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  1. 1. Metaphor 1
  2. 2. Life is a beach. 2
  3. 3. Love is…  Love is a crocodile in the river of desire.
(Bhartṛhari, Śatakatraya, 5e)  Love is the magician, the enchanter, that changes worthless things to joy, and makes right royal kings and queens of common clay.
(Robert Green Ingersoll, "Orthodoxy," 1884) 399 love metaphors:
  4. 4. Metaphors We Live By,George Lakoff and Mark JohnsonMetaphors— are part of our everyday conversation, thoughts, and actions. structure our perceptions and understanding. shape our view of life in the present. set up the expectations that determine what life will be for us in the future. 4
  5. 5. Metaphors Structure Our Perception and Understanding Marriage: legal contract team play negotiated settlement Russian roulette indissoluble merger religious sacrament life sentence solemn vow 5
  6. 6. The Metaphor Project Sources of Conventional Metaphor in America by Categories with a Few Examples of EachSports play to win, play by the rules, play fair, be a team player, be a good sport, be a poor loser, the best defense is a good offense, game of chance, level the playing field, target something: SPORTS metaphors are often applied to topics in BUSINESS, POLITICS or WAR especially. 6
  7. 7. The Metaphor Project Some Sources of Conventional Metaphor in America by Categories with a Few Examples of Each Business a business grows, one is building a business, were watching the bottom line, being profit or customer driven, adding value, being lean and mean, getting a competitive advantage, taking out insurance, investing in something, something is money in the bank, we owe you, youre in debt to us, that will cost you, you earned it, balancing the books: BUSINESS metaphors are often applied to topics in 7 POLITICS, SPORTS, WAR, and to personal life as well.
  8. 8. George Lakoff, UC Berkeley Metaphors can kill. The discourse over whether to go to war in the gulf was a panorama of metaphor. Secretary of State Baker saw Saddam Hussein as "sitting on our economic lifeline." President Bush portrayed him as having a "stranglehold" on our economy. General Schwarzkopf characterized the occupation of Kuwait as a "rape" that was ongoing. The President said that the US was in the gulf to "protect freedom, protect our future, and protect the innocent," and that we had to "push Saddam Hussein back." Saddam Hussein was painted as a Hitler. It is vital, literally vital, to understand just what role metaphorical thought played in bringing8 us in this war.
  9. 9. The Metaphors of Dr. House Dr. House: As far as youre concerned, the patient is Osama bin Laden, and everyone not in this room is Delta Force. Any questions? Applicant #11: Were protecting Osama bin Laden? Dr. House: Its a metaphor. Get used to it. ("The Right Stuff") 9
  10. 10. "I come fresh like your breath after you brush, wack Mcs like that orange soda get crushed." - Fatlip on Pharcyde, Labcabincalifornia "Throwing out the wicked like God did the devil, funky like your grandpas drawers, dont test me, were in like that, youre dead like Presley." - Q-Tip on Steve Biko, Midnight Marauders "My rhymes are like shot clocks, interstate cops and blood clots, my point is your flow gets stopped."Talib Kweli on Hater Players, Mos Def and Talib Kweli Are Blackstar 10
  11. 11. Song Metaphors 11
  12. 12. Metaphors Help people create mental images. Provide the complete picture of an entire idea in a few words. Make complicated, abstract ideas concrete. Bring intensity to images. Hold the imagination because of surprise and precision. Structure our perception and understanding. 12
  13. 13. Emily DickinsonA BookThere is no frigate like a book To take us lands away,Nor any coursers like a page Of prancing poetry.This traverse may the poorest take Without oppress of toll;How frugal is the chariot That bears a human soul! 13
  14. 14. Simile is metaphorSimile compares things as similarUses “like” or “as” This class is like a zoo.Metaphor assumes the similarity—says two things are the same This class is a zoo. 14
  15. 15. SimilesThe puppy’s nail’s were likeneedles vaccinating my arm.A book is like a vacation.He’s as quiet as a blink.Her smile was like an iron gate.It’s as cold as a flagpole in Antarctica.She’s interesting as a file cabinet.The bathroom tile was as slimy as a cave wall. 15
  16. 16. “When Death Comes,” Mary OliverWhen death comeslike the hungry bear in autumn;when death comes and takes all the bright coinsfrom his purseto buy me, and snaps the purse shut;when death comeslike the measle-pox;when death comeslike an iceberg between the shoulder blades, 16
  17. 17. SimilesThe waves unfurled like…He entered the room like...His feet were calloused as...The child trembled like...The airplane rose like...The loneliness spread fast as…After the shelling, the town looked like...She was drunk as… 17
  18. 18. “Feared Drowned,” Sharon OldsSuddenly nobody knows where you are,your suit black as seaweed, your beardedhead slick as a seals.Somebody watches the kids. I walk downthe edge of the water, clutching the towellike a widows shawl around me. 18
  19. 19. Metaphors No man is an island —John Donne For ever since that time you went away Ive been a rabbit burrowed in the wood —Maurice Sceve I’ve been looking through the dirty window of my life A person without a dream is a car with no engine 19
  20. 20. ClichesCliches lack surprise. I’m so hungry I could eat a horse. Revenge is sweet. She’s as busy as a bee. He’s as hairy as an ape. That’s just the tip of the iceberg. 20
  21. 21. “Facing It,” Yusef Komunyakaa 21
  22. 22. Creative Techniques for Developing Metaphors Brainstorm Busy as a bee. mother of twins / ER nurse after a train wreck / ant / teen’s cell phone / computer calculating the value of pi Which one(s) share an abstraction with your purpose? Which one(s) offer precision of meaning? Which one(s) offer surprise? 22
  23. 23. 3 Types of Basic Metaphors1. Expressed Identity (noun : : noun) an army is a rabid wolf2. Qualifying (adjective : : noun) the hasty clouds3. Verbal (noun : : verb and/ or verb : : object) frost gobbles summer down 23
  24. 24. Create Metaphors1. In his rage my father was ______.2. Among her new in-laws the young wifewas ______.3. I paced the room, a _____.4. A _____, his smile suddenly collapsed.5. It was the old sycamore in the front yard, a_______. 24
  25. 25. Exercise road time shoejourney bliss sole path hunger soul goal eat aspirehockey drink yearn skate ice heart 25
  26. 26. Exercise power verb noun adjective crunch avalanche exhilarating lift army rippling rule socket misogynistic flow tide blindsnowball Wheaties cruel control Ironman electric 26
  27. 27. as verbs The news that ignited his face snuffed out her adjectives and Her carnivorousadverbs pencil carved up Susan’s prepositional The doctor inspectedphrases the rash with a vulture’s appositives or On the sidewalk wasmodifiers yesterday’s paper, an ink-stained sponge. 27
  28. 28. Scratching at the window with claws of Imogene Bolls,pine, the wind wants in. "Coyote Wind"What a thrill--my thumb instead of an Sylvia Plath, "Cut"onion. The top quite gone except for asort of hinge of skin....A celebrationthis is. Out of a gap a million soldiersrun, redcoats every one.The clouds were low and hairy in the Robert Frost, "Onceskies, like locks blown forward in the by the Pacific"gleam of eyes.Little boys lie still, awake wondering, James Wright, "Thewondering delicate little boxes of dust. Undermining of the Defense Economy" 28
  29. 29. Create Metaphors “having your house burglarized” is like “publishing your diary in the newspaper” “the strict dog trainer” is “a Nazi”  your cramped or messy dorm room  the movie’s effect on you  a mean babysitter  a terrible cook’s meal  a week with no homework  shopping at Borders  his request  reality shows on TV  driving your new convertible 29
  30. 30. Reality shows Verb Metaphorstabbed in the back murdered The player who stabbed Jason in the back murdered his chance to win the million.ate bugs crunched The girl who ate the most bugs crunched her way to the top.kissed all the girls played Casanova The playboy who kissed all the girls on the island found out he couldn’t play Casanova anymore once he got home to his girlfriend.A bad cook’s meal Prepositional Metaphor phrasecooking credentials from K-Mart The recipes were from Julia Child, but Aunt Martha’s cooking credentials were from K-Mart.Passed over for Adverb Metaphorpromotioncareer died politely “Thanks for being a team player,” my boss said, and my career politely died. 30
  31. 31. Metaphors from Non-motion Verbs His thoughts were interrupted by the incessant noise of the ticking clock. The tick tick tick scratched at his brain, his thoughts lurching in static bursts like images on a DVD some toddler had smeared with peanut butter. He holds the weight of choices made. His choices weigh on him—Jim, Atlas of Glassboro. 31
  32. 32. Metaphors from Adjectives/Adverbs The street lights shine brightly in the dark night. The night’s cleaning crew, the street lights spray their glow, washing away the stars. The puffy white clouds drifted across the clear blue sky. The hare and the tortoise floated above me, racing toward the finish line over the horizon. 32
  33. 33. Metaphors for Abstractions Find a concrete object to represent the abstract idea, generalization, judgment, or opinion. uncertainty = dirty windowI searched for the path, but could barely see through the grime streaking the window. exhilaration = roller coaster rideWhen he touched my hand, the roller coaster click-click- clicked uphill. danger = sirenShe was a siren, screaming in my mind, “Run away!” 33
  34. 34. Mixed Metaphors Maintain a theme Mixed metaphors conflict and distract He stepped up to the plate and grabbed the bull by the horns. Her fur is a color that reminds me of a bowl of melted chocolate and caramel with feet that look as if she just walked through an inch of snow and the length of her fur is no longer than my eyelashes. 34
  35. 35. •Your insincere apology just added fuel to the fire.•After the argument, Dave was smoldering fordays.•That kindled my ire.•Boy, am I burned up! 35
  36. 36. Create Multiple MetaphorsCreate 3 metaphors you could use in a single paragraph describing a face playing a game embarrassing yourself taking a day off for yourself a desire a garden or something in a garden a sea creature listening to or playing music being lied to dancing 36
  37. 37. On a Maine Beach, by Robley Wilson Image ClustersLook, in these pools, how rocks are like worn change money imagesKeeping the ocean’s mint-mark; barnaclesMiser on them; societies of snailsHunch on their rims and think small thoughts whose strangeSalt logics rust like a mainspring, small dreams circle imagesPinwheeling to a point and going dumb,Small equations whose euphemistic sumStands for mortality. A thousand timesTides swallow up such pools, shellfish and stone cycles of the tideShow green and yellow shade in groves of weed;Rocks shrink, barnacles drink, snails think they bleedIn their trapped world. Here, when the sea is gone,We find old coins glowing under the sky,Barnacles counting them, snails spending slow moneyRound lifetimes half-awake. Beach rhythms flow circlesIn circles. Perfections teach us to die. 37
  38. 38. Copycat: On a… On a Glassboro campus At a NASCAR race In a foreign country After a breakup On a train going west At a job interview 38
  39. 39. The Metaphor Machine http://www.metap ETAFOR/insp_en g.htm 39
  40. 40. Accidental Metaphors Nouns Verbs Adjectives summer preaches smokyRolls-Royce cancels decaffeinated mattress vomits hollow eyebrows digs fringedconversation circles magnified paintbrush mildews crinkly banana swigs metallic parakeet washes thumping 40
  41. 41. Creative Techniques for Developing Metaphors Tap CategoriesABC Puns, plays on words Landmarks, earth formationsAmazon Top Ten Lists Religion and spiritualityCollege majors Different times in history LanguagesAnimal, vegetable, mineral Yahoo directory EntertainmentJobs, career functions, Persons, places or things People, places and things inhobbies with attributes that set them the news apartTV Guide Fictional or mythical Sports charactersNewspaper, magazine Ages Shapes, functions, symbolsInternet 41
  42. 42. Creative Techniques for Developing Metaphors SCAMPER Substitute Combine Adapt Modify; Maximize, Minimize Put to another use Erase Reverse 42
  43. 43. Controlling Metaphor Whole poem or story Symbolic Raymond Carver, “Locking Yourself Out, Then Trying to Get Back In” 43
  44. 44. Jack Gilbert, “Michiko Dead”He manages like somebody carrying a boxthat is too heavy, first with his armsunderneath. When their strength gives out,he moves the hands forward, hooking themon the corners, pulling the weight againsthis chest. He moves his thumbs slightlywhen the fingers begin to tire, and it makesdifferent muscles take over. Afterward,he carries it on his shoulder, until the blooddrains out of the arm that is stretched upto steady the box and the arm goes numb.But now the man can hold underneath again,so that he can go on without ever putting the box 44
  45. 45. “Stillborn,” Sylvia PlathThey are not pigs, they are not even fish,Though they have a piggy and a fishy air—It would be better if they were alive, and that’swhat they were.But they are dead, and their mother near deadwith distraction,And they stupidly stare, and do not speak of her. 45
  46. 46. Controlling Metaphor An abusive boss An anorexic A person wrongly accused of a crime A turkey before (or after) Thanksgiving Your own idea 46