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CLUTCHES
1
Clutch
• Clutch is a mechanical device that facilitates
transmission of power and motion from one
component (the driving m...
Purpose
• A clutch is designed with the following
requirements
– Allow the vehicle to come to a stop while the
transmissio...
Types Of Clutch
Clutch
Positive
Clutch
Friction
Clutch
Plate Or
Disc Clutch
Single plate
clutch
Multiplate
Clutch
Cone
Clu...
Types of Clutch
1. WET CLUTCH : Wet clutch is immersed in a cooling lubricating
fluid which also keeps the surfaces clean ...
Clutch terms
• Clutch disengaged (Clutch pedal pressed)
The clutch is disengaged when
– Starting the engine
– Shifting the...
Bolted to Crank shaft
(friction disk) splined to transmission
Input shaft
Throw-out bearing
allows to push on
rotating clu...
Components
Primary components
Flywheel
Clutch disc
Pressure plate
Release (Throw out) bearing
Secondary components
Pilot b...
Single Plate Clutch
• Working- The diagram shows the pressure plate
pulled back by the release levers against the
compress...
Flywheel
– Attached to the crankshaft
flange
– Mass is used to store energy
– Has a machined surface on
which the clutch d...
Flywheel Run out
Clutch disc (Friction Disc)
– Lined on both sides with a friction lining (similar to brake
pads). Various materials have b...
Friction disc
Friction disc
• Often made of
asbestos
• Must be put in
only one way
(Usually marked)
Friction disc
Friction disc
• Torsional springs
– Can be spring or rubber
– Dampen power impulses from crankshaft
Torsional Springs
Have pins to limit amount of twist.
Springs try to keep it centered between pins.
Friction disc
• Cushion springs
– Waved metal between clutch halves
– Dampen clutch engagement
Pressure
plate
Diaphragm
spring
Clutch
housing
Pressure Plate
Pressure Plate
– Applies pressure to the clutch disc by ‘squeezing’ the clutch disc
between itself and the flywheel
– Allo...
Checking pressure plate for warpage
Diaphragm-Spring Clutch
Diaphragm-Spring Clutches
Mechanical Diaphragm Type Clutch
Push Type Pull Type
Clutch Release Bearing
 Transmits the movement
of the clutch linkage to
the pressure plate
 Is usually a ball or roller
...
Throw out Bearing (Release Bearing)
• Slides on transmission input shaft bearing retainer
Clutch fork
27
Clutch Linkage
A clutch linkage mechanism uses levers and rods to
transfer motion from the clutch pedal to the clutch fork...
Clutch Linkage
– Right amount of
movement and direction
without too much pedal
pressure
– Less Wear
– Spring to pull T/O b...
Cable clutch
• No complicated linkage
• Flexibility
Cable clutch
The clutch cable mechanism uses a steel cable
inside a flexible housing to transfer pedal
movement to the clu...
Hydraulic clutch
• Uses master cylinder and slave cylinder
• Uses brake fluid
• Needs bleeding
Hydraulic clutch
• No complicated linkage
• Can easily control
mechanical advantage
with piston sizes
Servicing is similar...
Multi Plate Clutch
• Multi plate clutch is used when
– large torque is to be transmitted e.g. Heavy
vehicles and machine t...
• When a great amount of torque is to be transmitted, instead of single
plate a number of friction plates are employed. Th...
Multi Plate Clutch
It consists of a flywheel and a cone mounted on driving and
driven shafts respectively.
The shape of the side of the flywh...
Driving
shaft
Driven
shaft
Friction
lining
α
Maximum torque transmitted (T) = μWrm cosecα
α = semi-apex angle of
the cone
...
• The only advantage of this clutch is that the
normal force acting on the friction surfaces is
greater than the axial for...
Driving
shaft
Driven
shaft
Friction
lining
Total friction torque (T) = nµR(F-P)
F=mrω2
ω
ω
P
Centrifugal Clutch
Centrifugal Clutch
• The faster the RPM, more is the force on
clutch disk
Clutch Safety Switch
• Prevents from cranking with clutch engaged
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Clutches for automobile

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Clutches for automobile

  1. 1. CLUTCHES 1
  2. 2. Clutch • Clutch is a mechanical device that facilitates transmission of power and motion from one component (the driving member) to another (the driven member) when engaged, with a provision for disengagement whenever required. • In the simplest application, clutches connect and disconnect two rotating coaxial shafts. One shaft is attached to a power unit (the driving member) while the other shaft (the driven member) provides output power for work. The motions involved are rotary in nature.
  3. 3. Purpose • A clutch is designed with the following requirements – Allow the vehicle to come to a stop while the transmission remains in gear – Allow the driver to smoothly take off from a dead stop – Allow the driver to smoothly change gears – Must be able to transmit power and torque without slipping
  4. 4. Types Of Clutch Clutch Positive Clutch Friction Clutch Plate Or Disc Clutch Single plate clutch Multiplate Clutch Cone Clutch Centrifugal Clutch
  5. 5. Types of Clutch 1. WET CLUTCH : Wet clutch is immersed in a cooling lubricating fluid which also keeps the surfaces clean and gives smoother performance and longer life. Wet clutches, however, tend to lose some energy to the liquid. 2. DRY CLUTCH : Dry clutch, as the name implies, is not bathed in fluid and runs dry.
  6. 6. Clutch terms • Clutch disengaged (Clutch pedal pressed) The clutch is disengaged when – Starting the engine – Shifting the gear – Stopping the vehicle and – Idling the engine • Clutch engaged – Clutch pedal is released
  7. 7. Bolted to Crank shaft (friction disk) splined to transmission Input shaft Throw-out bearing allows to push on rotating clutch fingers Bolted to flywheel – Applies the spring force to clamp the friction disk to the flywheel (clutch fork) pushes T/O bearing to release rotating clutch Pilot bushing or bearing in center of flywheel or crankshaft, supports the end of input shaft Construction of Automotive Single Plate Clutch
  8. 8. Components Primary components Flywheel Clutch disc Pressure plate Release (Throw out) bearing Secondary components Pilot bearing Release fork Slave cylinder
  9. 9. Single Plate Clutch • Working- The diagram shows the pressure plate pulled back by the release levers against the compression springs; so that the friction linings on the clutch plate are free of flywheel and pressure plate. The flywheel rotates without driving the clutch plate and hence the shaft. • When the pressure of the thrust race is released the compression springs are free to move the pressure plate to the left bringing it in contact with the clutch plate. • The pressure plate moves to the left, sliding the clutch plate on its splined hub, along the driven shaft until the friction lining touches the flywheel. • The compression springs now cause the linings to be gripped between the pressure plate and the flywheel and the friction between the linings and flywheel and pressure plate causes the clutch plate to revolve, turning the driven shaft.
  10. 10. Flywheel – Attached to the crankshaft flange – Mass is used to store energy – Has a machined surface on which the clutch disc connects – Has a ring gear on its circumference – Pressure plate is bolted to the flywheel
  11. 11. Flywheel Run out
  12. 12. Clutch disc (Friction Disc) – Lined on both sides with a friction lining (similar to brake pads). Various materials have been used for the disc friction facings, including asbestos in the past. Modern clutches typically use a compound organic resin with copper wire facing or a ceramic material. Coefficient of friction of friction disc surface is 0.35 for organic and 0.25 for ceramic. Ceramic materials are typically used in heavy applications such as trucks carrying large loads or racing – Hub is connected to the input shaft of the transmission with splines – Friction linings are separated by springs • These springs allow the linings to “slip” while engaging and disengaging – Friction linings are connected to the central hub by torsional dampening springs which help to dampen the shock and isolate engine vibrations
  13. 13. Friction disc
  14. 14. Friction disc • Often made of asbestos • Must be put in only one way (Usually marked)
  15. 15. Friction disc
  16. 16. Friction disc • Torsional springs – Can be spring or rubber – Dampen power impulses from crankshaft
  17. 17. Torsional Springs Have pins to limit amount of twist. Springs try to keep it centered between pins.
  18. 18. Friction disc • Cushion springs – Waved metal between clutch halves – Dampen clutch engagement
  19. 19. Pressure plate Diaphragm spring Clutch housing Pressure Plate
  20. 20. Pressure Plate – Applies pressure to the clutch disc by ‘squeezing’ the clutch disc between itself and the flywheel – Allow the clutch disc to release when vehicle is stopped or driver is shifting gear
  21. 21. Checking pressure plate for warpage
  22. 22. Diaphragm-Spring Clutch
  23. 23. Diaphragm-Spring Clutches
  24. 24. Mechanical Diaphragm Type Clutch Push Type Pull Type
  25. 25. Clutch Release Bearing  Transmits the movement of the clutch linkage to the pressure plate  Is usually a ball or roller type bearing  Self-centering to compensate for clutch alignment variances
  26. 26. Throw out Bearing (Release Bearing) • Slides on transmission input shaft bearing retainer
  27. 27. Clutch fork 27
  28. 28. Clutch Linkage A clutch linkage mechanism uses levers and rods to transfer motion from the clutch pedal to the clutch fork. When the pedal is pressed, a pushrod pushes the bell crank and the bell crank reverses the forward movement of the clutch pedal. The other end of the bell crank is connected to the release rod. The release rod transfers bell crank movement to the clutch fork. It also provides a method of adjustment for the clutch.
  29. 29. Clutch Linkage – Right amount of movement and direction without too much pedal pressure – Less Wear – Spring to pull T/O bearing away – Has to be lubricated
  30. 30. Cable clutch • No complicated linkage • Flexibility
  31. 31. Cable clutch The clutch cable mechanism uses a steel cable inside a flexible housing to transfer pedal movement to the clutch fork. The cable is usually fastened to the upper end of the clutch pedal, with the other end of the cable connecting to the clutch fork. The cable housing is mounted in a stationary position. This allows the cable to slide inside the housing whenever the clutch pedal is moved. One end of the clutch cable housing has a threaded sleeve for clutch adjustment
  32. 32. Hydraulic clutch • Uses master cylinder and slave cylinder • Uses brake fluid • Needs bleeding
  33. 33. Hydraulic clutch • No complicated linkage • Can easily control mechanical advantage with piston sizes Servicing is similar to hydraulic brakes
  34. 34. Multi Plate Clutch • Multi plate clutch is used when – large torque is to be transmitted e.g. Heavy vehicles and machine tools – compact construction is required e.g. scooters and motor cycles
  35. 35. • When a great amount of torque is to be transmitted, instead of single plate a number of friction plates are employed. This increases the number of mating friction surfaces, hence it is called multiplate clutch. • These clutches are used in heavy commercial vehicles, racing cars and motor cycles for transmitting high torque. • In this friction rings are splined on their outer circumferences to mate with corresponding splines on the bore of the housing and are free to slide on the splines. The friction material therefore rotates with the housing and engine shafts. • Discs or plates are free to slide on the splines on the driven shaft and rotate with it. • The disc on the right can be moved to the right against a powerful spring which, when the actuating force is removed, presses the disc into contact with friction rings. • Torque is therefore transmitted between the engine shaft and the driven shaft. Multi Plate Clutch
  36. 36. Multi Plate Clutch
  37. 37. It consists of a flywheel and a cone mounted on driving and driven shafts respectively. The shape of the side of the flywheel facing the cone is as to accommodate the cone readily when the clutch is engaged. The surfaces of contact are lined with the friction lining (Asbestos, leather etc.). The cone can be disengaged from flywheel by mechanism which operates in the groove of the cone. Cone Clutch
  38. 38. Driving shaft Driven shaft Friction lining α Maximum torque transmitted (T) = μWrm cosecα α = semi-apex angle of the cone Only one pair of driving surfaces is possible, n =1 Cone Clutch w • NOT used in automobiles
  39. 39. • The only advantage of this clutch is that the normal force acting on the friction surfaces is greater than the axial force, as compared to the single plate clutch in which the normal force acting the friction surfaces is equal to the axial force. • The cone clutch is practically obsolete, due to the following disadvantages. – If the cone angle is made smaller than 20°, the cones tend to bind and it is difficult to disengage the clutch. – A small amount of wear on the cone surfaces results in a considerable amount of the axial movement of the cone which is difficult to compensate Cone Clutch
  40. 40. Driving shaft Driven shaft Friction lining Total friction torque (T) = nµR(F-P) F=mrω2 ω ω P Centrifugal Clutch
  41. 41. Centrifugal Clutch • The faster the RPM, more is the force on clutch disk
  42. 42. Clutch Safety Switch • Prevents from cranking with clutch engaged
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