MODERN TRENDS IN NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
Outcomes of Overusing Conventionalsources:From years man has beenexploiting natural resources forhis selfhish needs. The overexploitation led to thedepletion of these sourcesalong with their hazardousoutcomes such as : Deforestation Global warming Ozone layer depletion
Man has to be thoughtful Man has to be thoughtfulin usingnatural resources in usingnatural resources or we all have to suffer or we all have to suffer one day.Future one day.Futuregenerations would be the generations would be the worst sufferers. worst sufferers.
A new Vision:Keeping in mind the needs of future generation , weshould move towards Non-Conventional Energysources for a sustainable development.
Wind energy Solar energy Tidal Energy Biomass EnergyGeothermal Hydro-Energy energy
Solar EnergySolar Energy is the energy from thesun. The Sun is the ultimate sourceof energy. Solar energy is the mostreadily available and free source ofenergy since prehistoric times. It isestimated that solar energyequivalent to over 15,000 times theworlds annual commercial energyconsumption reaches the earthevery year.It can be harnessed as:Solar water heatersSolar cellsSolar cooker
Solar powered boatsSolar powered boats get their energy from the sun. Using electric motors andstorage batteries charged by solar panels and photovoltaic cells, solar poweredboats can significantly reduce or eliminate their use of fossil fuels. Solar boatsare uniquely suited to transform light energy into movement. Environmentallyfriendly solar energy is an energy efficient way to power commercial oceangoingvessels as well as leisure boats.
Sun 21The “sun21” is a 45.9-foot-long speciallybuilt solar powered boat known as acatamaran. On its canopy like roof are 48silicon photovoltaic cells, which collectenergy from sunlight and transmit it to adevice in one of the narrow cabins. Thatdevice transmits the energy to the 3,600pounds of storage batteries below thedeck. The 11-ton solar boat was poweredon the energy needed to light 10 100-watt light bulbs. The typical speed was3.5 knots. The solar boat has two enginesthat can go up to 107 nautical miles aday in good weather.
Wind Energy:Wind energy is basically harnessing ofwind power to produce electricity.The kinetic energy of the wind isconverted to electrical energy. Whensolar radiation enters the earth’satmosphere, different regions of theatmosphere are heated to differentdegrees because of earth curvature.This heating is higher at the equatorand lowest at the poles. Since airtends to flow from warmer to coolerregions, this causes what we call A v e r a g e W in d S p e e dwinds, and it is these airflows that are k m /h (m p h ) S u ita b ilit yharnessed in windmills and wind U p to 1 5 (9 .5 ) N o goodturbines to produce power. 1 8 (1 1 .2 5 ) Poor 2 2 (1 3 .7 5 ) M o d e ra te 2 5 (1 5 .5 ) Good 2 9 (1 8 ) E x c e lle n t
Moving trains can produce wind power???A speeding train, for instance,produces tremendous gusts thatcan just as easily be converted intoelectricity. A couple years ago, anIndian inventor named SantoshPradhan proposed a modification Now designers from the firm Yanko Design have seizedto current trains that, according to upon the same principle and developed a device that canhis calculations, would have collect wind energy from passing trains. The technologyharvested as much as 10,000 works similarly to a wind tunnel concept put forth last year by a team of Korean designers in which miniaturemegawatts of electricity each day turbine-based generators would be strategically placed atfrom trains operating in Mumbai, various spots along the walls of a subway train tunnel.a city in India. The device, called a T-Box, differs in that it is designed to be installed within the actual railing track itself. It consists of a durable metallic cylinder with vents, which allow air to flow through and rotate turbine blades housed inside. Yanko claims that a 1000 meter stretch of railroad can be retrofitted with about 150 T-boxes. Considering that a train barreling down at a speed of 200 kilometers per hour creates winds of roughly 15 miles a second, the T-boxes could generate 2.6 KwH of electricity.
World’s Largest wind turbine 7 MWDetails:Model Enercon E-126Rotor dia.: 126 mEnergy produced: 20 millionkWh/yearFor 5000 household of four inEuropeInstalled in Emden, Germanyin 2008
Hydro- EnergyHydro energy is the energy producedby using the potential energy storedin water. Wherever sufficient head,or change in elevation, could befound, rivers and streams weredammed and mills were built. Waterunder pressure flows through aturbine causing it to spin.The Turbine is connected to agenerator, which produceselectricity . In order to produceenough electricity, a hydroelectricsystem requires a location with thefollowing features:Change in elevation or head: 20 feet@ 100 gal/min = 200 Watts.100 feet head @ 20 gal/min gives thesame output. In India the potential ofsmall hydro power is estimated about10,000 MW
Biomass EnergyBiomass is a renewable energy Advantagesresource derived from thecarbonaceous waste of various Some of advantages of biomasshuman and natural activities. It is briquetting are high calorific value withderived from numerous sources, low ash content, absence of pollutingincluding the by-products from the gases like sulphur, phosphorus fumes andwood industry, agricultural crops, raw fly ash- which eliminate the need formaterial from the forest, household pollution control equipment, completewastes etc. combustion, ease of handling, transportation & storage - because ofBiomass does not add carbon dioxide uniform size and convenient lengths.to the atmosphere as it absorbs thesame amount of carbon in growing asit releases when consumed as a fuel.Its advantage is that it can be used togenerate electricity with the sameequipment that is now being used forburning fossil fuels Biogas Plant Biomass Briquetting
Tidal EnergyTidal electricity generation involvesthe construction of a barrage acrossan estuary to block the incoming andoutgoing tide. The head of water isthen used to drive turbines togenerate electricity from the elevatedwater in the basin as in hydroelectricdams.Barrages can be designed to generateelectricity on the ebb side, or floodside, or both. Tidal range may varyover a wide range (4.5- 12.4 m) fromsite to site. A tidal range of at least 7m is required for economicaloperation and for sufficient head ofwater for the turbines
Geothermal EnergyGeothermal energy is thermal energygenerated and stored in the Earth.Thermal energy is the energy thatdetermines the temperature ofmatter.The heat that is used for geothermal energy can be stored deep within the Earth,all the way down to Earth’s core – 4,000 miles down. At the core, temperaturesmay reach over 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5000 degrees Celsius). Heat conductsfrom the core to surrounding rock. Extremely high temperature and pressure causesome rock to melt, which is commonly known as magma. Magma convects upwardsince it is lighter than the solid rock. This magma then heats rock and water in thecrust, sometimes up to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (370 degrees Celsius)From hot springs , geothermal energy has been used for bathing since paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better knownfor electricity generation.