO HIM, THE HIMALAYAN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE WAS A PERFECT EXAMPLE OF VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE – SIMPLE, EFFICIENT & INEXPENSIVE. IT ALSO DEALT WITH INCIDENTAL DIFFICULT PROBLEMS OF HOW TO BUILD ON STEEPLY SLOPPING SITE.
  13. 13. • THE RIGOROUS QUAKER UPBRINGING, WITH ITS EMPHASIS ON SIMPLICITY & AUSTERITY, ITS REJECTION OF ALL ORNAMENT & LUXURY AS SINFUL SELF-INDULGENCE, WAS REINFORCED BY THE THEORY OF MODERNISM THAT WERE CURRENT DURING HIS ARCHITECTURAL TRAINING. • IN DESIGNING OBJECTS FINELY CONSTRUCTED & COMPLETE IN THEMSELVES, THERE IS A REFLECTION OF BAKER’S INTENSELY REALISED FAITH, HIS UNUSAL SET OF PRINCIPLES IMBIBED FROM THE LAWS & CUSTOMS OF HIS RELIGIOUS SECT.
  14. 14. • IN 1945 WHEN HE CAME TO INDIA , THE ATMOSPHERE WAS ENTIRELY DIFFERENT. • AT THAT TIME WEIGHTAGE WAS GIVEN TO TRADITIONAL STYLE BUILDINGS. • ARCHITECTS BELIEVED THAT MODERN MOVEMENT WOULD PROVIDE NEW MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES TO SERVE THE NEEDS OF PEOPLE • HIGH TECH BUILDINGS WOULD IMPROVE THE STANDARD OF LIVING FOR EVERYBODY • INDUSTRIALIZATION INCREASES THE DEMAND FOR HOUSING AND DOMINATED BY COMMERCIAL BUILDERS
  15. 15. • THEY RARELY CONSIDERED THE LIFESTYLE AND COMFORT • IT INCREASES THE GAP BETWEEN AVAILABLE RESOURCES AND NEED FOR HOUSING • THE MOST VISIBLE LINKS TO THE PAST ARE i. STYLIZED PEDIMENT ii. BLOATED KEYSTONE iii. FAKE CAPITALS AND COLUMNS • HE ALSO TAKES OPTIMUM BENEFITS THROUGH NEW BUILDING MATERIAL • THOUGH BAKER IS NOT THE FOUNDER, PRACTITIONER, OR PRODUCT OF MODERN DOCTRINE, HE DEMONSTRATED HIS OWN CONCERNS • EACH ONE SOUGHT THE DEVELOPMENT OF VERNACULAR – A COMMONLY OBSERVED , FELT AND ACCEPTED LANGUAGE, TO BE TRANSFORMED TO SUIT NEW REQUIREMENTS • SUCH A TRANSFORMATION REQUIRED A SHARP COMPREHENSION OF DUAL PHENOMENA OF TRADITION AND CHANGE • RE ESTABLISHED THE TRADITIONAL CONSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE ACTUAL IMITATION OF TRADITIONAL STYLES
  16. 16. • LATERITE AND BRICK WALLS REDUCED TO THE MINIMUM ENVELOPE REQUIRED FOR ENCLOSURE • IT MEANS THAT USE OF THESE MATERIAL STRIKES AN UNUSUAL COMPROMISE BETWEEN TRADITIONAL PRACTICES AND MODERN PRINCIPLE • BAKER’S WORK IS IN STARTLING CONTRAST TO THE PREVAILING ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICES • BUILDINGS ARE PRODUCED WITHOUT CORPORATE, REGIONAL OR HISTORIC IDENTITY • IT IS FROM THIS CLIMATE OF AESTHETIC UNCERTAINTY THAT ARCHITECTS HAVE SOUGHT RELIEF IN DECORATION AND POP-ICONOGRAPHY • BAKER USES THE QUALITIES OF RUGGED LIGHTNESS, IN COMBINATION WITH THE TERRACOTTA TILE ROOF IN STEAD OF CONCRETE • HIS WORK CAN BE VIEWED AS PART OF A MUCH LARGER WORLDWIDE EFFORT TO RE EXAMINE ARCHITECTURAL VALUES • ARCHITECTURAL PRIORITIES WHERE RE EXAMINED
  17. 17. A MAN WITHOUT BORDERS THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF BAKER ARCHITECTURE IS THAT “SMALL IS NOT ONLY BEAUTIFUL BUT IS OFTEN ESSENTIAL AND EVEN MORE IMPORTANT THAN LARGE STRUCTURES”
  18. 18. THROUGHOUT HIS PRACTICE, BAKER BECAME WELL KNOWN FOR DESIGNING AND BUILDING LOW COST, HIGH QUALITY, BEAUTIFUL HOMES, WITH A GREAT PORTION OF HIS WORK SUITED TO OR BUILT FOR LOWER-MIDDLE TO LOWER CLASS CLIENTS. HE DEVISED HIS OWN STYLE THAT HAD HIS SIGNATURE OF STRUCTURAL HONESTY, DESIGN INTEGRITY AND SUSTAINING QUALITY. HIS WORKS ARE AN ACT OF INITIATION FROM WITHIN NOT OF INSTIGATION.
  19. 19. • HE USES EXTREMELY ECONOMICAL PRACTICES WHICH TIME HAS PROVED TO BE GOOD EFFECTIVE AND DURABLE AND ALSO IT IS SENSIBLE TO USE ECONOMICALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS WHICH WOULD GIVE IT AN ORIGINAL CHARACTER TO THE ARCHITECTURE.
  20. 20. • HE DESIGNS EVERY HOUSE GIVING MINUTE DETAILS TO ALL THE CHARACTERS OF EACH PERSON LIVING IN THAT HOUSE. FOR EXAMPLE HE DESIGN AN OPENING OF BRICK WORK FOR THE PET IN THAT HOUSE. IN THE GIVEN PICTURE WE CAN SEE A DOG CRANING ITS NECK THROUGH THE OPENING AND GETS A 0.GOOD VIEW OF THE SURROUNDINGS.
  21. 21. THE LENGTH OF THE WALL ENCLOSING A GIVEN AREA IS SHORTER IF THE SHAPE IS CIRCULAR AND LONGER IN CASE OF SQUARE OR RECTANGLE. HE FOUND THAT CIRCLE AND CURVES INSTEAD OF SQUARES AND STRAIGHT LINE ARE THE SOLUTIONS FOR VARIOUS SPATIAL AND PLANNING PROBLEMS AND FOR COST REDUCTION.
  22. 22. IRREGULAR, PYRAMID-LIKE STRUCTURES ON ROOFS, WITH ONE SIDE LEFT OPEN AND TILTING INTO THE WIND. CURVED WALLS TO ENCLOSE MORE VOLUME AT LOWER MATERIAL COST THAN STRAIGHT WALLS
  23. 23. • HIS BUILDINGS TEND TO EMPHASIZE PROLIFIC - AT TIMES VIRTUOSIC - MASONRY CONSTRUCTION, INSTILLING PRIVACY AND EVOKING HISTORY WITH BRICK JALIWALLS, A PERFORATED BRICK SCREEN WHICH INVITES A NATURAL AIR FLOW TO COOL THE BUILDINGS' INTERIOR, IN ADDITION TO CREATING INTRICATE PATTERNS OF LIGHT AND SHADOW. • HE INTRODUCED DIFFERENT BRICK ARRANGING METHODS
  24. 24. ANOTHER SIGNIFICANT BAKER FEATURE IS IRREGULAR, PYRAMID-LIKE STRUCTURES ON ROOFS, WITH ONE SIDE LEFT OPEN AND TILTING INTO THE WIND. • BAKER'S DESIGNS INVARIABLY HAVE TRADITIONAL INDIAN SLOPING ROOFS AND TERRACOTTAM ANGALORE TILE • SHINGLING WITH GABLES AND VENTS ALLOWING RISING HOT AIR TO ESCAPE.
  25. 25. • COMPARTMENTS FOR MILK BOTTLES NEAR THE DOORSTEP, WINDOWSILLS THAT DOUBLE AS BENCH SURFACES, AND A HEAVY EMPHASIS ON TAKING CUES FROM THE NATURAL CONDITION OF THE SITE ARE JUST SOME EXAMPLES. • THIS SAVES CONSTRUCTION COST AS WELL, SINCE WORKING AROUND DIFFICULT SITE CONDITIONS IS MUCH MORE COST-EFFECTIVE. • INNOVATIVE BONDING TECHNIQUES FOR BRICK ALLOW BAKER TO BUILD WALLS OF ONLY A HALF-BRICK THICKNESS. IN MANY CASES THEY ARE STEPPED AND CURVED FOR ADDED RIGIDITY • INTERIORS ARE UMCOMPROMISINGLY DIRECT AND SIMPLE
  26. 26. • MODIFIED GLASS WINDOWS, FRAMES AND SILLS, ETC ARE OFTEN ELIMINATED PREFERRING SMALL OPENINGS IN BRICK, LIKE THE TRADITIONAL JALI
  27. 27. • VARIOUS FEATURES OF HIS WORK SUCH AS USING RECYCLED MATERIAL, NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONTROL AND FRUGALITY OF DESIGN MAY BE SEEN AS SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE OR GREEN BUILDING WITH ITS EMPHASIS ON SUSTAINABILITY. • BAKER CREATES A VARIETY OF TEXTURES AND PATTERNS BY SIMPLE MANIPULATION OF THE WAY IN WHICH BRICKS ARE PLACED IN THE WALL.
  28. 28. • BAKER CREATED A COOLING SYSTEM BY PLACING A HIGH, LATTICED, BRICK WALL NEAR A POND THAT USES AIR PRESSURE DIFFERENCES TO DRAW COOL AIR THROUGH THE BUILDING. • HIS RESPONSIVENESS TO NEVER-IDENTICAL SITE CONDITIONS QUITE OBVIOUSLY ALLOWED FOR THE VARIEGATION THAT PERMEATES HIS WORK.
  29. 29. • CONCRETE IS USED VERY SPARINGLY, OFTEN IN A FOLDED SLAB DESIGN WITH WASTE AND DISCARDED TILES USED AS FILTERS, THEREBY MAKING THE ROOF LIGHT AND INEXPENSIVE • TINY REGULAR OPENINGS IN WALL PRODUCING INTRICATE PATTERNS OF LIGHT AND SHADOW • JALI BECOMES THE TRUE VERNACULAR SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF THE WINDOW AND IT HAS AN ELEGANCE AND SIMPLICITY • IT CATCHES LIGHT AND AIR AND DIFFUSES GLARE WHILE ALLOWING FOR PRIVACY AND SECURITY – COMBINING THE FUNCTIONS OF A WINDOW AND VENTILATOR • IT ENCOURAGES AIR FLOW
  30. 30. • LOW SLOPED ROOFS AND COURTS SERVE AS WIND CATCHERS • OPEN WALLS FUNCTION TO DISPEL IT • LONG ROW OF HOUSING REPLACED BY EVEN STAGGERING • FRONTING COURTS CATCH THE BREEZE AND ALSO GET VIEW OF SEA
  31. 31.  THE DESIGN OF THE CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES DEMONSTRATES HOW BAKER IS ABLE TO TRANSFORM VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE TO SUIT THE REQUIREMENTS OF A MODERN ACADEMIC INSTITUION. THIS BUILDING CONSISTS OF ALL THE ELEMENTS CHARACTERISTIC OF BAKER’S STYLE :-  THE JALIS  THE TRADITIONAL ROOFS  THE STEPPED ARCHES  THE OVERHANGING EAVES  THE SKYLIGHTS
  32. 32. “I THINK IT’S A WASTE OF MONEY TO LEVEL A WELL MOULDED SITE” - LAURIE BAKER
  33. 33. LAURIE BAKER'S METHOD IS OF IMPROVISATION & HE NEVER HAD ANY DRAFTED PLANS RATHER HE LIKED TO IMPROVISE IN EVERY STAGE BAKER’S COMPREHENSION OF SPACE  CURVED JALI WALLS ARE DRAWN BY THE HAND, ON THE SPOT, AT THE SITE WITHOUT ANY SORT OF EQUIPMENT.  OPENINGS ARE DESIGNED AS THE WALL IS BEING BUILT, NICHES ARE CARVED IN AND CORNERS ARE DETAILED DURING THE PROCESS OF ACTUAL BUILDING.  HE BELIEVES IN THE TRIAD OF THE ARCHITECT, THE CRAFTSMAN AND THE CLIENT. HE BUILDS HOUSES BY MAKING SKETCH ON PAPER THAT A MASON CAN COMPREHEND.  HE FOLLOWS A METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION THAT CREATES SIMILAR ELEMENTS IN ASSEMBLIES VARYING ACCORDING TO THE FUNCTION AND SCALE OF EACH PROJECT.  LAURIE BAKER DOES NOT USE NEW CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO CREATE NEW FORMS BUT FOR NECESSITY, THAT IS REDUCTION IN THE COST OF BUILDING. HIS CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY BRINGS OUT THE REGIONAL IDENTITY OF THE PLACE. BAKER TREATS EACH AND EVERY MEMBER OF HIS STRUCTURE IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE BUILDING IS COST-EFFECTIVE AND CLIMATICALLY RESPONSIVE.
  34. 34. • USE ARCHES RATHER THAN LINTELS • MANY VARIETIES OF ARCHES (SEE BOOKLET) FLAT, SEGMENTAL, POINTED ROUNDED, CORBELLED, AND SO ON. • ALL ARCH METHODS ARE EQUALLY SUITABLE FOR MUD WALL CONSTRUCTION • REMEMBER TO GIVE ADEQUATE WIDTH OF SUPPORT WALLS TO DEAL WITH THE ARCH THRUST. • FRAME WORK, TEMPLATES, ARCH FRAMES MUST BE REMOVED IMMEDIATELY THE ARCH IS COMPLETED (TO ALLOW FOR COMPRESSION AS THE MORTAR DRIES AND SHRINKS)
  35. 35. DOORS • WOOD IS GETTING SCARCE AND COSTLY. USE AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE. • IN MANY INSTANCES FRAMELESS DOORS AND WINDOWS ARE ACCEPTABLE AND REDUCE BOTH QUANTITY OF TIMBER, LABOR AND COSTS
  36. 36. WINDOW • BOARD AND BATTEN TYPE SHUTTERS ARE LESS COSTLY, USE LESS LABOR AND LESS TIMBER THAN PANELED SHUTTERS. • GLASS IS OFTEN NOT NECESSARY. ONLY USE WHEN IT HAS A USEFUL PURPOSE AND IS ESSENTIAL. • GLASS MANUFACTURE IS ENERGY INTENSIVE. IT IS EXTRAVAGANT OR UNNECESSARY USE IS ANTI-NATIONAL FLOOR 1. USE LOCAL MATERIALS 2. REMEMBER THAT CEMENT IS ENERGY INTENSIVE AND SHOULD NOT BE USED IF THERE IS A GOOD LOCAL ALTERNATIVE. 3. TILE (UNGLAZED) FLOORS ARE TRADITIONAL AND EFFECTIVE. 4. IN MANY AREAS THERE IS A LOCAL FLOORING STONE AVAILABLE. WHERE SO, USE IT.
  37. 37. ROOFS • IN MANY AREAS TILE ROOFS ARE OK BUT CALL FOR A LOT OF TIMBER SUPPORT (PURLOINS, RAFTERS, BATTENS ETC) • ON THE OTHER HAND PREFABRICATED AND VARIOUS R.C SLABS USE ENERGY-INTENSIVE STEEL AND CEMENT. • BOTH SYSTEMS HAVE ADVANTAGES AND ‘EVIL’ DISADVANTAGES. THESE INCLUDING LABOR AND TRANSPORT COST AND OTHER PROBLEMS HAVE TO BE STUDIED LOCALLY BEFORE THE BETTER CHOICE IS MADE. • REGARDING CONCRETE ROOFS: C.B.R.I ETC. HAVE A VARIETY OF SYSTEMS-L-PANELS, DOUBLE FUNICULAR SHELLS, ETC. IN PRACTICE THE LATTER OFTEN HAS LEAK PROBLEMS. BOTH USE STEEL AND CEMENT AND HAVE TO BE ‘OVER DESIGNED’ TO COPE WITH HANDLING AND TRANSPORT.
  38. 38. • ALTERNATIVE SLAB IN-SITU SYSTEMS INCLUDE FILLER SLABS (VOID FORMERS) WHICH REDUCE MATERIALS AND COST BY ABOUT 30%, BUT SHUTTERING IS COSTLY. AGAIN, LOCAL BALANCING AND COMPARING OF OVERALL COSTS, TRANSPORT, LABOUR, AND ENERGY USED ETC, HAVE TO BE MADE BEFORE A CHOICE IS MADE AND IT WILL VARY FROM PLACE TO PLACE. • DOMES AND VAULTS CAN BE DONE BUT ARE MAINLY NOT ACCEPTABLE TO LIVE UNDER: IN CERTAIN DRIER AREAS THE HASSAN FATHI OR EGYPTIAN SYSTEM OF FRAMELESS DOMES AND VAULTS IS GOOD-BUT USUALLY “UN-INDIAN”
  39. 39. THE WEIGHT CAN BE LESSENED BY PUTTING LIGHT WEIGHT MATERIAL BETWEEN STEEL.USING MANGLORE OR ANY OTHER CHEAPER TILES WILL SAVE ABOUT 30% OF DEAD WEIGHT OF THE SLAB SO LESS STEEL IS NEEDED
  40. 40.  THE UPTURNED, HORNED ROOFS OF BUILDINGS AS FOUND IN KERALA ARE THE DIRECT RESULT OF THE PEOPLE OF THOSE PLACES, THEY KNEW THAT HOT AIR RISES & ALLOWED IT TO TRAVEL UPWARDS FROM THE LOW EAVES TO THE OPENINGS AT THE ENDS OF THE HIGH RIDGE.  THEY UNDERSTOOD AND APPLIED PRINCIPLES OF INSULATION; THEN ROOFING MATERIALS FORMED HOLLOW CELLULAR PROTECTIVE LAYERS.
  41. 41.  USING CORBELLING INSTEAD OF A LINTEL ABOVE THE FRAME, THIS REDUCES THE COST OF THE R.C.C LINTEL.  USING LESS NUMBER OF BRICKS TO MAKE AWALL OF SAME THICKNESS AND PROVIDING CAVITIES IN BETWEEN FOR INSULATION.
  42. 42.  HE USED JALIS WHICH HAD MANY ADVANTAGES, SUCH AS VENTILATION, ENOUGH LIGHT, LESS MATERIAL REQUIRED.  REDUCING THE UNNECESSARY COST OF A WINDOW WITH A SHUTTER.  USING ‘JALI’ IN HIS WALLS FOR PROPER CROSS VENTILATION, ENOUGH SUN LIGHT ETC.
  43. 43. RAT-TRAP BOND • USE BRICKS IN DISTRICTS WHERE IT IS MADE AND IS PLENTIFUL • 4.5" WALLS ARE STABLE AND STRONG IF CORRUGATED OR BUTTRESSED. • 9" WALLS ARE USUALLY CAPABLE OF BEING LOAD BEARING UP TO THREE STOREY HEIGHT. • 25% OF BRICKS, MORTAR, COST ETC. CAN BE SAVED BY USING THE RAT TRAP BOND. THIS CAN ALSO USUALLY. • BE SAFELY USED UP TO 3 STOREYS IN HEIGHT AND IS EQUALLY LOAD BEARING
  44. 44. MUD WALLS 1. THEIR MAIN ADVANTAGE OVER BURNT BRICK WALLS IS THAT NO ENERGY / FUEL ARE USED IN THEIR MANUFACTURE. 2. THERE ARE MANY VARIETIES OF MUD WALL SYSTEMS 3. MUD MUST BE PROTECTED FROM WATER OF ANY SORT. 4. USE LOCAL METHODS UNLESS YOU CAN PROVE “ADVANCED METHODS” ARE GENUINELY SUPERIOR. 5. THE EASIEST TYPE OF MUD WALL IS TO USE THE SAME SHAPE AND SIZE BRICK AS THE BURNT BRICK, BUT LEAVE IT UN-BURNT. MASONS DO NOT HAVE TO RELEARN-THEY USE IT IN EXACTLY THE SAME BOND AND METHODS AS THEY DO THE BURNT BRICK.
  45. 45. FILLER SLAB : – 20-35% LESS MATERIALS – DECORATIVE, ECONOMICAL & REDUCED SELF-LOAD – ALMOST MAINTENANCE FREE – 25-30% COST REDUCTION JACK ARCH : – ENERGY SAVING & ECO-FRIENDLY COMPRESSIVE ROOFING. – DECORATIVE & HIGHLY ECONOMICAL – MAINTENANCE FREE MASONRY DOME : – ENERGY SAVING ECO-FRIENDLY COMPRESSIVE ROOF. – DECORATIVE & HIGHLY ECONOMICAL FOR LARGES SPANS. – MAINTENANCE FREE FUNICULAR SHELL : – ENERGY SAVING ECO-FRIENDLY COMPRESSIVE ROOF. – DECORATIVE & ECONOMICAL – MAINTENANCE FREE MASONRY ARCHES : – TRADITIONAL SPANNING SYSTEM. – HIGHLY DECORATIVE & ECONOMICAL – LESS ENERGY REQUIREMENT.
  46. 46. BAKER’S ARCHITECTURAL CREATIONS EXPANDS FROM A REMARKABLY VARIED SPECTRUM OF PROJECTS RANGING FROM FISHERMEN’S VILLAGES TO INSTITUTIONAL COMPLEXES & FROM LOW COST MUD HOUSING SCHEMES TO LOW COST CATHEDRALS. HIS WORKS INCLUDE FORTY CHURCHES, NUMEROUS SCHOOLS, INSTITUTIONS, RESIDENCES & HOSPITALS
  47. 47. • INTERNATIONAL LEPROSY MISSION • WEALTHY FISHER'S LITERACY VILLAGE, LUCKNOW • ANDHRA PRADESH QUAKER CYCLONE PROJECT • LATUR EARTHQUAKE PROOF HOUSING PROJECT • TSUNAMI-PROOF HOUSING PROJECT
  48. 48. HOME TO BAKER AND HIS WIFE ELIZABETH BAKER SINCE 1970 “THE HOUSE IN 5 LEVELS”
  49. 49. THE HOUSE IS SITUATED ON A SITE WITH AREA OF ABOUT HALF AN ACRE ,IN THIRUVANANTHAPURAM SLOPING STEEPLY TOWARD THE NILANCHIRA ROAD. THE SITE WAS UNWIELDY IN PLAN STEEP IN SECTION, AND HAD A ROCKY SURFACE.
  50. 50. • 1ST BUILT A SINGLE ROOM HUT OF TIMBER. IT HOUSED THE LIBRARY OF MEDICAL BOOKS & ALSO AS BEDROOM, LAUNDRY ROOM, DINING ROOM & STUDY. • THE SITE WAS HIGHLY CONTOURED AND ROCKY, BUT BAKER DID NOT DISTURB EVEN A SINGLE ROCK OR A TREE, SO IT IS POPULARLY NAMED AS “RIGHT IN THE ROCKS” • A HOUSE WAS BUILT ON THE LOWER CONTOUR FOR THE 4 NIECES WHO MOVED TO TRIVANDRUM. • ONE MORE HOUSE WAS BUILT FOR HIS SON TILAK WHICH FACED THE TREES. `
  51. 51. • THE BAKERS HOUSE –’THE HAMLET’ IS NOT VISIBLE FROM THE ROAD AND THE WALKS UP TOWARDS IT IS ONE OF ACCIDENTAL ENCOUNTERS- AN ENTRANCE GATE, A STEEPER GRADIENT ALONG THE ALONG A WORKSHOP ALONG A FREE STANDING DOOR, A CURVED PATH ALONG THE NIECERY AND THE FINAL STEPS LEADING TO THE PLINTH OF THE MAIN HOUSE.. • THE HOUSE IS MADE OF RED BRICKS AND ROOF WITH TERRACOTTA-TILES • THE HOUSE HAS A RUSTIC ELEVATION, ACTIVELY BLENDING WITH NATURE. • A FORMAL DINING SPACE FOR THE HOUSE DOES NOT EXIST. IF A VISITOR IS PRESENT HE/SHE EATS UNDER THE CEILING OF THE KITCHEN.
  52. 52. GRANT ENTRANCE HAVING A DOG HOUSE JUST ABOVE IT SPECIAL VENTILATION PATTERN DOOR FROM A DEMOLISHED OLD TRADITIONAL BUILDING STONE, WOOD AND FISH TILES ARE REUSED FROM AN EARLIER BUILDING
  53. 53. THERE IS A CAREFUL ORCHESTRATION OF CONTRAST- OF CONCEALING AND REVEALING, OF DARK AND LIGHT- OF OPENING TO THE LANDSCAPE AT THE END OF A NARROW PASSAGE-HELPS TO ENRICH THE FEELING OF MOVEMENT THROUGH THE BUILDING AND PROVIDE AN ARCHITECTURAL COMPLEXITY TO AN OTHERWISE SIMPLE SITE. IT WAS AT A DISTANCE FROM THE MAIN HOUSE, SUCH THAT IT PROVIDED THE BAKERS PRIVACY AND THE NIECES THEIR INDEPENDENCE.
  54. 54. THE HEAVILY-SHADED AREAS HAVE SURFACED IN STONE AND LEAD ACROSS CHANGING LEVELS TO DOORWAYS MYSTERIOUSLY HIDDEN BEHIND CURVED WALLS…
  55. 55. • ON THE LOWER CONTOURS OF THE SITE, FACING THE NIECERY WAS AN ADDITION OF A TWO-ROOMED HOUSE ADJOINING TO THE NIECERY, FOR HIS SON TILAK. • THIS REAPPLICATION OF OLD PROCESS SYMBOLIZES THAT BAKER UNDERSTANDS ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY AS A CONTINUING PROCESS.
  56. 56. THE WIRING IS NOT JUGGLED OR CONCEALED. IT SITS COMFORTABLY ON A PROJECTING BRICK COURSE ABOVE EYE LEVEL AND ENTER THE SOCKETS ALONG THE WALLS. • CIRCULAR SPACES USED IN NIECERY • WALL INBUILT SEATING ARRANGEMENTS
  57. 57. DETAILING USED FROM OLD WOOD USED IN AN OLD TRADITIONAL BROKE HOUSE WATER TANK FOR STORING RAIN WATER LOT OF ARCHES ARE USED
  58. 58. GABLES FOR PROPER AIR CROSS CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION TOWER BUILT FOR BAKERS GUESTS
  59. 59. DIFFERENT ROOF TYPES
  60. 60. THE DOG HOUSE AND THE ROUND-SHAPED NIECERIETHE LARGE KERALA-STYLE WINDOW AT THE END OF THE BEDROOM PROVIDES BOTH LIGHT AND A GOOD VIEW THIS NIECERIE WAS BUILT FOR BAKER’S FOUR NIECES
  61. 61. THIS DOOR IS MADE FROM TWO TRADITIONAL OLD KERALA DOORS WHEN AN OLD BUILDING WAS TORN DOWN WHICH BAKER BOUGHT AND JOINED TOGETHER TO CREATE THIS UNIQUE DOOR THE BAKER’S BEDROOM WINDOWS REPRESENT A LONG RAILWAY RESEMBLES A LONG RAILWAY COMPARTMENT
  62. 62. • THE DECORATION IS MADE FROM BROKEN POTTERY, GLASS AND CERAMIC • THE WALL IS DECORATED WITH WASTE MATERIALS CREATIVELY • THE ENTRANCE HAS A SMALL SITTING AREA FOR GUESTS AND FAMILY
  63. 63. THE STEPS LEADING UP TO THE FRONT DOOR OF THE HAMLET BAKER HAS CUT THE STEP DIRECTLY INTO THE ROCK FACE OF THE SLOPING PLOT OF LAND A CALLING BELL FOR VISITORS TO ANNOUNCE THEIR PRESENCE
  64. 64. BAKER ALWAYS DESIGNED TO UTILIZE SUNLIGHT EFFECTIVELY AND MINIMIZE THE NEED FOR ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING THE JALIS FILTER IN THE MORNING LIGHT A TRADITIONAL KERALA WINDOW
  65. 65. BAKER NEVER CUTS DOWN TREES, INSTEAD ADAPTED HIS PLANS, BUILDING AROUND THEM A VIEW FROM HAMLET
  66. 66. AN IMPROVISED BAKER’S GRILL MADE OF BITS AND PIECES INCLUDING A PIECE OF CLUTCH PLATE TYPICAL TRADITIONAL TILING USED IN SOUTH INDIA MOSTLY IN AREAS WHERE SLOPED STAINED GLASS EFFECT
  67. 67. COST EFFECTIVE BAKER WINDOWS SIMPLE YET BEAUTIFUL WINDOWS OF BAKER’S TYPE MADE FROM WASTE WOODEN PLANKS AND GRILLS MADE OF THROWN AWAY METAL PIECES CREATIVE WALL FIXTURES
  68. 68.  STEPS DIRECTLY CUT IN ROCK  ENTRANCE HAS SMALL SITTING AREA FOR GUESTS  THE WALL IS DECORATED FROM BROKEN POTTERY, PENS, GLASS  A CALLING BELL FOR VISITORS TO ANNOUNCE THEIR PRESENCE  USE OF NATURAL LIGHT  NEVER CUT TREES INSTEAD ADAPTED HIS DESIGN ACCORDINGLY  INNER COURTYARD …CLOSE TO NATURE  ARCHES LED INTO A BEAUTIFUL OPEN ROOM  COURTYARD HAS MANY GARDENS AND PONDS  PITCHED ROOF MADE OF MANGALORE TILES  BAKER’S FONDNESS OF ARCHES
  69. 69. • GABLES FOR PROPER AIR CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION • SIMPLE YET BEAUTIFUL WINDOWS • GRILL MADE OF BITS AND PIECES • CONICAL STRUCTURE USED • COST EFFECTIVE BAKER’S WINDOW • LOUVERED WINDOW TYPICAL OF BAKER’S TYPE • STAINED GLASS EFFECT • WATER TANK FOR STORING RAIN HARVESTED WATER • MATERIAL USED FROM UNCONVENTIONAL SOURCES • FAMILY EATS IN KITCHEN • ELECTRICITY WIRING IS NOT CONCEALED
  70. 70. IN CONCLUSION IF WE LOOK AT THE LIFE OF LAURIE BAKER , WE COULD REALIZE THAT HE WAS A PERSON WHO WAS CONCERNED ABOUT SUSTAINABLE MEANS OF ARCHITECTURE. HIS DEVOTION AND HIS INSPIRATION TOWARDS HIS WORKS IS AWE INSPIRING. THE BUILDING TECHNIQUES BAKER HAS EVOLVED TO SUIT SPECIFIC PROBLEMS OF HIS POOR CLIENTS IN KERALA IS NOT A FORMULA APPLICABLE TO ALL SIMILAR SITUATIONS & YET FROM ITS STEMS AN ENTIRE IDEOLOGY OF ARCHITETCURAL PRACTICE – A PATTERN THAT IS REVOLUTIONARY IN ITS SIMPLICITY & ITS CONTRADICTION OF THE ACCEPTED NORMS OF ARCHITETCURE IN CONTEMPORARY INDIA. IF WE LOOK INTO LAURIE BAKERS LIFE WE COULD EASILY FIND THAT HE WAS A PERSON WHO LIKES TO LEAD A SIMPLE AND SERENE LIFE, AND FROM HIS WORKS WE CAN SEE THAT HE IS TRYING TO MAKE ARCHITECTURE RESONATE TO THE TUNE O NATURE, WHICH MAKES US ALL INSPIRED AND SPEECHLESS...

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