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Evolution of communication system
PRESENTED BY

         VENKATESH PANDEY
         SHABBIR CHUNAWALA
         SUSHANT KUMAR
         ALOK RANJAN UPADHYAY
Outline
• Previous Technologies
    - 1G, 2G, 3G (CDMA, GSM, UMTS)
    – Multiplexing; Frequency, Time & Code
• Reasons for New Research
•4G TECHNOLOGY
    - Architecture, AdHoc, IP core, OFDM
5G TECHNOLOGY
1G Technology
Previous Technology - 1G “First Generation”

  • Analog
      - Continuous in amplitude and time
      - Variations in the signal - disrupts over long distances
  • Simplest type to wireless data
  • Average between 4,800 to 9,600 bps (bits per second)
2G Technology

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Evolution of communication system

  • 2. PRESENTED BY VENKATESH PANDEY SHABBIR CHUNAWALA SUSHANT KUMAR ALOK RANJAN UPADHYAY
  • 3. Outline • Previous Technologies - 1G, 2G, 3G (CDMA, GSM, UMTS) – Multiplexing; Frequency, Time & Code • Reasons for New Research •4G TECHNOLOGY - Architecture, AdHoc, IP core, OFDM 5G TECHNOLOGY
  • 5. Previous Technology - 1G “First Generation” • Analog - Continuous in amplitude and time - Variations in the signal - disrupts over long distances • Simplest type to wireless data • Average between 4,800 to 9,600 bps (bits per second)
  • 7. Previous Technology - 2G • Advantages - Digital - consists of 1s and 0s • Digital signal: 1) Low level, 2) High level, 3) Rising edge, and 4) Falling edge
  • 8. Previous Technology - 2G - Digital data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings • Multiplexing - multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal
  • 9. Previous Technology - 2G - Allows for lower powered radio signals that require less battery power - CODEC introduction - program that encodes and decodes digital data stream or signal • Translates data from digital to analog and vice versa speaker voice CODEC 10111001
  • 10. Previous Technology - 2G • Advantages - The digital voice encoding allows digital error checking • increase sound quality • lowers the noise level - Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data transfer • SMS - “short message service” • E-mail
  • 11. Previous Technology - 2G • Disadvantages - Cell towers had a limited coverage area • Jagged Decay curve - Abrupt dropped calls - Analog - gradual sound reduction • “Spotty” coverage
  • 13. Previous Technology - 3G • Large capacity and broadband capabilities • Allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile systems and up to 2Mbps • Increased spectrum efficiency - 5Mhz - A greater number of users that can be simultaneously supported by a radio frequency bandwidth - High data rates at lower incremental cost than 2G - Global roaming
  • 14. Previous Technology - 3G • CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access - Form of multiplexing - Does not divide up the channel by time or frequency - Encodes data with a special code associated with each channel
  • 15. Types of Multiplexing • FDMA - Each phone call is allocated one frequency for the entire duration of the call. • TDMA - Each phone call is allocated a spot in the frequency for a small amount of time, and "takes turns" being transmitted. • CDMA - Each phone call is uniquely encoded and transmitted across the entire spectrum, in a manner known as spread spectrum transmission.
  • 16. Frequency Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Code Division Multiple Access frequency
  • 17. Reasons for New Research • Even though 3G has successfully been introduced to European mobile users, there are some issues that are debated by 3G providers and users. - High input fees for the 3G service licenses - Great differences in the licensing terms - Current high debt of many telecommunication companies, making it more of a challenge to build the necessary infrastructure for 3G
  • 18. Reasons for New Research • Government are forced to support to the financially troubled operators • 3G phones are expensive • Lack of 2G mobile user buy-in for 3G wireless service • Lack of coverage because it is still a new service
  • 19. Evolution to Fourth Generation systems
  • 21. What is 4G? • Fourth Generation Technology • Faster and more reliable - 100 Mb/s (802.11g wireless = 54Mb/s, 3G = 2Mb/s) • Lower cost than previous generations • Multi-standard wireless system - Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x) • Ad Hoc Networking • IPv6 Core • OFDM used instead of CDMA • Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n - Most information is proprietary
  • 22. OFDM • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing • Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time, frequency, code, etc) • Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver • Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band - No gaps to prevent interference needed • Currently used in WiMax (802.16) and Wi-Fi (802.11a/g)
  • 23. How OFDM Works Bit = 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Above, binary phase shift keying (BPSK). The phase of the sin wave changes to represent a different bit.
  • 24. How OFDM works • Frequency of the previous wave
  • 25. How OFDM works • The frequencies are spaced so that the signals do not interfere with each other (no cross talk) • Parallel Data Transmission - Allows for the sending of multiple signals simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to one device - Each transmission has a different stream of bits
  • 27. FIFTH GENERATION 5G 5G refers to the fifth generation of cellular wireless standards 5G is a packet switched wireless system with wide area coverage and high throughput. 5G wireless uses OFDM and millimeter wireless that enables data rate of 20 mbps and frequency band of 2-8 GHz.  5G is going to be a packed based network. The 5G communication system is envisioned as the real wireless network, capable of supporting wireless world wide web ( wwww).
  • 28. OBJECTIVE 5G being developed to accommodate quality of service(QoS) rate requirements set by further development of existing 4G applications. Flexible channel bandwidth between 5 and 20MHz, optionally up to 40MHz. Data rate of at list 1Gb/s between any two points in the world. Increase system spectral efficiency of up to 3bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.25bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor usage. Standard wireless 5G aims to provide wireless data over long distance from point-to-point link to cellular mobile type access.
  • 29. BENEFITS OF 5G 5G is high speed, high capacity, and low cost per bit. It support interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video, Internet, and other broadband services more effectively. It provides bidirectional ,accurate traffic statistics. The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65,000 connections. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution.
  • 30. SPEED 5G WiFi products have 450 megabits per second, which is at least three times faster than the most common devices using the current wireless system, 802.11n. And because the new standard givemanufacturers the flexibility to offer a range of products with different levels of performance, some high-speed 802.11ac devices will offer transmission in excess of a gigabit per second -- remarkable speeds that wired networks attained only recently.
  • 31. RELIABLITY 5G Wifi offers dramatic improvements in wireless reliability, range and coverage. Homes and apartments now plagued with "dead spots" will enjoy vastly improved reception. 5G Wifi networks, with beam-forming and other innovations, do a much better job in penetrating all forms of building materials, including concrete than its predecessors.
  • 35. Socio-Economic Impact • More affordable communication services • One device can communicate with all vs. many devices communicating with some devices • TV, internet, phone, radio, home environment sensors all reachable through one device  the cell phone - Streaming HD video • Too connected? - Increase in social networking, invasion of privacy, security concerns - Increase in regulation likely (ie. no driving and using a cell phone)
  • 36. When? • China Mobile, KPN, NTT DoCoMo, Orange, Intel, Motorola, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile and Vodafone already doing research on 4G • Much of this information is proprietary at this time • Expected release of 4G services as early as 2008. • Majority of companies expect widespread use of 4G systems by 2010. • Lifecycle of 4G is estimated to be 15 years.
  • 38. Bibliography - Texts • Agha, Khaldoun & Omidyar, Cambyse. Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks. Singapore, World Scientific, 2003 • Glisic, Savo. Advanced Wireless Communications: 4G Technologies. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, 2004 • Lightman, Alex. Brave New Unwired World; The Digital Big Bang and the Infinite Internet. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 2002 • Wang, Jiangzhou. Broadband Wireless Communications. Norwell, Massachusetts, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001
  • 39. Bibliography - Websites • Charmed Technology wireless everywear. Charmed Technology. 11/16/2006 www.charmed.com • OFDM Tutorial. Wave Report. 11/16/2006 http://www.wave-report.com/tutorials/OFDM.htm • OFDM Tutorial. University of Edinburgh. 11/3/2006. www.ee.ed.ac.uk/~acmc/ OFDM Tut.html • How VoIP Works. HowStuffWorks.com 11/16/2006. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/ip-telephony3.htm • W-OFDM Technology in 4G Cellular Networks. 11/16/2006. http://www.4g.co.uk/PR2004/August2004/2032.htm
  • 40. Bibliography - Websites • OFDM Overview. Intel Corporation. 11/16/2006 http://www.intel.com/education/highered/wireless/lectures/l07- overview_of_ofdm.ppt • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. Intel Corporation. 10/30/2006 www.intel.com/netcomms/technologies/wimax/303787.pdf • 4G Technologies Support Transmission Rates up to 100Mbps . www.4G.co.uk. 10/30/2006 http://www.4g.co.uk/PR2006/2067.htm • Move over 3G here comes 4G. The Economist. 11/4/2006 http://www.economist.com/business/displayStory.cfm?story_id= 1816742
  • 41. Bibliography - Websites • FDMA vs TDMA vs CDMA: What is the difference? Rice University. 11/15/2006 http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~elec301/Projects01/cdma /compare.html • Introduction to CDMA. Qualcomm Learning Center. 11/15/2006 http://www.cdmauniversity.com/ProdTech/cdma/traini ng/cdma25/m4/m4p01.html • CDMA Overview. UMTS. 11/15/2006 http://www.umtsworld.com/technology/cdmabasics.ht m