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Managerial Communication


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Oral communication

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Managerial Communication

  2. 2. SYLLABUS  Oral communication: Meaning , Principles of successful oral communication  Barriers to communication  Conversation control Reflection and Empathy: two sides of effective oral communication.  Modes of Oral Communication 2ORAL COMMUNICATION
  4. 4. MEANING  Oral communication is also known as verbal communication, is the interchange of verbal messages between sender and receiver. It is more immediate than written communication. It more natural and informal in nature. “ The man who can think and does not know how to express what he thinks, is at the same level who as the person cannot think ” 4ORAL COMMUNICATION
  5. 5. Features of oral communication Two way process One off exercise Day to day language Sender & receiver Principles Body language Cannot be erased ORAL COMMUNICATION 5
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS / FEATURES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION  Two way process : oral communication is speedy two way process. The messages in oral communication travel forth and back without any loss of time, making it highly interactive.  One off exercise :oral communication is one off exercise as it is not repeated and there is know written record to which any references can be made.  Day to day language : the use of common convectional, day to day conversational language is considered to be the most effective in oral communication.  Presence of sender and receiver : the presence of both sender and receiver is required at the same time, for oral communication to take place. 6ORAL COMMUNICATION
  7. 7.  Principles : accuracy, clarity and brevity are the three principles of oral communication, which can be achieved by usage of right language during communication.  Effect of body language and modulation : high or low pitch voice or gestures made during the speech, greatly influence the quality of oral communication.  It cannot be erased or mended : spoken words once communicated cannot be altered or manipulated, clarity of though is important to be considered during oral communication. 7ORAL COMMUNICATION
  8. 8. ORAL COMMUNICATION 8 Characteristics of effective oral communication Objective Sincere Receiver interest level Assume nothing Polite words Simple language Be precise Avoid vagueness
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION  Consider the objective : speaker should have clear understanding about main intention of talk and what it is directed towards.  Think about the interest level of receiver : communicator should understand requirement of target audience their intention behind attending the session which helps the speaker to effectively prepare communication content.  Be sincere : communicator should be sincere in terms of content preparation in case of cross questioning where speaker should be able to clarify audience doubts.  Use polite words and tone : speaker should make use of words which are persuading in nature and which draw audience attention towards talk of speaker. ORAL COMMUNICATION 9
  10. 10.  Use simple language, familiar words : speaker should avoid usage of jargons, prepositions and terminologies specific to area of knowledge when not related to the talk.  Be brief and precise : speaker should be brief in terms of elaborating the concept, he should talk to the point and avoid wastage of time.  Avoid vagueness and generalities : communicator should be particular in terms of goal towards which content is directed. Concept than being generalized should be related towards interest area of audience.  Assume nothing : speaker should not give conclusion based on individual assumption but his data should be supported by proved facts. ORAL COMMUNICATION 10
  11. 11. ADVANTAGES / BENEFITS/ MERITS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION  Immediate feedback : oral communication provides advantage of immediate feedback as both the parties can clarify their doubts during the process of conversation.  Better relationship : oral communication builds a healthy climate in the organization by bringing the superior and the subordinate together and help in building close informal relation among the employees.  Time saving : oral communication is time saving as it reduces paper work and ensures quick delivery of message to receiver of message. 11ORAL COMMUNICATION
  12. 12.  Effective tool of persuasion : oral communication is effective tool of persuasion as it lends a personal touch to whole business. Oral communication plays important role in resolving conflicts at workplace.  Effective tool for group communication : oral communication is very effective in interacting with groups. The speaker can immediately understand the groups reaction and arrive at satisfactory conclusion by expressing his view and taking feedback from target audience. 12ORAL COMMUNICATION
  13. 13.  Economical : oral communication is economical in nature both in terms of money and time. It saves money by avoiding paper usage and save time by immediate communication of message.  Allows to measure effectiveness immediately : oral communication allows measuring effectiveness immediately and conveniently. The communicator can determine whether the receiver is following him or not. 13ORAL COMMUNICATION
  14. 14. DISADVANTAGES / DEMERITS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION  Lack of documentation : there is documentary of oral communication, so its impact is temporary in nature.  Distortion in passing the message : while oral communication are transmitted from one person to another, or in chain, there is possibility of distortion of message, as the hearing capability and perception level of different individuals vary.  No legal validity : in the absence of a taped or written record, oral message do not have any legal validity. 14ORAL COMMUNICATION
  15. 15.  Possibility of misunderstanding : oral communication may lead to misunderstanding due to lack of proper usage of words, unorganized messages.  Unsuitable for long messages : effectiveness of oral communication depends on length of message to be communicated as listener may not have patience to concentrate on message for duration of more than an hour. 15ORAL COMMUNICATION
  16. 16.  Difficulty in assigning responsibility : it is difficult to assign responsibility for mistakes made during the conversation as it depends on perception of sender and receiver of message.  It is constrained by physical barriers : physical barriers like noise, environment, technical problems negatively affect the flow of oral communication. 16ORAL COMMUNICATION
  17. 17. ORAL COMMUNICATION 17 Fluenc y Cliché s Adjecti ve & adverb Prepos itions Avoid jargon s Seque nce Precis e words ClarityBrevity Principles of effective oral communication
  18. 18. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION  Brevity : a message to be delivered should be brief. Time factors is important in oral communication as time of speaker as well as listener time should be effectively utilized.  Clarity : in content delivery on the part of speaker is very important for providing clear picture of talk. Clarity can be achieved with simple words and common words.  Choosing precise words : using the precise words means speaking in exact details using the right words at right place to context which will convey the meaning intended by the speaker. 18ORAL COMMUNICATION
  19. 19.  Clichés : means a phrase which is used often and has no meaning. An effective communicator avoids clichés during communication. E.g. fine, ok, oh etc.  Sequences : speaker should not skip points or change sequence of consistency, continuity and logical development of the subject matter should be there in the content of speech.  Avoid jargon : speaker should avoid irrelevant jargon during the talk. Jargon refers to usage of word relating to domain. Terminology relating to science, technology etc. 19ORAL COMMUNICATION
  20. 20.  Prepositions : unnecessary prepositions should be avoided to make content of talk simple. E.g. He will be on leave today for certain period of time. He will be on leave today up to 6 o’clock.  Adjectives and adverbs : should be used where necessary. They emphasize the meaning with degree of importance. E.g. Active consideration, positive decision will be taken, comparatively.  Fluency : means ease as condition of speaking. Fluent speaker is one who is heard with ease. Listener does not have to strain his mind to receive, register and interpret message heard. 20ORAL COMMUNICATION
  21. 21. ORAL COMMUNICATION 21 Barriers for oral communic ation Halo effect Complexe s Closed mind Poor retention Premature evaluation Abstractin g Slant Cognitive dissonanc e Language barrier Status
  22. 22. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION  Status : in organization refers to formal and informal relation among employees in company. A lower level employee may hesitate to express his hassles in front of his superior in organization.  Halo effect : audience interest in speaker depends the trust worthiness of audience on speaker. If the speaker is greatly trusted and held in high esteem as an honest person, his statement are readily taken as true.  Complexes : lack of confidence or sense of superiority may prevent proper oral interaction between persons differently positioned. Individuals due to inferiority complex may hesitate to express their opinion. 22ORAL COMMUNICATION
  23. 23.  Closed and all knowing mind : some persons believe that they know everything in field or subject. Due to this attitude of audience they may not concentrate on content of speaker irrespective of whether its effective or not.  Poor retention :to deliver effective speech the speaker should be organized in terms of sequence and methodology to be adopted. If the speaker is not clear about the same it leads to vagueness in minds of audience.  Premature evaluation and hurried conclusions : audience are required to do patience listening for understanding speakers content. Incomplete attention and pre judgement of audience does not provide clarity to audience in terms of talk delivered to them. 23ORAL COMMUNICATION
  24. 24.  Abstracting : when audience focus on few content of the talk in which they are interested they tend to get superficial picture of the whole session due to which their conclusion may not be accurate.  Slant : is usually attributed to the biased presentation of matter of speaker. Instead of straight talk, one speaks on an oblique manner that could be almost like telling lie.  Cognitive dissonance : the listener fails to accept or respond to assumptions underlying the new information communicated as he or she is unprepared to change.  Language barriers : basically refers to communication problem occurred as listener is not able to follow the language used by communicator of message. 24ORAL COMMUNICATION
  25. 25. CONVERSATION CONTROL  Conversational control : art of conversation consists in our ability to listen with concentration and reply well. Conversational control involves skills of listening and taking in a positive and meaningful way at an appropriate time. It comprises of :  Techniques of changing the direction of conversation smoothly.  Ability to allow discussion to develop along key issues in an uninterrupted way towards the desired results. 25ORAL COMMUNICATION
  26. 26. SKILLS REQUIRED FOR CONVERSATIONAL CONTROL  Interacting with people in meetings in convincing way.  Handling objections to a proposal made by you.  Being able to react to positive criticisms in confidential manner.  Developing skills in interviewing.  Learning how to get correct information quickly. 26ORAL COMMUNICATION
  27. 27. TECHNIQUES FOR CONVERSATION CONTROL  Recognizing cues and clues : cues is what speaker gives to listener to understand gist of talk, clues refers to hints what listener gives to speaker in form of doubts about speakers talk.  Interpreting signs and signals : visual indicators refers to body language exhibited both by speaker and listener such as movements of hands, legs, head provides hind about comfort level of speaker and understanding of content on part of listener. 27ORAL COMMUNICATION
  28. 28.  Parallel conversation : it basically refers to when two or more persons have one on one conversations with each other where listener seeks for further information from speaker.  Sequential conversation : statements used by speaker during speech should be in sequential order where there should be interlink or relationship between the various statement of content.  Reflection and empathy : reflection basically refers to identify and reacting to key words in speakers statement. E.g. Mr A to Mr B Do I have to attend meeting. B should understand that A is trying to understand his importance in meeting. Empathy basically refers to understanding feeling or requirement of other person and act accordingly. 28ORAL COMMUNICATION
  29. 29.  Sense of time as skill : the speaker should always keep in mind the time taken to communicate. The time limits announced in formal oral activities should be strictly observed.  Summary : speaker should summarize the content of talk to provide brief gist of talk at the end and ask for listener feedback. 29ORAL COMMUNICATION
  30. 30. APPLICATION OF CONVERSATIONAL CONTROL  Advance circulation of agenda papers : to enable the members of the meeting understand the issues and prepare them to present their view point.  Chair person : a meeting is chaired by person whose role is to direct and conduct the proceedings in an orderly manner. During the meeting the ruling of the chair is to be taken as final words to be followed and respected by all the meeting members.  The procedure : chairperson should have control during meeting focusing on important issues and creating conditions for sequential, linked and meaningful discussions for solutions. ORAL COMMUNICATION 30
  31. 31.  To be assertive without being aggressive : skills of avoiding parallel conversation, ensuring linkage in every members talk, and being assertive about ones objective without being rude or hurting others is basic for smooth conducting of business in meeting.  Conversational attack and controlled response : the verbal exercise of give and take to reach a winning end is skill fully managed by conversational control. ORAL COMMUNICATION 31
  32. 32. TWO SIDES OF EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION  Listening : is important component of conversation control. For listener to appreciate speaker, he should be allowed to give his feedback and speaker should be patience in terms of criticism from listener end. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LISTENER  Do not interrupt  Remain patient  Make eye contact  Show interest  Look attentive  Concentrate ask open questions 32ORAL COMMUNICATION
  33. 33.  Be effective presenter : oral communication is speakers ability to present his view point. In order to be effective presenter speaker should try to present facts, not personal opinion, content should be directed according to interest level of listener. 33ORAL COMMUNICATION
  34. 34. ORAL COMMUNICATION 34 Methods of oral communication Negotiation meetings Lecture speech presentation Conference / seminars Grapevine Telephone conversation Interview face to face conversation Group Individu al
  35. 35. INDIVIDUAL COMMUNICATION  Face to face communication : refers to when individual is communicating to another person with intention of creating understanding in mind of person.  Interview : is meeting where one person or panel of persons put forward questions to another person. These are formal conversation conducted in organization with objective to select suitable person for job.  Telephone conversation : refers to conversation between two or more persons through network communication. ORAL COMMUNICATION 35
  36. 36.  Grapevine : discussion among employees in an informal manner, on various aspects and matters concerning the organization and its affairs. GROUP COMMUNICATION  Negotiations : refers to settle down issue by creating mutual understanding between aggrieved parties.  Meetings : is a formal gathering to resolve and discuss various issues or development aspects to be implemented in company.  Lecture / speech : is a formal conversation, in which one person usually speaks and others listen as part of audience. ORAL COMMUNICATION 36
  37. 37.  Presentation : has face to face setting, in which speaker delivers lecture on pre planned topic to audience interested in subject.  Conference/ seminar/ workshops : a group deliberation on various topics, issues are held in conference, seminars and workshop. ORAL COMMUNICATION 37