Introduction to Harvard
(Author-Date) Referencing
Donna Irving
Why do I need to reference properly?
Evidence – back up your opinions
To avoid plagiarism – say when something
is someone’...
How to avoid plagiarism
Use other people’s work to provide evidence for
your own but
Summarise it in your own words and ac...
How do I reference?
Part 1: Citing in your assignment
surname (not initials) or name of organisation
and year of publicati...
Quotations
“The personal is political” (Hanisch, 1969, p.204)
But keep direct quotations to an absolute minimum.
Useful wh...
How do I reference?
Part 2: the reference list
At the end of your work
Full details of the sources you have used
In alphab...
What’s a bibliography
A bibliography is a list of everything you read,
whether or not you referred specifically to it (cit...
Example
From “Should nurses wear uniforms?”:
Some discussion on whether uniforms cause
cross-infection
Example
McCulloch (2000) states that in clinical areas plastic aprons will
be sufficient protection from contamination of ...
How do I reference a book?
Authors surname then Initials not first names
Year of publication
Underline name of book
Where ...
Write a reference for this book
An illustrated guide to infection control published in
2011. It is be Kathleen Motacki. It...
…and this one
Infection control in clinical practice by Jennie Wilson ;
foreword by Elizabeth A. Jenner Published by
Baill...
How did you do?
Motacki, K. (2011) An illustrated guide to infection
control New York: Springer.
Wilson, J. (2006) Infecti...
Try it from the catalogue record
http://tinyurl.com/3qf6d6z
Is yours the same?
Tilmouth, T. (2009) Safe and clean care infection
prevention and control for health and social care
stu...
How do I reference an article?
Author(s) surname and initials (list all)
Year of published
Title of article
Title of journ...
Try this one:
An article published in the British Journal of Nursing
written by Christine Perry in 1998 called Three major...
How did you do?
Perry, C. (1998) Three major issues in infection
control. British Journal of Nursing. 7(16) p.946 - 952
Try this journal article
Is yours the same?
Bissett, L. (2010) MRSA: minimize the spread. British
Journal of Healthcare Assistants. 4 (1) p. 6
How do I reference websites?
You still need Author-Date
Underline title of webpage (not URL)
Put [online], URL (web addres...
Try this webpage
Website at http://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/Basics.html
Named - Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Written...
Check yours against:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings [online] Atlant...
The reference list
Hartley, J. (2005) Time for change. Nursing Times ,101
(13), pp. 22-23
McCulloch, J. (2000) Infection c...
Key points
Remember it’s the Author-Date style. You need to
identify and credit the author.
It’s only a habit – get it rig...
HELP!
Referencing guide – online or print
Endnote workshops
Library information desk
See: School of Health Studies Harvard...
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Introduction to harvard referencing

  1. 1. Introduction to Harvard (Author-Date) Referencing Donna Irving
  2. 2. Why do I need to reference properly? Evidence – back up your opinions To avoid plagiarism – say when something is someone’s work or idea To enable follow-up MARKS!
  3. 3. How to avoid plagiarism Use other people’s work to provide evidence for your own but Summarise it in your own words and acknowledge it (Giddins, 2007) Or use quotation marks for their words and acknowledge it (but only use quotations very rarely)
  4. 4. How do I reference? Part 1: Citing in your assignment surname (not initials) or name of organisation and year of publication (Author-Date) the Dutch people, on average, are the tallest in the world (Leroi, 2004) ….. according to the Department of Health (2002) ……. Smith’s research (2002) shows that…….
  5. 5. Quotations “The personal is political” (Hanisch, 1969, p.204) But keep direct quotations to an absolute minimum. Useful when the words are famous, significant or very apt. Too many quotes will show you haven’t done the necessary thinking for yourself
  6. 6. How do I reference? Part 2: the reference list At the end of your work Full details of the sources you have used In alphabetical order by author’s surname. All the authors’ names are given Not included in word count Not a bibliography
  7. 7. What’s a bibliography A bibliography is a list of everything you read, whether or not you referred specifically to it (cited it) in your assignment. References are the full details of the sources you have referred to (cited) in your assignment
  8. 8. Example From “Should nurses wear uniforms?”: Some discussion on whether uniforms cause cross-infection
  9. 9. Example McCulloch (2000) states that in clinical areas plastic aprons will be sufficient protection from contamination of uniforms in most circumstances even where there is a heavy risk. According to Hartley (2005), nurses seen wearing uniforms in public have been criticised for carrying contamination out into the community, despite there being no evidence linking infection risk to nurses wearing uniforms to and from work. This public perception has led to some trusts banning nurses wearing their uniforms in commercial premises on their way to and from work. Recent guidelines state that acute health settings must provide adequate changing and laundering facilities for staff (Royal College of Nursing, 2005).
  10. 10. How do I reference a book? Authors surname then Initials not first names Year of publication Underline name of book Where was it published Name of publisher McCulloch, J. (2001) Infection control: science, management and practice. London: Whurr
  11. 11. Write a reference for this book An illustrated guide to infection control published in 2011. It is be Kathleen Motacki. It was published in New York. The publisher was Springer. Author (year) Title of book. publication: Publisher
  12. 12. …and this one Infection control in clinical practice by Jennie Wilson ; foreword by Elizabeth A. Jenner Published by Bailliáere Tindall, who are based in Edinburgh. The book was published in 2006.
  13. 13. How did you do? Motacki, K. (2011) An illustrated guide to infection control New York: Springer. Wilson, J. (2006) Infection control in clinical practice. Edinburgh: Bailliáere Tindall
  14. 14. Try it from the catalogue record http://tinyurl.com/3qf6d6z
  15. 15. Is yours the same? Tilmouth, T. (2009) Safe and clean care infection prevention and control for health and social care students. Exeter: Reflect Press
  16. 16. How do I reference an article? Author(s) surname and initials (list all) Year of published Title of article Title of journal – underlined Volume number Issue number Page numbers Details are usually given at the top or bottom of each page but do check when you print out or photocopy. Hartley, J. (2005) Time for change. Nursing Times, 101 (13), pp. 22-23
  17. 17. Try this one: An article published in the British Journal of Nursing written by Christine Perry in 1998 called Three major issues in infection control. It was published on page 946 in volume 7, issue number 16 Author(s) (year) Title of article. Title of Journal. Volume number (issue number) page number(s) p.
  18. 18. How did you do? Perry, C. (1998) Three major issues in infection control. British Journal of Nursing. 7(16) p.946 - 952
  19. 19. Try this journal article
  20. 20. Is yours the same? Bissett, L. (2010) MRSA: minimize the spread. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants. 4 (1) p. 6
  21. 21. How do I reference websites? You still need Author-Date Underline title of webpage (not URL) Put [online], URL (web address) and date you saw the page If you can’t identify the author, cite the title – but be careful Royal College of Nursing (2005) Guidance on uniforms and clothing worn in the delivery of patient care [online]. London: Royal College of Nursing. Available from: http://www.rcn.org.uk/resources/mrsa/downloads/Wipe_ it_out-Guidance_on_uniforms.pdf [Accessed 29 January 2007]
  22. 22. Try this webpage Website at http://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/Basics.html Named - Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Written and published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. Page last updated: May 19, 2011. Page accessed today Author (Year) Title of webpage. [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. Available from full url [accessed todays date]
  23. 23. Check yours against: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings [online] Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/Basics.html [accessed 11th October 2011]
  24. 24. The reference list Hartley, J. (2005) Time for change. Nursing Times ,101 (13), pp. 22-23 McCulloch, J. (2000) Infection control: science, management and practice. London: Whurr Royal College of Nursing (2005) Guidance on uniforms and clothing worn in the delivery of patient care [online]. London: Royal College of Nursing. Available from: http://www.rcn.org.uk/resources/mrsa/downloads/Wipe_ it_out-Guidance_on_uniforms.pdf [Accessed 29 January 2007]
  25. 25. Key points Remember it’s the Author-Date style. You need to identify and credit the author. It’s only a habit – get it right as soon as possible When making notes and copies, write on all the details you’ll need for your reference
  26. 26. HELP! Referencing guide – online or print Endnote workshops Library information desk See: School of Health Studies Harvard Referencing Guide Coming soon in Blackboard – Plagiarism Avoidance for New Students

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