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History of Surgery An enlightening story
History of Surgery <ul><li>History : </li></ul><ul><li>To know genesis & evolution of life, society and human behavior </l...
Ancient History <ul><li>Earliest known – Trepanation (trephining) Kiev – Ukraine – 7300 – 6220 B.C </li></ul><ul><li>Ancie...
<ul><li>Edwin Smith Papyrus – 1600 B.C </li></ul><ul><li>Susrutha – 400 B.C – Father of surgery Susrutha samhitha </li></u...
 
Medieval Surgery <ul><li>Decline of surgery  in the west by 13 th  century </li></ul><ul><li>Physicians higher status </li...
Medieval Surgery <ul><li>Rogerius Salernitanus -1180 A.D – Chirurgiae </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical therapy – amputations , d...
<ul><li>Ambroise Pare` </li></ul><ul><li>John Hunter </li></ul>
Birth of modern surgery <ul><li>Louis Pasteur  > Germ theory </li></ul><ul><li>Ignaz Semmelweis > Washing hands  -> ↓Puerp...
Birth of modern surgery <ul><li>King Edward VII – “ I know that if it had not been for you and your work, I would not have...
Modern Surgery   William Stewart Halsted(1852 – 1922)   <ul><li>1.sterile rubber gloves  </li></ul><ul><li>2. new surgery,...
William Stewart Halsted(1852 – 1922) <ul><li>3. Modern operating theater. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Residency scheme of trainin...
<ul><li>Theodore Billroth (1881)– gastrectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Langenbuch (1882) – cholecystectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Synm...
 
Modern Surgery <ul><li>4 major advancements in related disciplines helped the advancement of surgery are: </li></ul><ul><l...
Modern Surgery <ul><li>20 th  century surgery land marks </li></ul><ul><li>Improved understanding of shock </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Understanding of blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Development of antibiotics & analgesics </li></ul>
Modern Surgery <ul><li>Electrically powered surgical instruments, surgical stapling instruments, surgical glues, tapes etc...
<ul><li>Cryogenic super cooled probes </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasonic devices, Medical Lasers </li></ul><ul><li>Heart lung ma...
Modern Surgery <ul><li>Orthopaedics – cementing substances, bone & joint replcements </li></ul><ul><li>Microsurgery </li><...
Surgical disorders <ul><li>Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Disorders of function </li>...
<ul><li>According to 1996 data, US – National centre for Health Statistics –40.3 million I.P surgeries &31.5 million O.P.s...
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History Of Surgery

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History Of Surgery

  1. 1. History of Surgery An enlightening story
  2. 2. History of Surgery <ul><li>History : </li></ul><ul><li>To know genesis & evolution of life, society and human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>History -> progressive path to future </li></ul><ul><li>To appreciate the commanding work done by our forefathers and enthuse us to achieve higher goals in pursuance of excellence </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ancient History <ul><li>Earliest known – Trepanation (trephining) Kiev – Ukraine – 7300 – 6220 B.C </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Egyptian pyramids – discovery of brain surgery </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Edwin Smith Papyrus – 1600 B.C </li></ul><ul><li>Susrutha – 400 B.C – Father of surgery Susrutha samhitha </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Greek – Hippocrates & Galen </li></ul>
  5. 6. Medieval Surgery <ul><li>Decline of surgery in the west by 13 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Physicians higher status </li></ul><ul><li>Barbers & monks – self qualified surgeons </li></ul>
  6. 7. Medieval Surgery <ul><li>Rogerius Salernitanus -1180 A.D – Chirurgiae </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical therapy – amputations , drainage of abscess,scarification, leeching etc </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Ambroise Pare` </li></ul><ul><li>John Hunter </li></ul>
  8. 9. Birth of modern surgery <ul><li>Louis Pasteur > Germ theory </li></ul><ul><li>Ignaz Semmelweis > Washing hands -> ↓Puerperal sepsis </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Lister > Sterile surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of practice of surgery(March 16, 1867) . “Father of modern antisepsis” </li></ul>
  9. 10. Birth of modern surgery <ul><li>King Edward VII – “ I know that if it had not been for you and your work, I would not have been sitting here today” </li></ul><ul><li>T.G.Morton – Boston dentist -1846 >Anaesthesia </li></ul>
  10. 11. Modern Surgery William Stewart Halsted(1852 – 1922) <ul><li>1.sterile rubber gloves </li></ul><ul><li>2. new surgery, based on anatomic, pathologic, and physiologic principles and employing animal experimentation. </li></ul>
  11. 12. William Stewart Halsted(1852 – 1922) <ul><li>3. Modern operating theater. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Residency scheme of training surgeons </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Theodore Billroth (1881)– gastrectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Langenbuch (1882) – cholecystectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Synmonds (1883) - Appendicectomy </li></ul>
  13. 15. Modern Surgery <ul><li>4 major advancements in related disciplines helped the advancement of surgery are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Knowledge of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Discovery of Anaesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>3. Intraoperative haemostasis </li></ul><ul><li>4. Concepts of asepsis </li></ul>
  14. 16. Modern Surgery <ul><li>20 th century surgery land marks </li></ul><ul><li>Improved understanding of shock </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of blood group & blood transfusion techniques </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Understanding of blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Development of antibiotics & analgesics </li></ul>
  16. 18. Modern Surgery <ul><li>Electrically powered surgical instruments, surgical stapling instruments, surgical glues, tapes etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Xrays &scans </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Cryogenic super cooled probes </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasonic devices, Medical Lasers </li></ul><ul><li>Heart lung machines, hypothermia, transplantation of organs </li></ul>
  18. 20. Modern Surgery <ul><li>Orthopaedics – cementing substances, bone & joint replcements </li></ul><ul><li>Microsurgery </li></ul><ul><li>Minimally invasive surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular imaging, Angioplasty </li></ul>
  19. 21. Surgical disorders <ul><li>Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Disorders of function </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Ischaemia & infarction </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Neoplasia </li></ul><ul><li>Cysts, hyperplasia, hypertrophy </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>According to 1996 data, US – National centre for Health Statistics –40.3 million I.P surgeries &31.5 million O.P.surgeries </li></ul>

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