Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
STIGMATISATION OF ANOREXIA
NERVOSA AND MUSCLE
DYSMORPHIA
Griffiths, S., Mond, J. M., Murray, S. B., & Touyz, S. (In-press)...
Sex differences in eating disorder prevalence
100%

10%
50%
75%

70%

60%

50%

90%
50%
25%

30%

Anorexia
Nervosa

Bulimi...
Two ends of a spectrum?

Anorexia nervosa

Muscle dysmorphia

3
Stigma and eating disorders
› Eating disorders are stigmatised
› People with anorexia = attention seekers who are personal...
Masculinity, stigma and eating disorders
› Adherence to masculine norms is consistently negatively associated with
men’s w...
Exploring stigma toward anorexia and muscle
dysmorphia

Anorexia Nervosa
N = 343

Anorexia Nervosa

Muscle
Dysmorphia

Mus...
Main effects of participant sex (male or female)
Higher for female participants

Higher for male participants

Large Mediu...
Main effects of character sex (male or female)
Higher for female characters

Higher for male characters

Large Medium

Sma...
Main effects of character diagnosis (anorexia or muscle dysmorphia)
Higher for muscle dysmorphia

Higher for anorexia nerv...
Stigma and gender-role expectations
Mean perceived masculinity

5

Male

*p< .001
4

participants
n = 113

› To what exten...
Gender-role stigmatisation in eating disorders

Mean frequency of stigmatisation

5

*p< .001

4

Males
n = 26
Females
n =...
Directions for future research
› Is stigma associated with more negative attitudes about seeking
psychological treatment i...
Conclusions
› Anorexia nervosa is stigmatised more than muscle dysmorphia
› Undergraduate men in first-year psychology sti...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×
Upcoming SlideShare
Camp objects
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

0

Share

Download to read offline

Stigmatization of anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia

Download to read offline

The nature and extent of stigma towards individuals with anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia remains underexplored. This study investigated attitudes and beliefs likely to be conducive to stigmatisation of individuals with these conditions. Male and female undergraduate students (N = 361) read one of four vignettes describing a fictional male or female character with anorexia nervosa or muscle dysmorphia, after which they responded to a series of questions addressing potentially stigmatising attitudes and beliefs towards each character. Characters with anorexia nervosa were more stigmatised than characters with muscle dysmorphia, female characters were more stigmatised than male characters, and male participants were more stigmatising than female participants. A very large effect of character diagnosis on masculinity was observed, such that characters with anorexia nervosa were perceived as less masculine than characters with muscle dysmorphia, and this effect was more pronounced amongst male participants. However, no significant corresponding effects were observed for femininity. Females with anorexia nervosa may be particularly susceptible to stigmatisation, especially by males. Anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia are perceived as “female” and “male” disorders respectively, in line with societal gender role expectations, and this stigmatisation is tied more strongly to perceptions of sufferers’ masculinity than femininity.

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all
  • Be the first to like this

Stigmatization of anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia

  1. 1. STIGMATISATION OF ANOREXIA NERVOSA AND MUSCLE DYSMORPHIA Griffiths, S., Mond, J. M., Murray, S. B., & Touyz, S. (In-press). Young peoples’ stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about anorexia and muscle dysmorphia. International Journal of Eating Disorders. doi:10.1002/eat.2222
  2. 2. Sex differences in eating disorder prevalence 100% 10% 50% 75% 70% 60% 50% 90% 50% 25% 30% Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa 40% 0% Binge Eating Disorder EDNOS Muscle Dysmorphia MenWomen (Hoek&Hueken, 2003; Hudson et al. 2007; Madden et al. 2009; Muise et al. 2003) 2
  3. 3. Two ends of a spectrum? Anorexia nervosa Muscle dysmorphia 3
  4. 4. Stigma and eating disorders › Eating disorders are stigmatised › People with anorexia = attention seekers who are personally responsible for their illness (Crisafulli; Holle, &Bulik, 2008; Crisp, Gelder, Rix, Meltzer, &Rowlands, 2000; Mond, RobertsonSmith, &Vetere, 2006; Roehrig& McLean, 2010) › Stigma is assumed to be the reason why so few males are in treatment › Eating disorders are a “girl's problem" (Robinson et al. 2012) › However, studies examining stigma toward male and female eating disorder sufferers have found few (if any) differences (Wingfield, Kelly, Serdar, Shivy, &Mazzeo, 2011) 4
  5. 5. Masculinity, stigma and eating disorders › Adherence to masculine norms is consistently negatively associated with men’s willingness to seek professional help (Addis &Mahalik, 2003; Courtenay, 2000; Levant & Richmond, 2007; Manfield, Addis &Mahalik, 2003; O’Neil, 2008) › Especially resistant to taking medication (Berger et al. 2013) › Men prefer talk-therapy with a psychotherapist over other forms of professional help-seeking (Berger et al. 2013) › Men react more positively to seeking professional treatment at the suggestion of a psychotherapist compared with a medical doctor or romantic partner (Berger et al. 2013) 5
  6. 6. Exploring stigma toward anorexia and muscle dysmorphia Anorexia Nervosa N = 343 Anorexia Nervosa Muscle Dysmorphia Muscle Dysmorphia
  7. 7. Main effects of participant sex (male or female) Higher for female participants Higher for male participants Large Medium Small X The character is… Weird X X X X Narcissistic An attention-seeker Less likely to be talked to about their problem by the participant Less likely to be watched or monitored by the participant X Less likely to be watched or monitored by others Small Medium Large
  8. 8. Main effects of character sex (male or female) Higher for female characters Higher for male characters Large Medium Small X The character is… Small Medium Large Masculine Feminine X More likely to be watched/monitored X More uncomfortable to talk to X More psychologically fragile Less likely to recover easily X X X Less likely to be discriminated against
  9. 9. Main effects of character diagnosis (anorexia or muscle dysmorphia) Higher for muscle dysmorphia Higher for anorexia nervosa Large Small The character is… X Unintelligent X Medium Less competent than their peers X Self-destructive X Will put strain on your friendship X Likely to be watched or monitored by the participant X Likely to be watched or monitored by others Likely to recover easily X Likely to be talked to about their problem by the participant X X Small Going to require caution so as to not upset them Physically fragile X Medium Large
  10. 10. Stigma and gender-role expectations Mean perceived masculinity 5 Male *p< .001 4 participants n = 113 › To what extent do you agree with the following statement: Kelly/Michael is masculine Female participants n = 230 3 - 5 = strongly agree - 4 = agree - 3 = neither agree nor disagree - 2 = disagree - 1 = strongly disagree 2 › Size of this effect size is very large (η2 = .23) 1 Anorexia Muscle nervosa dysmorphia Character diagnosis - Even stronger for male participants (interaction η2 = .03, p = .002)
  11. 11. Gender-role stigmatisation in eating disorders Mean frequency of stigmatisation 5 *p< .001 4 Males n = 26 Females n = 192 › How often are you subjected to the attitude or belief that you are “less of a man/woman” because of your eating disorder? - 5 = always - 4 = often 3 - 3 = sometimes - 2 = rarely - 1 = never 2 1 › Size of this effect size is moderate (η2 = .07)
  12. 12. Directions for future research › Is stigma associated with more negative attitudes about seeking psychological treatment in people with eating disorders? - N = 173 Aspect of eating disorder N = 173 stigmatisation Alienation Stereotype endorsement Discrimination experience Social withdrawal Perceived devaluation& discrimination Negative attitudes about seeking psychological treatment r= .40*** r= .30*** r= .25** r= .36*** r= .36***
  13. 13. Conclusions › Anorexia nervosa is stigmatised more than muscle dysmorphia › Undergraduate men in first-year psychology stigmatise people with these conditions more than undergraduate women › In broad terms, male characters with anorexia or muscle dysmorphia are not stigmatised more than female characters N = 173 › However, characters with anorexia nervosa are perceived as much less masculine than people with muscle dysmorphia - Even after accounting for the sex of the character - Undergraduate men exhibit this stigma more than women › Perception that people with anorexia nervosa are stigmatised as less masculine is supported by emerging results from men with anorexia nervosa

The nature and extent of stigma towards individuals with anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia remains underexplored. This study investigated attitudes and beliefs likely to be conducive to stigmatisation of individuals with these conditions. Male and female undergraduate students (N = 361) read one of four vignettes describing a fictional male or female character with anorexia nervosa or muscle dysmorphia, after which they responded to a series of questions addressing potentially stigmatising attitudes and beliefs towards each character. Characters with anorexia nervosa were more stigmatised than characters with muscle dysmorphia, female characters were more stigmatised than male characters, and male participants were more stigmatising than female participants. A very large effect of character diagnosis on masculinity was observed, such that characters with anorexia nervosa were perceived as less masculine than characters with muscle dysmorphia, and this effect was more pronounced amongst male participants. However, no significant corresponding effects were observed for femininity. Females with anorexia nervosa may be particularly susceptible to stigmatisation, especially by males. Anorexia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia are perceived as “female” and “male” disorders respectively, in line with societal gender role expectations, and this stigmatisation is tied more strongly to perceptions of sufferers’ masculinity than femininity.

Views

Total views

1,886

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

2

Actions

Downloads

9

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

0

×