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  1. 1. Aruthiy, Jennifer, Reshawn & Shaamini
  2. 2. HINDUISM Hinduism is one of the oldest, largest religions in the world. It is one of the many polytheistic religions in the world, meaning that they worship multiple Gods. In this class, we have studied many of them, such as Shiva, Indra and Kali. The faith Hinduism is practiced by over 900 million people worldwide, for which many of them are of Indian heritage.Lakshmi – The Goddess of Wealth
  3. 3. Hinduism Only religion in the world which has emphasized to such an extent the motherhood of God No single founder, no single sculpture and no commonly agreed set of teachings Believes that there is no definite starting point. The traditions that flow into Hinduism may go back several thousands years and some practitioners claim that the Hindu religion is eternal. Believes that existence is a cycle of birth, death and rebirth which is all governed by karma
  4. 4. Hinduism Hinduism originated around the Indus Valley near the River Indus in modern day Pakistan writers often refer to Hinduism as a way of life or a family of religions rather than a single religion About 80% of the Indian population follow the traditions and beliefs of Hinduism
  5. 5. NavaratriThis is a nine day festival of Hinduism. Thisdemonstrates the concept of good vs. eviland is mainly dedicated to Durga, who isthe warrior goddess representing power.Navaratri is a celebration dedicated to allthe goddesses and asking for theirblessings in different aspects of a person‟slife. This festivals symbolizes health andprosperity.
  6. 6. Navaratri During this festival, many people dance around a lamp or so-called a “Kalash”, symbolizing divine power Navaratri is a festival in which God is adored as Mother It is said that Shiva gave permission to Durga to see her mother for nine days in the year and this festival also remembers this visit Similarly, families make an attempt to return home on these days, and leave on the tenth
  7. 7. Significance of the Festival Each Indian festival has a proper meaning, reason and significance behind its celebration. For this specific festival, it marks the triumph of good over evil as to when she defeated Mahishasura the demon after 9 days and nights. During this period Durga, Laskshmi and Saraswati are worshipped.Ritual lamps.
  8. 8. Significance of the Festival “Navaratri” means "the festival of nine nights." It‟s done for the goddess Durga which means remover of the miseries in life. She is also referred to as "Devi" (goddess) or "Shakti" (energy or power.) It is this energy, which helps God to proceed with the work of creation, preservation and destruction.
  9. 9. Significance of the Festival In Navratri, as the name suggests, meaning nine nights, each day of the nine-day festival are dedicated to the worship of different forms of Goddess Durga. First three days = Goddess Durga = energy + powers are worshipped. First day = Kumari > represented by a girl child. Second day = Parvathi > represented by a young woman. Third day = Kali is worshipped > represents woman who have matured. Fourth, fifth and sixth day of Navratri = Lakshmi (prosperity and peace.) People with evil, ego, anger, lust and their other bad instincts = experience a void which is full of spiritual wealth which is where the goddess Lakshmi comes into play. Fifth day = learning utensils placed in front of Lakshmi. Seventh and eighth day = Saraswati (art and knowledge.)
  10. 10. Significance of the Festival Offering made to Saraswati = clarified butter (Ghee), rice pudding (kheer) and sesame seeds. Ninth day of Navratri (Mahanavami), during this day 9 girls who haven‟t reached puberty are worshipped. Nine girls = nine forms of Durga, the girls‟ feet are washed as a welcoming to the goddess. Girls are offered a new set of clothes as a gift at the end of the puja. Dancing and devotion. Followers perform a Devi-sathaapna in their homes where they invite the goddess. People think that life is governed by the three gunas and Navaratri festival. First three days = Tamo Guna (depression, fear and emotional instability).
  11. 11. Significance of the Festival Second three = rajo guna (anxiety and feverishness.) Last three days = sattva guna (clear, focused, peaceful and dynamic life.) The three gunas are considered as the feminine force of our universe. By worshipping Guna, harmonising the three gunas and allowing us to bring out sattva. Sattva = victory. Power is celebrated as a tenth day called Dasera.
  12. 12. Why worship the Mother Goddess? A Mother Goddess usually refers to a goddess who symbolizes motherhood, fertility and creation. Many different goddesses have represented motherhood in one way or another, while some are associated with the birth of humanity as a whole, others represent the fertility of Earth.Durga – The Warrior Goddess
  13. 13. Why worship the Mother Goddess? Durga represents the empowering and protective nature of motherhood. She defeated her enemy, Mahishasura and protected many from suffering Hindus view Goddess Durga as the supreme Mother Goddess Hindu worship of the divine Mother can be traced back to pre-vedic, prehistoric India
  14. 14. Why celebrate for 9nights and days?Navaratri literally means nine nights. Thenine days given for this holiday are used insets of three to devote time to each of theGoddesses we pray to. The celebration isboth during the beginning of summer, andthe winter. Stories are told during this timethat we recognize nine days because Shivahad allowed Durga to see her mother foronly nine days a year.
  15. 15. Why celebrate for nine nights and days? The 9 days are used in sets of three to devote time to each Goddess: Durga, Lakshmi and Saraswati. Durga: takes away vices, sins & defects. Lakshmi: wealth. Saraswati: wisdom, success. Worshipping all three = success in life and family.
  16. 16.  Durga had defeated Mahishasura in a battle that lasted 9 days. Shiva allowed Durga to see her mother for 9 days; festival recognizes this. 9 days are used in sets of 3 to also recognize values including: tamo guna, rajo guna, and sattra guna. Nine different ways (areas) of celebrating Navaratri including: Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, West Bengal, Gujurat, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab.
  17. 17. Why twice a year?Navaratri is an important festival for Hindusand is celebrated twice a year.
  18. 18. Why twice a year? Beginning of summer/beginning of winter – sacred times to worship These are the sacred time because of the climate change Reasons: 1. the divine power makes earth move around the sun, maintains balance. In order to keep the balance, the divine power must be thanked, and by thanking the power, you worship and celebrate it 2. The changes in climate = body/mind change. Therefore we have to pray to maintain physical and mental balance
  19. 19. Why do you need thepower?Durga will bestow you withwealth, auspiciousness, prosperity, knowledge and other powers which would helppeople get through life.
  20. 20. Why do you need thepower? Durga will bestow you with wealth, auspiciousness, prosperity, kno wledge and other powers which would help people get through life The flame symbolises everlasting power with water.
  21. 21. The 3 Primary GodsNavaratri is a festival of dance, worshippingthe three Goddesses, Durga, Saraswati andLakshmi. These three Goddesses have allplayed a part in saving and protectinghumanity.
  22. 22. Durga The word "Durga" in Sanskrit means invincible Another meaning of "Durga" is "Durgatinashini," which literally translates into "the one who eliminates sufferings." Hindus believe that goddess Durga protects her devotees from the evils of the world and at the same time removes their miseries. The red clothing she wears signifies that she is always busy destroying evil and protecting mankind from the pain and suffering they are going through which is caused by evil forces
  23. 23. Durga She rides on a tiger, which symbolizes unlimited power riding a tiger indicates that she possesses unlimited power and uses it to protect virtue and destroy evil She has 18 arms holding weapons in each hand Different weapons must be used to fight enemies depending upon the circumstances. For example, selfishness must be destroyed by detachment, jealousy by desirelessness, prejudice by self- knowledge, and ego by discrimination.
  24. 24. Saraswati the goddess with the powers of speech, wisdom and learning She has four hands representing four aspects of human personality in learning: mind, intellect, alertness and ego Many educational institutions begin their day with a special prayer to Saraswati Most students seek her blessings upon their books and writing implements
  25. 25. Saraswati She is the repository of wisdom, the originator of the Vedas and the inventor of Devanagri, the script used to write Sanskrit and several other Indian languages the ninth day of the Navratri festival which is called Mahanavami day, books and all musical instruments are kept in front of the goddess early at dawn and worshipped with special prayers The Sanskrit word „Sara‟ means „essence‟ and „Swa‟ means „self‟, thus Saraswathi means “the essence of the self”.
  26. 26. Lakshmi The word Lakshmi is derived from the Sanskrit word "Laksya", meaning aim or goal she is the goddess of wealth and prosperit She is the active energy of Vishnu, she also appears as Lakshmi-Narayan - Lakshmi accompanying Vishnu In some images two elephants are shown spraying water while standing next to her, which represents purity and wisdom
  27. 27. Lakshmi The importance attached to the presence of Lakshmi in every household makes her an essentially domestic deity Householders worship Lakshmi for the well being and prosperity of the family Lakshmi i is also worshipped during the festival Diwali For this festival the goddess Lakshmi is celebrated in image, song, worship and prayer
  28. 28. RitualsDepending on the area you live in, therituals and the meanings can differ.Generally, the rituals are done to honourDurga, Saraswati and Lakshmi. The tenthday (Vijayadashami) brings it‟s own rituals.Significant celebrations include dances andmany other pujas. There are multiple waysand rules on how to honour each God, eachhaving it‟s own importance.
  29. 29. Rituals Done so Durga, Lakshmi and Saraswati will reward us. Celebrate with music, dances and costumes. Nine days represented by placing a picture of Durga in water to float & dancing for nine nights. Multiple ways known to worship the goddesses.
  30. 30. Rituals Offering saris. Offering flowers. Placing images of the Gods and decorating homes. Planting seeds. Worshiping girls & idols. Fasting. Lighting a lamp.
  31. 31. Rituals Waking up later than usual. Traditional snacks. Performing pujas. Stories of relationships with Gods told. Shrines created.