Post Colonialism Intro


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Post Colonialism Intro

  1. 1. Post-colonialism
  2. 2. What is colonialism? <ul><li>Colonialism is about the dominance of a strong nation over another weaker one </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of the colonialist, by brute force, of extra markets, extra resources of raw material and manpower from the colonies </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is colonialism? <ul><li>The basic assumptions in defence of colonial actions are : </li></ul><ul><li>The colonized are savages in need of education and rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the colonized is not up to the standard of the colonizer </li></ul><ul><li>The colonized nation is unable to manage and run itself properly, and thus it needs the wisdom and expertise of the colonizer. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonized nation embraces a set of religious beliefs incompatible with those of the colonizer </li></ul><ul><li>The colonized people pose dangerous threat to themselves and to the civilized world if left alone </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Effect of Colonialism <ul><li>The total or partial erosion of the colonized culture </li></ul><ul><li>The mediation of the identity and subjectivity of the colonized </li></ul><ul><li>The total rejection by some elements among the colonized of everything western as a form of reaction and protest against the colonizer. </li></ul><ul><li>The categorization of the world into ranks, such as first world, second world, the West and the stereotyping that follows. </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of bourgeoisie classes in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of societies with a lot of contradictions and split loyalties. </li></ul><ul><li>It brought to the colonized a new vision of life, mainly western and advanced. It fostered a strong sense of national unity. It brought industrialization and modern economy to the colonies; and above all it advanced cultural life where it occurred </li></ul>
  5. 6. Colonialism & Globalisation <ul><li>Shrinking world through travel and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural homogenisation occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Western values prevail </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid cultures created </li></ul><ul><li>Economic control </li></ul>
  6. 7. Othering <ul><li>The process of Othering creating negative identities, often in binary opposition to western ideals… </li></ul><ul><li>Savage </li></ul><ul><li>Uncivilised </li></ul><ul><li>God-less </li></ul><ul><li>Stupid </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural lacking </li></ul><ul><li>No technology </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually easy </li></ul><ul><li>Cruel </li></ul><ul><li>Exotic </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Examples of ‘othering’ are still very prevalent in contemporary culture. For example, advertisers may offer consumers ‘a taste of the East’ or the ‘mysteries of the Orient’ whilst film producers scour the globe for locations (and attendant extras) to serve as a tastefully exotic background to the latest action adventure film. Similarly, architects and designers may incorporate hints of mystery, difference or ‘otherness’ in their work by utilising symbols such as a palm tree or a pagoda shape </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>On the other hand, there are many cultural products that criticise, problematise or contradict the assumptions of ‘the other’. A few London-based examples include: </li></ul><ul><li>Brick Lane (Ali, 2004) Monica Ali’s novel has also been filmed (dir. Sarah Gavron, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Bend It Like Beckham (dir. Gurinder Chadha, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Small Island by Andrea Levy (Levy, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>White Teeth by Zadie Smith (Smith, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty Pretty Things (dir. Stephen Frears, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the work of poets Benjamin Zephaniah and Linton Kwesi Johnson. For the latter, try Bass Culture (Island Records, 1980). </li></ul>
  9. 10. What is post-colonialism? <ul><li>A critique of western representations of race, ethnicity, culture, and human identity after colonisation </li></ul><ul><li>The discourses that no culture is better or worse than other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>The study of the power relationships between previously colonised cultures and people </li></ul>
  10. 11. What is post-colonialism? <ul><li>Post colonial literature, thinking and art assumes these themes… </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural relativism. This means that the colonialists’ defilement of culture is socially, morally and politically incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>The absurdity of colonial language and discourses. A careful study of recent colonial narratives suggest that the colonialist is always rendered short of expression to comprehend and fathom his colonial experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalence towards authority. This ambivalence is born out of the struggle and conflict between native and settler with the outcome of the settler’s disposal. This victory over the settler leads the native to question all forms of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial alienation. Colonialism leads to the alienation of the native in his own land. This is described as a traumatic experience that erodes the individual’s identity. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Robinson Crusoe <ul><li>The culture of the other is barbaric, chaotic and anti religious </li></ul><ul><li>Friday is neither Crosoe’s friend nor his equal. He is his slave </li></ul><ul><li>Crusoe enslaves Friday, uses his manpower in advancing his own cause </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches him English and imposes Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Crusoe sells Friday as a slave </li></ul>