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Health Education

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Health Education

  1. 1. Dr shabeel’s presentations
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The practice of instructing people and communities in the principles of hygiene and in ways of avoiding disease is a very ancient one. An elementary study of the history of medicine reveals that since time immemorial it has been considered a necessity to instruct communities in health matters for their protection and survival.
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS  The National Conference on Preventive Medicine [USA] Health education is a process which informs, motivate and helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices and life styles; advocates environmental changes as needed to facilitate this goal and conducts professional training and research to the same end.
  4. 4.  WHO Definition Health education, like general education, is concerned with changes in knowledge, feelings and behaviour of people.In its most usual forms, it concentrates on devoloping such health practices as are believed to bring about the best possible state of well being.
  5. 5. AIMS OF HEALTH EDUCATION  To inform the general public of the principles of physical and mental hygiene and methods of preventing avoidable diseases.  To create an informed body of opinion and knowledge. (social workers, teachers)  To give the public accurate information of medical discoveries.  To facilitate the acceptance and proper usage of medical measures.
  6. 6. METHODS OF APPROACHES IN HEALTH EDUCATION 1. Legal or Regulatory Approach 3. Administrative or Service Approach 5. Educational Approach
  7. 7. Legal or Regulatory Approach  Makes use of the law to protect the health of the public.  Eg : Epidemic Diseases Act , Pollution Act  Limitations : 1. applicable only at certain times or limited situations. 2. they may not alter the behaviour of the individual.
  8. 8. Administrative or Service Approach  Intends to provide all the health facilities needed by the people  ‘felt needs of people’
  9. 9. Educatinal Approach  most effective  Components : 1. motivation 2. communication 3. decision making • results slow , but permanent and enduring. • Suffient time for an individual to bring about changes • information asfacts as well as unlearning wrong learning new well.
  10. 10. CONTENTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION 1. Human Biology 2. Nutrition 3. Hygiene 4. Family Health Care 5. Control of Communicable and Non- Communicable Diseases 6. Mental health 7. Prevention of Accidents 8. Use of Health Services
  11. 11. Human Biology
  12. 12. Nutrition  for prevention of malnutrition  Taught nutrient value of food stufs  Method of preparation , storage  Help people to choose balanced diet
  13. 13. Hygiene Personal Environmental
  14. 14. Family Health Care  Strengthen and improve the health of the family as a unit rather than as an individual.  Maternal and child health care, family planning, immunization, nutrition, etc.
  15. 15. Control of Communicable and Non- Communicable diseases  Provide elementary knowledge about the nature of the diseases and methods of preventing them.
  16. 16. Mental Health  Depression, neurosis, mental anxiety and emotional disturbances  Basic knowledge of common psychological ailments, its detectio, methods of prevention and treatment.
  17. 17. Prevention of Accidents  People taught about basic safety rules and prevent common accidents.
  18. 18. Use of Health services  People should be informed about various health services and preventive programmes available to them.
  19. 19. STAGES IN ADOPTION OF NEW IDEAS AND PRACTICES STAGE OF UNAWARENESS STAGE OF AWARENESS Not aware of new idea or practice Gets some information but not know much STAGE OF EVALUATION STAGE OF INTEREST Find out advantages & Shows interest to know more disadvantages Listen, read STAGE OF ADOPTION STAGE OF TRIAL Accepts new idea as beneficial Puts it into practice to him & adopts it
  20. 20. PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION  INTEREST  PARTICIPATION  COMPREHENSION  MOTIVATION  REINFORCEMENT  KNOWN TO UNKNOWN  LEARNING BY DOING  SOIL, SEED & SOWER  COMMUNITY LEADERS  GOOD HEALTH RELATIONS
  21. 21. Interest  Topic of interest  Identify the ”felt needs” of the people  Then prepare a programme
  22. 22. Participation  Educator should encourage people to participate in health education programmes  Group discussions, panel discussions, etc provide oppurtunities for people’s participation  Leads to acceptance
  23. 23. Known to Unknown  Start with what the people already know and then give the new knowledge  Existing knowledge as people as the basic step
  24. 24. Comprehension  Determine the level of literacy and understanding of audience.  Language of communication, understandable to audience  Usage of technical or medical terms should be avoided.
  25. 25. Reinforcement  Also called as “booster dose”  Refers to repetition needed  When not possible for people to learn new things in short time
  26. 26. Motivation  Defined as “the fundamental desire for learning in an individual”  2 types : primary motive  inborn desires food, clothing, housing secondary motive  outside forces gifts, a word of praise, love, rewards
  27. 27. Learning by Doing  Learning process accompanied by doing the new things.  Based on famous Chinese proverb “if I hear, I forget ; if I see, I remember ; if I do, I know.
  28. 28. Soil, Seed & Sower  Soil  people to whom education is given  Seeds  Health facts to be given  Sower media to transmit the facts  All components are interdependent and result in dynamic interaction.
  29. 29. Good Human Relations  health educator should have good personal qualities  Should be able to maintain friendly relations with people  Should have a kind nad sympathetic attitude
  30. 30. Community leaders  Leaders can be used to reach people of the community and to convince them about the need for health education.
  31. 31. HINDRANCES OR BARRIERS IN PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION  Psychological barriers  emotional disturbances  depression  neurosis  Physiological barriers  difficulties in self-expression  difficulties in hearing or seeing  difficulties in understanding
  32. 32. HINDRANCES…  Environmental barriers  excessive noise  difficulties in vision  congested areas  Cultural barriers  persistent patterns of behaviour, habits, beliefs, customs, attitudes, religion, etc
  33. 33. EDUCATIONAL AIDS USED IN HEALTH EDUCATION 1. Audio aids 2. Visual aids 3. Combination of Audio-Visual aids
  34. 34. Audio Aids  Based on principles of sound, electricity and magnetism  megaphones  public addressing systems or microphones  Gramophone records  Tape recorders  Radios  Sound amplifiers
  35. 35. Visual Aids  Based on principles of projection Projected aids – needs projection from a source on to a screen  films or cinemas  film strips  slides  overhead projectors  epidiascopes  transparencies  bioscopes  video cassettes  silent films
  36. 36. Non-projected Aids – do not require projection  blackboard  pictures  cartoons  photographs  posters  flashcards  charts  brochures  models Other aids – traditional media which makes use of light and sound stimuli  Folk dances and Folk songs  Puppet shows  Dramas
  37. 37. Combination of Audio-Visual Aids  Modern media available  Sound & sight combined together to create a better presentation  televisions  tape and slide combinations  Video Cassette Players and Recorders  Motivation pictures or Cinemas  Multimedia Computers
  38. 38. HEALTH EDUCATION FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC  Mass communication literally means communication that is given to a community where the people gathered together does not belong to one particular group.  Advantages  large no. of people can be reached  people of all socio-economic status irrespective of their caste, creed and religion  Medias televisions, radios, posters, news papers, etc
  39. 39. ESSENTIALS OF HEALTH EDUCATON TO THE PUBLIC 1. Accuracy and Truth 3. Presentation must be simple 5. Health education should be factual 7. Principles of health should be taught
  40. 40. CONCLUSION In a field such as health, it is natural that “helping people to help themselves” should be as important as direct service.

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