Antiarrythmics

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  • Resting intracellular voltage of myocardial cell is –90mV (high intracellular K maintained by Na/K pump)
  • Sinoatrial node located at junction of superior vena cava and the right atrium.
  • Narrow originate in atria or AV node Broad originate from ventricles or from atria or AV node wirh aberrant concuction to the ventricles (LBBB or RBBB)
  • Re-entry is when tisue that is usually refractory is reactivated. Occurs if there is a ring of tissue that does not conduct normally. Usually the two paths of action potentials meet and die out, but if they do not meet then a circuit is set up. Abnormal pacemaker activity can occur if myocardial cells are damaged eg ischaemic heart disease also via catecholamine overactivity Delayed after-depolarisation occurs when in cardiac tissue that usually has to wait for the initiation of an action potential from pacemaker tissue, the cardiac cell automatically depolarises. This leads to a repetitive discharge (triggers ectopic beats -‘R on T phenomenon’) (related to extent of inward Ca current) caused by cardiac glycosides eg digoxin Re-entry (partial conduction block eg accessory pathways linking atria and ventricles eg Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) halted by drugs that prolong the refractory period
  • Multiple micro re-entry circuits within (often diseased) atrial tissue. Chaotic ventricular rhythm
  • Digoxin-specific binding (Fab) fragment, antibody to digoxin, neutralises digoxin in the plasma
  • Antiarrythmics

    1. 1. Anti-arrhythmic drugs
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>Physiology of normal cardiac rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Definition and mechanisms of arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of drugs to treat arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Important anti-arrhythmic drugs (mechanism and pharmacological characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>Arrhythmias in clinical practice </li></ul>
    3. 3. Physiology of cardiac rate and rhythm <ul><li>Cardiac myocytes are electrically excitable </li></ul><ul><li>Resting intracellular voltage of myocardial cells is negative -90mV (SA node is -40mV) </li></ul><ul><li>Resting state - K + inside and Na + outside cell (Na + /K + pump) </li></ul><ul><li>Action potential occurs when Na + enters the cell and sets up a depolarising current </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation of a single muscle fibre causes electrical activity to spread across the myocardium </li></ul>
    4. 4. Phases of action potential of cardiac cells <ul><li>Phase 0 rapid depolarisation (inflow of Na +) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1 partial repolarisation (inward Na + current deactivated, outflow of K + ) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 plateau (slow inward calcium current) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3 repolarisation (calcium current inactivates, K + outflow) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 4 pacemaker potential (Slow Na + inflow, slowing of K + outflow) ‘autorhythmicity’ </li></ul><ul><li>Refractory period (phases 1-3) </li></ul>Phase 4 Phase 0 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 0 mV -80mV II I III IV
    5. 5. Sinus rhythm <ul><li>Sinoatrial node is cardiac pacemaker </li></ul><ul><li>Normal sinus rhythm 60-100 beats/min </li></ul><ul><li>Depolarisation triggers depolarisation of atrial myocardium (‘forest fire’) </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts more slowly through AV node </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts rapidly through His bundles and Purkinje fibres </li></ul>
    6. 6. Sinus rhythm <ul><li>Sinoatrial rate controlled by autonomic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic system predominates (M2 muscarinic receptors) </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic system (ß1 receptors) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate (positive chronotropic effect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased automaticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitation of conduction of AV node </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. ECG <ul><li>Recording of electrical activity of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Net sum of depolarisation and repolarisation potentials of all myocardial cells </li></ul><ul><li>P-QRS-T pattern </li></ul><ul><li>P - atrial depolarisation </li></ul><ul><li>QRS - ventricular depolarisation </li></ul><ul><li>T - ventricular repolarisation </li></ul>
    8. 8. Definition of arrhythmia <ul><li>Cardiac arrhythmia is an abnormality of the heart rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia – heart rate slow (<60 beats/min) </li></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia – heart rate fast (>100 beats/min) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Clinical classification of arrhythmias <ul><li>Heart rate (increased/decreased) </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rhythm (regular/irregular) </li></ul><ul><li>Site of origin (supraventricular / ventricular) </li></ul><ul><li>Complexes on ECG (narrow/broad) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Mechanisms of arrhythmia production <ul><li>Re-entry (refractory tissue reactivated due to conduction block, causes abnormal continuous circuit. eg accessory pathways linking atria and ventricles in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal pacemaker activity in non-conducting/conducting tissue (eg ischaemia) </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed after-depolarisation (automatic depolarisation of cardiac cell triggers ectopic beats, can be caused by drugs eg digoxin) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Vaughan Williams classification of antiarrhythmic drugs <ul><li>Class I : block sodium channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ia (quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide)  AP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ib (lignocaine)  AP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ic (flecainide)  AP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class II : ß-adrenoceptor antagonists (atenolol, sotalol) </li></ul><ul><li>Class III : prolong action potential and prolong refractory period (suppress re-entrant rhythms) (amiodarone, sotalol) </li></ul><ul><li>Class IV : Calcium channel antagonists. Impair impulse propagation in nodal and damaged areas (verapamil) </li></ul>Phase 4 Phase 0 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 0 mV -80mV II I III IV
    12. 12. Management of arrhythmias <ul><li>Acute management (clinical assessment of patient and diagnosis) </li></ul><ul><li>Prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Non-pharmacological </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacological (some antiarrhythmics are also proarrhythmic) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Non-pharmacological treatment <ul><li>Acute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagal manoeuvres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC cardioversion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiofrequency ablation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implantable defibrillator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacing (external, temporary, permanent) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Pharmacological treatment-Lignocaine (Lidocaine) <ul><li>Class Ib (blocks Na + channels, reduces AP duration) </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricular arrhythmias (acute Rx) </li></ul><ul><li>IV infusion only (2 hour half life, high first pass metabolism) </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatic metabolism (inhibited by cimetidine, propranolol) </li></ul><ul><li>SE mainly CNS - drowsiness, disorientation, convulsions, hypotension </li></ul>
    15. 15. Flecainide <ul><li>Class Ic (block Na + channels, no change to AP) </li></ul><ul><li>Slows conduction in all cardiac cells </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Rx /prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Supraventricular tachycardias </li></ul><ul><li>Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricular tachycardias </li></ul><ul><li>Oral/IV </li></ul><ul><li>Long acting (T1/2 14 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatic metabolism, urinary elimination </li></ul>
    16. 16. Flecainide <ul><li>CAST (Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial) 1989 – increased mortality post MI (VF arrest) </li></ul><ul><li>SE- cardiac failure, ventricular arrhythmias, blurred vision, abdominal discomfort, nausea, paraesthesia, dizzyness, tremor, metallic taste </li></ul>
    17. 17. Amiodarone <ul><li>Class III - increases refractory period and AP </li></ul><ul><li>Major effect acutely is depression of AV node </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Rx/prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Oral or IV (central line) </li></ul><ul><li>Loading and maintenance doses </li></ul><ul><li>T1/2 54 days </li></ul><ul><li>Large volume of distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulates </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatic metabolism- biliary and intestinal excretion </li></ul>
    18. 18. Amiodarone – adverse effects <ul><li>Photosensitive rashes </li></ul><ul><li>Grey/blue discolouration of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid abnormalities 2% </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Corneal deposits </li></ul><ul><li>CNS/GI disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-arrhythmic effects (torsade de pointe) </li></ul><ul><li>Heart block </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal LFT 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Interacts with digoxin, warfarin (reduces clearance) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Adenosine <ul><li>Not in Vaughan Williams class </li></ul><ul><li>Purine nucleotide (activates adenosine receptors) </li></ul><ul><li>Slows AV nodal conduction </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Rx </li></ul><ul><li>Termination of SVT/ diagnosis of VT </li></ul><ul><li>Given IV only (rapid bolus) </li></ul><ul><li>T1/2 < 2seconds </li></ul>
    20. 20. Adenosine- adverse effects <ul><li>Feeling of impending doom! </li></ul><ul><li>Flushing, dyspnoea, chest pain, transient arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Contraindicated in asthma, heart block </li></ul>
    21. 21. Verapamil <ul><li>Class IV (calcium channel blocker) </li></ul><ul><li>Prolongs conduction and refractoriness in AV node, slows rate of conduction of SA node </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Rx /prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Used IV/oral </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRAVENTRICULAR NOT VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS (cardiovascular collapse) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use IV verapamil with ß- blocker (heart block) </li></ul><ul><li>T1/2 6-8 hours </li></ul>
    22. 22. Verapamil- adverse effects <ul><li>Heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul>
    23. 23. Digoxin <ul><li>Not in Vaughan Williams class </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac glycoside (digitalis, foxglove) </li></ul><ul><li>Act on Na/K-ATPase of cell membrane (inhibits Na + /K + pump, increases intracellular Na + and calcium)/ increases vagal activity </li></ul><ul><li>Increase cardiac contraction and slows AV conduction by increasing AV node refractory period </li></ul>
    24. 24. Digoxin <ul><li>Atrial fibrillation or flutter (controls ventricular rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Rx/prophylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Oral/IV </li></ul><ul><li>Loading and maintenance doses </li></ul><ul><li>T1/2 36 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Excreted by kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow therapeutic index </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic drug monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce dose in elderly/renal impairment </li></ul>
    25. 25. Atrial fibrillation                                                                                                                                                       
    26. 26. Digoxin – adverse effects <ul><li>Arrhythmias, heart block, anorexia, nausea, diarrhoea, xanthopsia, gynaecomastia, confusion, agitation </li></ul><ul><li>AE potentiated by hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Overdose –Digibind (digoxin binding antibody fragments), phenytoin for ventricular arrhythmias, pacing, atropine </li></ul>
    27. 27. Clinical cases
    28. 28. 36 year old woman with asthma has ‘thumping in chest’
    29. 29. 76 year old man with breathlessness
    30. 30. 54 year woman collapses 24 hours post MI
    31. 31. 60 year old man with recurrent blackouts
    32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Anti-arrhythmic drugs are classified by their effect on the cardiac action potential </li></ul><ul><li>Not all drugs fit this classification </li></ul><ul><li>In clinical practice treatment of arrhythmias is determined by the type of arrhythmia (SVT, VT) and clinical condition of the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-arrhythmic drugs are efficacious but may have serious adverse effects </li></ul><ul><li>Not all arrhythmias are treated with drug therapy alone </li></ul>
    33. 33. Any questions?

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