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The Industrial Revolution began in
England about 1760
radical changes at every level of
civilization throughout the world
growth of heavy industry brought a flood
of new building materials— cast iron,
steel, and glass
architects and engineers devised
structures hitherto undreamed of in
function, size, and form.
Age of enlightment
to reform society using reason, to challenge ideas
grounded in tradition and faith, and to advance
knowledge through the scientific method.
promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and
The Enlightenment was a revolution in human
This new way of thinking was that rational thought
begins with clearly stated principles, uses correct
logic to arrive at conclusions, tests the conclusions
against evidence, and then revises the principles in
the light of the evidence.
Disenchantment with baroque, with rococo, and even with
neo-Palladianism turned late 18th-century designers and
patrons toward the original Greek and Roman prototypes.
Selective borrowing from another time and place became
Greek aspect was particularly strong in the young United
States from the early years of the 19th century until about
New settlements were given Greek names—Syracuse,
Ithaca, Troy—and Doric and Ionic columns, entablatures,
and pediments, mostly transmuted into white-painted
wood, were applied to public buildings and important town
houses in the style called GREEK REVIVAL.
produced by the neoclassical movement t
began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in
its details as a reaction against the Rococo style
of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural
formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing
features of Late Baroque.
its purest is a style principally derived from the
architecture of Classical Greece and Rome and
the architecture of the Italian architect Andrea
Palladio. In form, Neoclassical architecture
emphasizes the wall and maintains separate
identities to each of its parts.
Intellectually Neoclassicism was
symptomatic of a desire to return to the
perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome,
Greek,and renaissance classicism
architects, however, felt free to select
whatever elements from past cultures best
fitted their programs—Gothic for Protestant
churches, baroque for Roman Catholic
churches, early Greek for banks, Palladian
for institutions, early Renaissance for
libraries, and Egyptian for cemeteries.
•Background of emergence of neo classical architecture
•Architecture of baroque and rococo
•Architects were Compel to look for new and true style
•Expedition to greek and roman cities
•Books on ancient monuments
•Le roy, piranesi and adams works
•Hallucination of ancient forms in new work
Putteney bridge bath by Robert
Royal Scottish academy Edinburgh by William
Greek Doric style portico
Karl Friedrich Schinkel's Elisabethkirche in Berlin
Altes museum Berlin
Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas
Prado museum in Madrid by Juan de
In the second half of the 19th century
dislocations brought about by the Industrial
Revolution became overwhelming.
Many were shocked by the hideous new
urban districts of factories and workers’
housing and by the deterioration of public
taste among the newly rich.
For the new modes of transportation,
canals, tunnels, bridges, and railroad
stations, architects were employed only to
provide a cultural veneer.