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What is In side a Television Broadcasting Station

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Industrial Training Report (TV Broadcast Station )Under My guidance . 
For The Post Graduate Students in Electronics and Communication
Amal Jyothi College of Engineering  

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What is In side a Television Broadcasting Station

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 1 CHAPTER 1 JAIHIND TV PROFILE Launched on 17 August 2007, by Congress President and UPA Chairperson, Mrs. Sonia Gandhi with the mission to meet the aspirations of the family and the nation, JAIHIND has consistently remained in the forefront with innovative programming, setting new industry benchmarks in news coverage and entertainment packaging. JAIHIND TV is a channel with a multi-genre infotainment package for the whole family. JAIHIND TV, Malayalam Channel own and operated by M/s Bharat Broadcasting Network Ltd. is a subsidiary of Jaihind Communications Pvt. Ltd, a company registered under the Companies Act 1956 with an initial investment of Rs. 33 crores. Jaihind TV’s registered office is located at Karimpanal Arcade, East Fort, Thiruvananthapuram. Sri. Ramesh Chennithala, President of Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee is the President of JAIHIND TV. Sri. M.M.Hassan, former Minister and Senior Leader of the Indian National Congress Party, is the Managing Director. He is a Popular Figure championing various public interest causes. Bharat Broadcasting Network Ltd is chaired by Sri. Kunjukutty Aniyankunju, a prominent NRI businessman based at UAE. Sri. Vijayan Thomas, a renowned NRI business personal, is the chairman of Jaihind Communications Pvt Ltd. Board of Directors and investors are eminent NRI and Resident business personalities. JAIHIND TV is headed by Sri.K.P.MOHANAN, a veteran journalist well-versed both in Print and Electronic Media with professional experience spanning four decades. A Permanent Fellow of the USA based World Press Institute, Mr. Mohanan is the winner of the Rajiv Gandhi Award for excellence in Journalism. With the declared motto “For The Family, For The Nation” JAIHIND TV is committed to quality entertainment packages with Social and Ethical Binding and News and Current Affairs programmes with development objectives. The programmes of the Channel
  2. 2. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 2 focus on upholding Democracy, Secularism and Nationalism. The Channel brings together some of the finest talents in the industry and transcends stereo typical television. Jaihind TV aims to be the voice of the global Malayalees and to address the issues of global relevance. A well-experienced and highly qualified professional team and state-of-the- art studio with multi-dimensional shoot facilities at the Kinfra Film and Video Park that has fully-digital production and post-production facilities and a Live News room in Trivandrum with static and dynamic connectivity to all the Districts in Kerala as well as to Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Dubai, make Jaihind TV a media organization with competitive edge.
  3. 3. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 3 CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION 2.1 WHAT'S IN A TELEVISION STATION? "Photography is going to marry Miss Wireless, and heaven help everybody when they get married. Life will be very complicated." -- Marcus Adams, Society photographer, in the Observer, 1925. 2.2 THE TV STATION AS A WHOLE The basic television system consists of equipment and people to operate this gear so that we can produce TV programs. The stuff you'll find in a television station consists of (and this list is not exhaustive!):  one or more television cameras  lighting, to see what we're shooting  one or more audio consoles, along with sound control equipment, to manipulate the sounds we generate with microphones, audio recorders and players, and other devices  one or more videotape recorders, or other video recording technologies, in any of a number of formats  one or more video switchers, to select video sources, perform basic transitions between those sources, and to create special effects  EFP (electronic field production) shooting and production equipment, and storage facilities  perhaps a post-production editing facility, to assemble videotaped segments together  some special effects: either visual or aural; electronic, optical or mechanical
  4. 4. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 4 2.3 THE STUDIO INFRASTRUCTURE Whether or not you work in a traditional studio or a new "studioless" environment, the same principles apply. You'll still need:  an intercom system (with headset stations for floor directors)  floor monitors (video and audio)  electrical outlets for both regular AC and lighting equipment In addition, your control room or control centre will have:  various program and preview monitors  program audio speakers  time of day clock  video switcher  an audio control room, with audio console, cart machines, turntable and/or CD player, reel to reel and/or cassette and/or DAT recorder and/or other digital recording and playback technology, and auxiliary audio enhancement equipment
  5. 5. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Fig.3 3.1 STUDIO A television studio is an installation in which a for the recording of live television post-production. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons. These rooms are connected via among these workplaces. PROGRAM STUDIO NEWS STUDIO PROGRAM INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT CHAPTER 3 WORK FLOW Fig.3 1: WORKING OF CHANNEL is an installation in which a video productions take place, either live television to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw . The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional n studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons. These rooms are connected via intercom, and personnel will be divided PROGRAM PCR Page 5 take place, either , or for the acquisition of raw footage for movie studios, with a few amendments for the special requirements of television production. A professional n studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and , and personnel will be divided
  6. 6. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 6 The studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded take place. A studio floor has the following characteristics and installations:  decoration and/or sets  professional video camera (sometimes one, usually several) on pedestals  microphones  stage lighting rigs and the associated controlling equipment.  several video monitors for visual feedback from the production control room (PCR)  a small public address system for communication  a glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is usually desired, but not always possible Various types of cameras Used  SONY PD 170  SONY DSR 400  SONY D 50  SONY D 55 3.2 PRODUCTION-CONTROL ROOM The production control room (PCR) is the place in a television studio in which the composition of the outgoing program takes place. Facilities in a PCR include: A video monitor wall, with monitors for program, preview, VTRs, cameras, graphics and other video sources.  A vision mixer, a large control panel used to select the multiple-camera setup and other various sources to be recorded or seen on air and, in many cases, in any video monitors on the set. The term 'vision mixer' is primarily used in Europe, while the term 'video switcher' is usually used in North America.  A professional audio mixing console and other audio equipment such as effects devices.
  7. 7. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE  A character generator (CG), which creates the majority of the names and full on-screen graphics that are insert television screen  Digital video effects, or DVE, for manipulation of video sources. In newer vision mixers, the DVE is integrated into the  A still store, or still frame, device name suggests that the device is only capable of storing still images  The technical director's station, with control units (CCU) or remote control panels for the CCUs.  VTRs for recording.  Intercom and IFB equipment for communication with talent and  A signal generator to lock all of the video equipment to a common reference that requires color burst. VISION MIXER (VIDEO SWICHER) FOR-A 700 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT (CG), which creates the majority of the names and full that are inserted into the program lower third portion of the , or DVE, for manipulation of video sources. In newer vision mixers, the DVE is integrated into the vision. A still store, or still frame, device for storage of graphics or other images. While the name suggests that the device is only capable of storing still images 's station, with waveform monitors, vectorscopes and the (CCU) or remote control panels for the CCUs. equipment for communication with talent and television crew to lock all of the video equipment to a common reference that Fig.3.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PCR Page 7 (CG), which creates the majority of the names and full digital portion of the , or DVE, for manipulation of video sources. In newer vision for storage of graphics or other images. While the and the camera television crew to lock all of the video equipment to a common reference that
  8. 8. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 8 3.2.1 Recording format  Jaihind TV is using the latest Sony MPEG IMX recording format for programme production to deliver the excellent picture quality to the viewers. DV CAM Specifications Tape: ME (Metal Evaporate) Track Pitch: 15 micrometers Track Width: 15 micrometers (10 micrometers on some early gear) Tape Speed: 28.215 mm/sec Record Time: Standard: 184 mins, MiniDV: 40 mins. Compression: Intra-frame, 5:1 DVC-format DCT, 25 Mbps video data rate Resolution & Sampling: 720x576, 4:2:0 (PAL), 720x480, 4:1:1 (NTSC) Audio: 2 ch @ 48 kHz, 16 bits; 4 ch @ 32 kHz, 12 bits Will accept 2 ch @ 44.1 kHz, 16 bits via 1394 I/O; locked. 3.2.2 IMX Format Specifications IMX, also known as Beta cam IMX or MPEG IMX, records SD NTSC and PAL video using high-quality MPEG-2 compression. a) Storage Medium One of the features of the IMX format is that it is not restricted to a single media type. IMX can be recorded on XDCAM, a Sony optical disc format, as well as the IMX tape format. IMX VTRs bridge the gap between conventional tape decks and modern computer editing systems with the following features:  Playback of older video formats such as Beta cam SP, Beta SX, and Digital Beta cam. These formats can be converted and output to MPEG IMX in real time.
  9. 9. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 9 Note: Not all IMX VTRs support playback and recording of all Beta cam formats.  IMX digital video file transfer via networking interfaces such as Ethernet and TCP/IP protocols b) Video Standard IMX supports both SD NTSC and SD PAL. c) Aspect Ratio NTSC and PAL IMX both have an aspect ratio of 4:3. d) Frame Dimensions, Number of Lines, and Resolution IMX can store video at two possible resolutions: NTSC (525) and PAL (625). The numbers refer to the number of analog lines of the corresponding video formats. However, many of these analog lines are not used to store picture information. In Final Cut Pro, the following frame dimensions are used:  NTSC IMX: 720 pixels per line, 486 lines  PAL IMX: 720 pixels per line, 576 lines In both formats, standard definition rectangular pixels are used, just as with DV, DVD, Digital Beta cam, and other SD digital video formats. e) Frame Rate IMX supports NTSC and PAL frame rates of 29.97 fps and 25 fps, respectively. f) Scanning Method IMX supports interlaced recording. g) Color Recording Method IMX records a 4:2:2 Y′CBCR (component) digital video signal. Each sample (pixel) has a resolution of 8 bits.
  10. 10. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 10 h) Data Rate and Video Compression IMX uses I-frame-only MPEG-2 compression. IMX is a restricted version of MPEG-2 4:2:2 Profile @ ML. The official SMPTE designation is D10, as specified in SMPTE standard 356M. Three compression ratios are supported:  30 Mbps: 5.6:1 compression  40 Mbps: 4.2:1 compression  50 Mbps: 3.3:1 compression i) Audio IMX supports two audio channel configurations:  Four audio channels, sampled at 48 kHz with 24 bits per sample  Eight audio channels, sampled at 48 kHz with 16 bits per sample j) Time code IMX supports 30 and 25 fps time code.
  11. 11. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE 3.3 EDIT SUITE Fig.3.3: SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF EDIT SUITE Non-linear editing is a video editing method which enables direct access to any frame in a digital video clip, without needing to play or scrub/shuttle through adjacent footage to reach it, as was necessary with historical most natural approach when all assets are available as files on recordings on reels or tapes, while linear editing is related to the need to sequentially view a film or read a tape to edit it. On the other hand, the NLE method is similar in concept to the "cut and paste" technique used in film editing. However, with the appropriation of non editing systems, the destructive act of cutting of film negatives is eliminated. Non non-destructive editing methods began to appear with the introduction of technology. It can also be viewed as the why it is called desktop video editing in the consumer space. Video and audio data are first captured to storage devices. The data are either INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Fig.3.3: SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF EDIT SUITE linear editing is a video editing method which enables direct access to any , without needing to play or scrub/shuttle through adjacent to reach it, as was necessary with historical video tape linear editing systems. It is the most natural approach when all assets are available as files on hard disks recordings on reels or tapes, while linear editing is related to the need to sequentially view a film or read a tape to edit it. On the other hand, the NLE method is similar in concept to the " technique used in film editing. However, with the appropriation of non editing systems, the destructive act of cutting of film negatives is eliminated. Non methods began to appear with the introduction of technology. It can also be viewed as the audio/video equivalent of word processing editing in the consumer space. Video and audio data are first captured to hard disks, video server, or other d storage devices. The data are either direct to disk recording or are imported from another Page 11 linear editing is a video editing method which enables direct access to any video , without needing to play or scrub/shuttle through adjacent linear editing systems. It is the s rather than recordings on reels or tapes, while linear editing is related to the need to sequentially view a film or read a tape to edit it. On the other hand, the NLE method is similar in concept to the " technique used in film editing. However, with the appropriation of non-linear editing systems, the destructive act of cutting of film negatives is eliminated. Non-linear, methods began to appear with the introduction of digital video word processing, which is , or other digital or are imported from another
  12. 12. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 12 source. Once imported, the source material can be edited on a computer using application software, any of a wide range of video editing software. In non-linear editing, the original source files are not lost or modified during editing. Professional editing software records the decisions of the editor in an edit decision list (EDL) which can be interchanged with other editing tools. Many generations and variations of the original source files can exist without needing to store many different copies, allowing for very flexible editing. It also makes it easy to change cuts and undo previous decisions simply by editing the edit decision list (without having to have the actual film data duplicated). Generation loss is also controlled, due to not having to repeatedly re-encode the data when different effects are applied. Compared to the linear method of tape-to-tape editing, non-linear editing offers the flexibility of film editing, with random access and easy project organization. With the edit decision lists, the editor can work on low-resolution copies of the video. This makes it possible to edit both standard-definition broadcast quality and high definition broadcast quality very quickly on normal PCs which do not have the power to do the full processing of the huge full-quality high-resolution data in real-time. A multimedia computer for non-linear editing of video will usually have a video capture card to capture analog video and/or a FireWire connection to capture digital video from a DV camera, with its video editing software. Various editing tasks can then be performed on the imported video before it is exported to another medium, or MPEG encoded for transfer to a DVD. One of the best things about nonlinear editing, is that the edit is instant - no splicing and waiting for the glue to set as in film, and no having to actually play back the entire shot for its full duration, as in videotape. One mouse click and it's done - on to the next edit. And the shot can, of course, be placed absolutely anywhere, even in between two frames of a previously laid down shot. Another advantage of nonlinear editing can be its reduced VTR cost. Obviously, to have instant access to all of your shots, you have to shoot on a non-digital camera and VTR, and dump the raw footage into the nonlinear editing system, but this
  13. 13. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 13 requires only one VTR (you can use the same videotape machine to record the finished product afterwards, too.) The down side of this, however, is the cost of hard drive storage - many editors only dub over the final takes of their shoot, not all of their raw footage. 3.4 COMPILER Fig.3.4: LAYOUT OF COMPILER 3.4.1 Production This part will discuss the production of the video. But not the creation of the video from the movie maker, this part is when the video is already done. One of the most important parts will be the election of the medium to watch. Depending if the video is designed and transmitted for watching through internet, or if is for television. Leaning on one or the other the requirements will be different. First of all the size of the file is noticed that the quality of the image in a DVD or in a TV program is better than the quality in an online transmission on a PC; higher quality implies higher size and vice versa. As a result of, is interesting for a online view smaller file extension for a clearer transmission.
  14. 14. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 14 A DVD movie can be like 4 Gigabytes hence would not be worth to view by internet streaming connection. The term streaming means that it is a direct current (without interruption). The user can listen or watch when they want. This technology allows to be stored in a buffer that will be listened or viewed. Streaming makes possible to play music or watch videos without having to be downloaded first. Up-to-date there are new software applications to listen music via streaming. Spotify uses those technology to listen music only needing an internet connection and the program. Besides, bigger size needs more bandwidth to be transferred by the network. Additionally, the file must be smaller than the original. Thenceforth a more powerful compression is needed for reduce the size of the movie file. For more compression, more energy and so on more power consumption. Furthermore there are new algorithms with the aim of reduce the size relevantly but also with a minor quality decrease. Consequently is important to select the correct devices related with the type of transmission and which compression is required. Before making the choice is useful to know which compression tools are craved. Here is a list of the different video coding standards:  MPEG-1: Is the standard of audio and video compression. Provides video at a resolution of 350x240 at 30 frames per second. This produces video quality slightly below the quality of conventional VCR videos. Includes audio compression format of Layer 3 (MP3).  MPEG-2: audio and video standard for broadcast of television quality. Offers resolutions of 720x480 and 1280x720 at 60fps with audio CD quality. Matches most of TV standards even HDTV. The principal use is for DVDs, satellite TV services and digital TV signals by cable. An MPEG-2 compression is able to reduce a 2 hour video to few gigabytes. While decompressing a MPEG-2 data stream no needs much computer resources, the encoding to MPEG-2 requires more energy to the process.  MPEG-3: Designed for HDTV but was replaced for MPEG-2  MPEG-4: Standard algorithm for graphics and video compression based on MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and Apple QuickTime technology. The MPEG-4 files are smaller than JPEG or QuickTime, therefore are designed to transfer video and images through a narrow
  15. 15. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 15 bandwidth and sustain different mixtures of video with text, graphics and 2D or 3D animation layers.  MPEG – 7: Formally called Multimedia Content Description Interface, supplies a set of tools for multimedia content. Performed to be generic and not aimed at a specific use.  MPEG – 21: Allow a Rights Expression Language (REL) and Rights Data Dictionary. Describes a standard that defines the description of the content and the processes to access, search, store and protect the copyright of the content discordant with other MPEG standards that define compression coding methods. The above- mentioned are the standard but each one has specific parts depending on the use. Among these types the most important contemporaneously are:  MPEG-2  MPEG-4 → particularly the part number 10 which without increasing the complexity of design and the file size, implements good video quality at lower bit rates than the previous. Technologically called MPEG-4 H.264 / AVC. 3.4.2 MPEG-2 (H.262) MPEG-2 is a standard for “the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information”. Is an extension of the MPEG-1 international standard for digital compression of audio and video signals created to broadcast formats at higher bit rates than MPEG-1. Initially developed to serve the transmission of compressed television programs via broadcast, cablecast, and satellite, and subsequently adopted for DVD production and for some online delivery systems, defines a combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression using the actual methods of storage, like DVDs or Blu-Ray, without a bandwidth restriction. The main characteristics are:  New prediction modes of fields and frames for interlaced scanning.  Improved quantification.  The MPEG-2 transport stream permits the multiplexing of multiple programs.
  16. 16. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 16  New intra-code variable length frame (VLC). Is a code in which the number of bits used in a frame depends on the probability of it. More frame probability implies more bits intended by frame. Strong support for increased errors.  Uses the discrete cosine transform algorithm and motion compensation techniques to compression.  Provides for multichannel surround sound coding. MPEG-2 contains different standard parts to suit to the different needs. Also annexes various levels and profiles. 3.4.3 MPEG-2 FUNDAMENTALS Nowadays, a TV camera can generate 25 pictures per second, i.e., a frame rate of 25Hz. But in order to convert it to a digital television is necessary to digitalize the pictures in order to be processed with a computer. An image is divided in two different signals: luminance (Y) and chrominance (UV). Each image has one luma number and two chrominance components. The television colour signal Red-Green-Blue (RGB) can be represented with luma and chrominance numbers. Chrominance bandwidth can be reduced relative to the luminance signal without an influence on the picture quality. An image can also be defined with a special notation (4:2:2, 4:2:0). These are types of chroma sub-sampling relevant to the compression of an image, storing more luminance details than colour details. The first number refers to the luminance part of the signal, the second refers to the chroma. In 4:2:2 luminance is sampled 4 times while the chroma values are sampled twice at the same rate. Being a fact that the human eye is more sensitive to brightness than colour, chroma is sampled less than luminance without any variation for the human perception. Those signals are also partitioned in Macro blocks which are the basic unit within an image. A macro block is formed by more blocks of pixels. Depending on the codec, the block will be bigger or smaller. Normally the size is a multiple of 4. MPEG-2 coding creates data flow by three different frames: intra-coded frames (I frames), predictive-coded frames (P-frames), and bidirectional-predictive-coded frames (B-frames) called “GOP structure” (Group of Pictures structure).  I-frame: Coded pictures without reference to others. Is compressed directly from a original frame.
  17. 17. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 17  P-frame: Uses the previous I-frame or P-frame for motion compensation. Each block can be predicted or intra-coded.  B-frame: Uses the previous I or P picture and offers the highest compression. One block in a B-picture can be predicted or intra-coded in a forward, backward or bidirectional way. A typical GOP structure could be: B1 B2 I3 B4 B5 P6 B7 B8 P9 B10 B11 P12. I-frames codes spatial redundancy while B-frames and P-frames code temporal redundancy. MPEG-2 also provides interlaced scanning which is a method of checking an image. The aim is to increase the bandwidth and to erase the flickering showing the double quantity of images per second with a half frame rate. For example, produce 50 images per second with a frame rate of 25Hz. The scan divides a video frame in two fields, separating the horizontal lines in odd lines and even lines. It enhances motion perception to the viewer. Depending on the number of lines and the frame rate, are divided in:  PAL / SECAM: 25 frames per second, 625 lines per frame. Used in Europe.  NTSC: 30 frames per second, 525 lines per frame. Used in North America. MPEG-2 encoding is organized into profiles. A profile is a "defined subset of the syntax of the specification". Each profile defines a range of settings for different encoder options. As most of settings are not available and useful in all profiles, these are designated to suit with the consumer requirements. A computer will need a hardware specific for the use, the same with a television or a mobile phone, but it would be capable to rate it in a particular profile. Then an encoder is needed to finish the compression. 3.4.4 MPEG-2 COMPRESSION BASICS Spatial Redundancy: A technical compression type which consists of grouping the pixels with similar properties to minimize the duplication of data in each frame. Involves an analysis of a picture to select and suppress the redundant information, for instance, removing the frequencies that the human cannot percept. To achieve this is employed a mathematical tool: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT).
  18. 18. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 18 Intra Frame DCT Coding: The Discrete cosine Transform (DCT) is a based transform with Fourier Discrete Transform with many applications to the science and the engineering but basically is applied on image compression algorithms. DCT is employed to decrease the special redundancy of the signals. This function has a good energy compaction property and so on accumulates most of the information in few transformed coefficients. In consideration of this the signal is converted to an new domain, in which only a little number of coefficients contain most of the information meanwhile the rest has got unappreciated values. In the new domain, the signal will have a much more compact representation, and may be represented mainly by a few transform coefficients. It is independent of the data. The algorithm is the same, regardless of the data applied in the algorithm. It is a lossless compression technique (negligible loss).The DCT is capable to interpret the coefficients in a frequency point. As a result of that, it can take a maximum of compression capacity profit. The result of applying DCT is an 8x8 array composed of distinct values divided in frequencies: • Low frequency implies more sensitive elements for the human eye. • High frequency means less cognizant components. Temporal Redundancy: Temporal compression is achieved having a view in a succession of pictures. Situation: An object moves across a picture without movement. The picture has all the information required until the movement and is not necessary to encode again the picture until the alteration. Thereafter, is not necessary to encode again all the picture but only the part that contains the movement owing that the rest of the scene is not affected by the moving object because is the same scene as the initial picture. The notation with is determined how much movement is contained between two successive pictures is motion compensated prediction. As a result of isolating a picture is not a good fact because probably an image is going to be constructed from the prediction from a previous picture or maybe the picture may be useful to create the next picture.
  19. 19. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 19 Motion Compensated Prediction: Identify the displacement of a given macro block in the current frame respect from the position it had in the frame of reference. The steps are:  Search for the same macro blocks of the frame to be encoded in the frame of reference.  If there is not the same macro block then the corresponding motion vector is encoded.  The more similar macro block (INTER) is chosen and later on is necessary to encode the motion vector.  If there is no similar block (INTRA) these block is encoded using only the spatial redundancy. 3.4.5 H.264 / MPEG-4 AVC H.264 or MPEG-4 part 10 defines a high-quality video codec compression developed by the Video Coding Expert Group (VCEG) and the Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) in order to create a standard capable of providing good quality image, but using rates actually lower than in previous video standards such as MPEG-2 and without increasing the complexity of its design, since otherwise it would be impractical and expensive to implement. A goal that is proposed by its creators was to increase its scope, i.e., allow the standard to be used in a wide variety of networks and video, both high and low resolution, DVD storage, etc. In December 2001 came the Joint Video Team (JVT) consisting of experts from VCEG and MPEG, and developed this standard to be finalized in 2003. The ISO / IEC (International Organization for Standardization / International Electro technical Commission) and ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector) joined this project. The first is responsible of the rules for standards by focusing on manufacturing and the second focuses mainly on tariff issues. The latter planned to adopt the
  20. 20. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 20 standard under the name of ITU-T H.264 and ISO / IEC wanted to name him MPEG-4 Part 10 Advanced Video Codec (AVC), hence the name of the standard. To set the first code they firstly based on looking at the previous standard algorithms and techniques to modify or if not create new ones:  DCT structure in conjunction with the motion compensation of previous versions was efficient enough so there was no need to make fundamental changes in its structure.  Scalable Video Coding: An important advance because it allows each user, regardless of the limitations of the device, receives the best possible quality, issuing only a single signal. This is possible because it provides a compressed stream of video and users can take only what you need to get a better video quality according to their technical limitations of receipt. The MPEG-4 has more complex algorithms and better benefits giving a special quality improvement, which provides a higher compression rate than MPEG-2 for an equivalent quality. 3.4.6 MAIN ADVANTAGES For the MPEG-4 AVC the main important features are: 1. Provides almost DVD quality video, but uses lower bit rate so that it's feasible to transmit digitized video streams in LAN, and also in WAN, where bandwidth is more critical, and hard to guarantee. 2. Dramatically advances audio and video compression, enabling the distribution of content and services from low bandwidths to high-definition quality across broadcast, broadband, wireless and packaged media. 3. Provides a standardized framework for many other forms of media — including text, pictures, animation, 2D and 3D objects – which can be presented in interactive and personalized media experiences. 4. Supports the diversity of the future content market. 5. Offers a variety of so-called “profiles,” tool sets from the toolbox, useful for specific applications, like in audio-video coding, simple visual or advanced simple visual profile, so users need only implement the profiles that support the functionality required.
  21. 21. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 21 6. Uses DCT algorithm mixed with motion compensation. It clearly shows that MPEG4 wants to be a content-based representation standard independent of any specific coding technology, bit rate, scene type of content, etc. This means it shows at the same time why and how MPEG4 is different from previous moving pictures coding standards. 8. Low latency The most important and relevant are: 1. Reduces the amount of storage needed 2. Increases the amount of time video can be stored 3. Reduces the network bandwidth used by the surveillance system 3.4.7 MAIN NEW FEATURES  Type of image : Adding two extra frames, apart from I, P, B, the SP (Switching P) and SI (Switching I) which allows passing from one video to another applying the temporal or spatial prediction with the possibility to reconstruct accurate values of the sample even when using different reference images than the images used in the prediction process.  Motion compensation: With variant sizes of the sub-blocks; 16x8, 8x16, 8x8 pixels, 8x8 size can be partitioned into 8x4, 4x8 or 4x4 groups of pixels to providing a greater accuracy into the estimation.  Transform: a DCT modification with a 4x4 pixel size, using Integer coefficients to avoid the approximation errors, getting a better precision to calculate the coefficients.  Entropy coding: Coding method without errors that consist in treating all the transform array in a zigzag way, bringing together groups with similar frequencies, insert coded zeros and applying VLC coding for the rest. This technique reduces in a 5% the file size but with a larger coding and decoding time. 3.5. MASTER-CONTROL ROOM The Master control room is the place where the on-air signal is controlled. It may include controls to playout television programs and television commercials, switch local or
  22. 22. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE television network feeds, record may be in an adjacent equipment rack room. The term "studio" usually refers to a place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from the PCR to MCR and then out to the transmitter Fig 3.5: SCHEMATIC LAYOUT OF When all of the diverse elements of the daily program schedule come together, there has to be some way of integrating them in a connected way. That is where master control comes in. Master control operators (and their equipment) are and look of the station. 3.5.1 ROUTER / SWITCHER INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT feeds, record satellite feeds and monitor the transmitter, or these items jacent equipment rack room. The term "studio" usually refers to a place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from the PCR to MCR and then out to the transmitter. Fig 3.5: SCHEMATIC LAYOUT OF MCR / PLAYOUT When all of the diverse elements of the daily program schedule come together, there has to be some way of integrating them in a connected way. That is where master control comes in. Master control operators (and their equipment) are responsible for the final output / SWITCHER Page 22 feeds and monitor the transmitter, or these items jacent equipment rack room. The term "studio" usually refers to a place where a particular local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from When all of the diverse elements of the daily program schedule come together, there has to be some way of integrating them in a connected way. That is where master control responsible for the final output
  23. 23. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 23 The heart of the master control operator's equipment is the switcher, which can perform cuts, dissolves, and keys like a production switcher. There is one significant difference, however - the MCR switcher also has the ability to take audio from any of the sources selected, and is therefore called an "audio follow" switcher. In addition to the regular program audio, the MCR operator (or "MCO") has the capability of sending out additional tape or digital cartridge material either to replace the existing audio completely, or mixing it over the continuing source. This is done by lowering the level of the program material and is called "voice over" mode. The keyer on the switcher is generally used to superimpose station identification information over program material, or other statistics such as the time of day. With all of this information and technical detail to watch over, master control operations are beginning to computerize. The computer remembers and activates transitions sequences. It also cues, rolls, and stops film projectors and VTRs, and calls up any number of slides from the still store system. The development of MCR switchers is going in two directions. One can have the switcher perform more and more visual tricks. Or, it can be kept simple enough so that the operator does not have to climb all over it to reach everything, or take a computer course to use it. 3.5.2 CHARACTER GENERATOR The character generator looks and works like a typewriter, except that it writes letters and numbers on the video screen instead of paper. This titling device has all but replaced the conventional studio card titles, and has become an important production tool. The more sophisticated character generators can produce letters of various sizes and fonts, and simple graphic displays such as curves and rectangles (blocks). In addition, backgrounds can be colorized. To prepare the titles or graphs, you enter the needed information on a computer- like keyboard. You can then either integrate the information directly into the program in progress, or store it for later use. Whether it is stored on computer disk or in the generator's
  24. 24. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 24 RAM (random access memory), the screen full of information is keyed to a specific address (electronic page number) for easy and fast recall. Most character generators have two output channels - a preview and a program. The preview channel is for composing titles. The program channel is for actually integrating the titles with the major program material. The preview channel has a cursor that shows you where on the screen the word or sentence will appear. By moving the cursor into various positions, you can centre the information, or move it anywhere on the screen. Various controls allow you to make certain words flash, to roll the whole copy up and down the screen, or to make it crawl sideways. More sophisticated generators can move words and graphics on and off the screen at any angle, and at any of several speeds. 3.5.3 LOGO / GRAPHICS GENERERATOR With graphics generators, you can draw images on the screen. These units are also called video art, or paint box, systems. You draw onto an electronic tablet with a stylus. An output monitor immediately reflects your artistic efforts, and another one offers a series of design options (such as colour, thickness of line, styles of letters, or special effects) to improve your art work. Newer systems will allow you to change the size and position of a graphic so that it can be used full-frame, in an over the shoulder position (for news), or in lower third for information display. More than one original image can be integrated into a new full-frame composite (a montage). Character generators are now often part of the software package. Retouching (softening edges, adding or removing highlights, matching colors, blending objects into their backgrounds) is commonly available. Most graphics generators work in real time; your drawing is immediately displayed on the screen. Less sophisticated paint boxes take a moment before they display the effects. Also, better quality units have built-in circuits and software to prevent aliasing (jagged details on diagonal lines). These are hidden by slightly blurring the edges of the lines. Personal computers are now often used to generate television graphics, both as
  25. 25. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 25 character generators and paint boxes. Some amazing effects can be produced with these easy to use graphics machines. These systems have an internal board to convert the regular PC output to standard NTSC scanning. 3.5.4 ENCODER An Encoder is a device used to convert analog video signals into digital video signals. Most of them compress the information so it can be stored or transmitted in the minimum space possible. To achieve this it takes advantage of video sequences that have spatial or temporal redundancy. Therefore, eliminating redundant information obtains that encode information more optimal. The spatial redundancy is erased with DCT coefficient coding. To delete temporal redundancy is used the motion compensation prediction, with motion estimation between successive blocks. The operation method is:  Signals are separated luma (Y) and chroma (C).  Find the error of estimation to make the DCT.  The coefficients are quantified and entropy coded (VLC).  Coefficients are multiplexed and passed to the buffer. The buffer controls the quality of signal.  Check that the outflow bit stream of the buffer is not variable, because the signal is thought to be transmitted on a channel with a steady speed.  The quantified image is reconstructed for future reference for prediction and motion estimation. The DCT algorithm and the block quantification can cause visible discontinuities at the edges of the blocks leading to the known “Blocking effect”, because the DCT omits the 0 in the matrix, so may produce imperfections. As a result of, new standard video coding like H.264/MPEG-4 ACV, includes filter algorithms able to decrease that effect. 3.5.5 MODULATOR In the televisions systems, signals can be carried between a limited frequency spectrum, which a concrete lower and upper frequencies. A modulator is a device charged of
  26. 26. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 26 transporting a signal inside another signal to be transmitted. Is able to transform a low- frequency signal into a other frequency signal. As a result of, the frequency can be controlled and the problem above can be solved. Mainly, the aim of modulate a signal consist in changing a parameter of the wave according to the variations of the modulation signal (information to be transmitted). 3.5.6 UPCONVERTER Upconverter is used to convert television signals to VHF or UHF signals regardless of whether it is a digital signal or analog signal. The device detects the kind of incoming signal and being based on if is a digital or analog, creates the suitable reference signal. 3.6 DIGITAL VIDEO BROADCASTING (DVB) Once the video is encoded in the desired format (MPEG-2 or MPEG-4/H.264 AVC) will have to be put on the network to be distributed and transported to the end user. In this field there are different connections, satellite, terrestrial, cable, etc., Depending on the type of means used in transport will have different formats, but mostly in terrestrial digital television will use a terrestrial connection (DVB-T) mixed with a connection via satellite (DVB-S). These connections will be in charge of transmitting the digital signal to the end user, but first this signal must be created, since only at this point you have video signals, audio and data. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) has become the synonym for digital television and for data broadcasting world-wide. DVB services have recently been introduced in Europe, in North- and South America, in Asia, Africa and Australia.DVB is the technology that makes possible the broadcasting of “data containers“ in which all kinds of digital data up to a data rate of 38 Mbit/s can be transmitted at bit-error rates in the order of 10-11 . 3.6.1 BASEBAND PROCESSING The transmission techniques developed by DVB are transparent with respect to the kind of data to be delivered to the customer. They are capable of making available bit streams at (typically) 38 Mbit/s within one satellite or cable channel or at 24 Mbit/s within
  27. 27. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 27 one terrestrial channel. On the other hand a digital video signal created in today’s TV studios comprises of 166 Mbit/s and thus cannot possibly be carried via the existing media. Data rate reduction or “source coding“therefore is a must for digital television. One of the fundamental decisions which were taken during the early days of DVB was the selection of MPEG-2 for the source coding of audio and video and for the creation of programme elementary streams, transport streams etc. - the so-called systems level. Three international standards describe MPEG-2 systems, video and audio. Using MPEG-2 a video signal can be compressed to a datarate of for example 5 Mbit/s and still can be decompressed in the receiver to deliver a picture quality close to what analogue television offers today. The term “channel coding” is used to describe the algorithms used for adaptation of the source signal to the transmission medium. In the world of DVB it includes the FEC (Forward Error Correction) and the modulation as well as all kinds of format conversion and filtering. 3.7 DVB-S2: THE SECOND GENERATION STANDARD FOR SATELLITE BROAD-BAND SERVICES DVB-S2 is a digital satellite transmission system developed by the DVB Project. It makes use of the latest modulation and coding techniques to deliver performance that approaches the theoretical limit for such systems. Satellite transmission was the first area addressed by the DVB Project in 1993 and DVB standards form the basis of most satellite DTV services around the world today, and therefore of most digital TV in general. DVB-S2 will not replace DVB-S in the short or even the medium term, but makes possible the delivery of services that could never have been delivered using DVB-S. The original DVB-S system, on which DVB-S2 is based, specifies the use of QPSK modulation along with various tools for channel coding and error correction. Further additions were made with the emergence of DVB-DSNG (Digital Satellite News Gathering), for example allowing the use of 8PSK and 16QAM modulation. DVB-S2 benefits from more recent developments and has the following key technical characteristics:
  28. 28. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 28 There are four modulation modes available, with QPSK and 8PSK intended for broadcast applications in non-linear satellite transponders driven close to saturation. 16APSK and 32APSK, requiring a higher level of C/N, are mainly targeted at professional applications such as news gathering and interactive services. DVB-S2 uses a very powerful Forward Error Correction scheme (FEC), a key factor in allowing the achievement of excellent performance in the presence of high levels of noise and interference. The FEC system is based on concatenation of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri- Hcquengham) with LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) inner coding. Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM) allows the transmission parameters to be changed on a frame by frame basis depending on the particular conditions of the delivery path for each individual user. It is mainly targeted to unicasting interactive services and to point-to-point professional applications. DVB-S2 offers optional backwards compatible modes that use hierarchical modulation to allow legacy DVB-S receivers to continue to operate, whilst providing additional capacity and services to newer receivers. 3.8 TELEPORT A telecommunications port—or, more commonly, teleport—is a satellite ground station with multiple parabolic antennas (i.e., an antenna farm) that functions as a hub connecting a satellite or geocentric orbital network with a terrestrial telecommunications network. Teleports may provide various broadcasting services among other telecommunications functions, such as uploading computer programs or issuing commands over an uplink to a satellite. 3.9 ENPS  ENPS (Electronic News Production System) is a software application developed by the Associated Press's Broadcast Technology division for producing, editing, timing, organizing and running news broadcasts. The system is scalable and flexible enough
  29. 29. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 29 to handle anything from the local news at a small-market station to large organizations spanning remote bureaus in multiple countries.  The basic organization of each news broadcast is called a "rundown" (US) or "running order" (UK). The run-down is a grid listing scripts, video, audio, character generator data, teleprompter control, director notations, camera operator cues, and timing estimates for each section of the broadcast.  ENPS integrates scripts, wire feeds, device control, and production information in a server/client environment. On the server side, ENPS runs an identical backup server (called a "buddy") at all times as a fail-safe. If the primary server fails, all users are redirected to the buddy server until such time as the primary comes back on-line. All document changes are queued on the buddy and copied back to the primary automatically when it returns to production. Note that this is not a mirror server as the changed data is copied to the buddy, but there is no direct replication inherent within the intercommunications between the servers, so if the data is corrupted due to hardware failure on one server, this corruption will not be replicated to the "buddy".  Device control can be managed either through a serial interface, or the MOS (Media Object Server) protocol. MOS functionality is included in the base ENPS license, but may be an extra add-on for the device that needs to interface with ENPS. MOS items such as video or audio clips can be added directly to scripts, and then used by third party software and devices during the broadcast.  ENPS was originally developed by the Associated Press for use at the BBC in the United Kingdom as a replacement for the text mode system BASYS (which developed into Avid iNEWS), and the Corporation has the largest installation of the system with over 12,000 users in 300 different locations.
  30. 30. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 30 CHAPTER 4 DIGITAL SATELLITE NEWS GATHERING (DSNG) 4.1 DSNG Fig.4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DSNG Satellite offers the unique possibility to transmit images and sound from almost anywhere on the planet. From a fully equipped uplink truck or from a light flyaway travel case, DSNG makes it possible to bring live news and sport to millions of viewers. MIC ANTENNA TRACKING SYSTEM USING GPS
  31. 31. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 31 DSNG is all about being at the right place at the right time. This often means to travel light in order to get there fast. But you don't need to compromise on picture or signal quality to be there just where it is happening. You also don't need to be cut-off from your news production facilities. Digital satellite news gathering (DSNG) is a system that combines electronic news gathering (ENG) with satellite news gathering (SNG). As time passed and electronic devices become smaller, a whole DSNG system was fitted into a van. DSNG vans are now common; they're extensively used in covering news events. 4.2 EQUIPMENT Fig.4.2 DIGITAL SATELLITE NEWS GATHERING VAN The DSNG van, also known as an “outside broadcast” (OB) van, is a mobile communications systems using state-of-the-art equipment to produce and transmit news as it happens, where it happens. A typical DSNG van is outfitted with a two-way high-power amplifier satellite system, a production component and an energy framework. The DSNG van also comes with a custom and powerful electrical system, as it needs to power all the equipment it carries without the need for any external source.
  32. 32. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 32 There are also several additional equipments inside the van: a traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) administrator system, an encoder/modulator, primary and secondary monitors, video synthesizer/mixer and an audio mixer. External equipment includes high definition cameras, a solid state power amplifier and a low noise block down converter. Most DSNG manufacturers can outfit vans with the necessary equipment with ease. Some manufacturers even offer stand-alone modular DSNG equipment systems, whereby qualified operators can move and install equipment from one vehicle to another easily. DSNG vans have five main working sections: the monitoring section, the audio engineering section, the data and power storage area, the video control area and the transmission area. 4.3 TRANSMISSION MECHANICS OF OLDER SYSTEMS With older DSNG setups, as soon as a camera captures news images, the satellite in the OB van transmits real-time images to an uplink satellite, which in turn sends raw footage to a geostationary network. The network produces a local copy of the received images for editing. During this editing process, archive images from the network’s libraries are sometimes integrated into the edited video as the network sees fit. The edited video is then ready for play-out. 4.4 TRANSMISSION MECHANICS OF NEWER SYSTEMS With the advent of interactive tapeless methods of DSNG, editing is done simultaneously through a laptop-based rewriting/proofreading terminal. The van is equipped with transmission and reception facilities, which allow rough and condensed files to be transmitted to and received from a remote geostationary network. A prime video server processes the files for storage and eventual broadcast. The DSNG system maximizes bandwidth to allow faster turnover of news in real time. A modern DSNG van is a sophisticated affair, capable of deployment practically
  33. 33. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 33 anywhere in the civilized world. Signals are beamed between a geostationary satellite and the van, and between the satellite and a control room run by a broadcast station or network. In the most advanced systems, Internet Protocol (IP) is used. Broadcast engineers are currently working on designs for remotely controlled, robotic DSNG vehicles that can be teleoperated in hostile environments such as battle zones, deep space missions, and undersea explorations without endangering the lives of human operators. 4.5 WORKING OF DSNG DSNG of Jaihind TV is communicating using NSS 12 570 E. Before the communication starts we need to synchronize the dish antenna mounted on the DSNG with our satellite. The position of the satellite and the antenna must be in Line Of Sight (LOS). The position of the antenna can be determined in such a way that the transmitted beacon signal is received with its maximum power. After tracking the location of the satellite, we can start the communication. The camera out will be taken and then it will be modulated using QPSK. Next we will encode, and then we will get an L-band signal. This signal will be upconverted and then amplified using a TWTA. The obtained signal is send to the feed arm of the antenna using a rectangular waveguide. The signal from the feed arm is radiated to the antenna dish in such a way that maximum power will be radiating in the LOS direction. This is the basic working of a typical DSNG. One of the difficult and important operation in these steps is the tracking of DSNG with its satellite. One thing to be noted is that the vehicle must be always kept in a horizontal direction, for that special equipment are used. DSNG vehicles are designed and provided by VSSC.
  34. 34. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT DEPARTMENT OF ECE, AJCE Page 34 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION We have undergone our industrial training in Jaihind TV at Thiruvananthapuram. We got a great experience and exposure in the world of broadcasting. We learned the telecasting methods for live programs, news and recorded programs. Also we got an idea about the operation of Digital Satellite News Gathering vehicle of Jaihind TV. The transmission of the programs to the satellite is from Noida (Telport own by EsselSyam Satcom) at Delhi up to which programs are carried through optical fiber cable. The signals from the satellite are then received in remote stations using commercial satellite recivers. We have got an idea about the Production Control Room, Master Control Room, Live Room, etc.

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