Chapter 6 integumentary system

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Chapter 6 integumentary system

  1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 6 Lecture PowerPoint
  2. 2. 2401 Anatomy and Physiology I Chapter 6 Susan Gossett [email_address] Department of Biology Paris Junior College
  3. 3. Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 6 Integumentary System Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  4. 4. 6.1: Introduction <ul><li>Two or more kinds of tissues grouped together and performing specialized functions constitutes an organ . </li></ul><ul><li>The skin and its various structures make up the integumentary system . </li></ul>
  5. 5. 6.2: Skin and Its Tissues <ul><li>Composed of several tissue types </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Protective covering </li></ul><ul><li>Retards water loss </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Houses sensory receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Contains immune system cells </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizes chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Excretes small amounts of wastes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Skin Cells <ul><li>Help produce Vitamin D needed for normal bone and tooth development </li></ul><ul><li>Some cells (keratinocytes) produce substances that stimulate development of some white blood cells </li></ul>
  7. 7. Layers of Skin <ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.k.a hypodermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneath dermis </li></ul></ul>Stratified squamous epithelium Dense irregular connective tissue Adipose tissue Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
  8. 8. Epidermis <ul><li>Lacks blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Keratinized </li></ul><ul><li>Thickest on palms and soles (0.8-1.4mm) </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes provide melanin </li></ul><ul><li>Rests on basement membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified squamous epithelia </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © Victor Eroschenko (a) Hair shaft Epidermis Hair follicle (b) Sebaceous gland Dermis Sweat Epidermis Dermis Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Capillary Stratum corneum Stratum basale Dermal papilla Arrector pili muscle Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle Basement membrane Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Sweat gland Nerve cell process Adipose tissue Blood vessels Muscle layer Sweat gland duct Subcutaneous layer T Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscle
  9. 9. Epidermis <ul><li>There are five (5) layers of the epidermis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratum corneum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin – palms, soles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratum granulosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratum spinosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratum basale </li></ul></ul>Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale Basement membrane Dermis Dermal papilla (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
  10. 10. Epidermis <ul><li>Genetic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying amounts of melanin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying size of melanin granules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albinos lack melanin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV light from sunlamps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darkens melanin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilation of dermal blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constriction of dermal blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation of carotene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jaundice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heredity and environment determine skin color </li></ul>
  11. 11. 6.1 Clinical Application Tanning and Skin Cancer
  12. 12. Dermis <ul><li>Contains dermal papillae </li></ul><ul><li>Binds epidermis to underlying tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular dense connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>On average 1.0-2.0mm thick </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve cell processes </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized sensory receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Hair follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul>(a) Sweat Epidermis Dermis Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Capillary Stratum corneum Stratum basale Dermal papilla Arrector pili muscle Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle Basement membrane Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Sweat gland Nerve cell process Adipose tissue Blood vessels Muscle layer Sweat gland duct Subcutaneous layer T actile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  13. 13. Dermis <ul><li>Papillary layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermal papillae here </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reticular layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage, tension or Langer’s lines are here </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are actually two (2) layers to the dermis: </li></ul>(a) Papillary layer Reticular layer Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  14. 14. Subcutaneous Layer <ul><li>A.k.a hypodermis </li></ul><ul><li>Loose connective tissue and Adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Insulates </li></ul><ul><li>Major blood vessels present </li></ul>(a) Sweat Epidermis Dermis Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Capillary Stratum corneum Stratum basale Dermal papilla Arrector pili muscle Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle Basement membrane Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Sweat gland Nerve cell process Adipose tissue Blood vessels Muscle layer Sweat gland duct Subcutaneous layer T actile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  15. 15. 6.3: Accessory Structures of the Skin <ul><li>Accessory structures of the skin originate from the epidermis and include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair follicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin glands </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Hair Follicles <ul><li>Epidermal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tube-like depression </li></ul><ul><li>Extends into dermis </li></ul><ul><li>Three (3) parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair root </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hair shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Hair papilla </li></ul><ul><li>Dead epidermal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Melanin </li></ul><ul><li>Arrector pili muscle </li></ul>(a) Hair shaft Pore Hair root (keratinized cells) Arrector pili muscle Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Region of cell division Hair papilla Eccrine sweat gland Dermal blood vessels Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  17. 17. Nails <ul><li>Protective coverings </li></ul><ul><li>Three (3) parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nail plate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nail bed </li></ul><ul><li>Lunula </li></ul>Nail bed Nail plate Lunula Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  18. 18. 6.2 Clinical Application Hair Loss
  19. 19. Sebaceous Glands <ul><li>Usually associated with hair follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Holocrine glands </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete sebum (oil) </li></ul><ul><li>Absent on palms and soles </li></ul>Hair Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Per H. Kjeldsen
  20. 20. Sweat Glands <ul><li>A.k.a sudoriferous glands </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread in skin </li></ul><ul><li>Originates in deeper dermis </li></ul><ul><li>or hypodermis </li></ul><ul><li>Eccrine glands </li></ul><ul><li>Apocrine glands </li></ul><ul><li>Ceruminous glands </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary glands </li></ul>Dermal papilla Sebaceous gland Duct Hair shaft Hair follicle Eccrine sweat gland Apocrine sweat gland Pore Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  21. 21. 6.3 Clinical Application Acne
  22. 22. 6.4: Regulation of Body Temperature <ul><li>Regulation of body temperature is vitally important because even slight shifts can disrupt metabolic reactions. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Regulation of Body Temperature If body temperature continues to drop, control center signals muscles to contract involuntarily. too high too low Normal body temperature 37°C (98.6°F) Control center Hypothalamus detects the deviation from the set point and signals effector organs. Control center Hypothalamus detects the deviation from the set point and signals effector organs. Stimulus Body temperature rises above normal. Effectors Dermal blood vessels dilate and sweat glands secrete. Response Body heat is lost to surroundings, temperature drops toward normal. Effectors Dermal blood vessels constrict and sweat glands remain inactive. Effectors Dermal blood vessels constrict and sweat glands remain inactive. Response Body heat is conserved, temperature rises toward normal. Stimulus Body temperature drops below normal. Receptors Thermoreceptors send signals to the control center. Receptors Thermoreceptors send signals to the control center. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  24. 24. Heat Production and Loss <ul><li>Heat is a product of cellular metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most active body cells are the heat producers and include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells of certain glands such as the liver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The primary means of heat loss is radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also there is conduction, convection and evaporation </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Problems in Temperature Regulation <ul><li>Hyperthermia – abnormally high body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothermia – abnormally low body temperature </li></ul>
  26. 26. 6.4 Clinical Application Elevated Body Temperature
  27. 27. 6.5: Healing of Wounds and Burns <ul><li>Inflammation is a normal response to injury or stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels in affected tissues dilate and become more permeable, allowing fluids to leak into the damaged tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammed skin may become: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reddened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swollen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painful </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. (a) (b) (f) (g) (c) (d) (e) Scar tissue Fibroblasts Scar tissue Blood cells Site of injury Scab Blood clot Scab Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  29. 29. Types of Burns <ul><li>First degree burn – superficial, partial-thickness </li></ul><ul><li>Second degree burn – deep, partial-thickness </li></ul><ul><li>Third degree burn – full-thickness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autograft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homograft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various skin substitutes </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Rule of Nines for Adults Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anterior trunk 18% Posterior trunk 18% Anterior upper extremities 9% Posterior upper extremities 9% Posterior lower extremities 18% Perineum 1% Anterior and posterior upper extremities 18% Anterior and posterior lower extremities 36% 100% Anterior and posterior trunk 36% Anterior and posterior head and neck 9% Anterior head and neck 4 1 / 2 % Posterior head and neck 4 1 / 2 % Anterior lower extremities 18% 9% 9% 9% 9% 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 %
  31. 31. 6.6: Lifespan Changes <ul><li>Skin becomes scaly </li></ul><ul><li>Age spots appear </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis thins </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis becomes reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of fat </li></ul><ul><li>Wrinkling </li></ul><ul><li>Sagging </li></ul><ul><li>Sebaceous glands secrete less oil </li></ul><ul><li>Melanin production slows </li></ul><ul><li>Hair thins </li></ul><ul><li>Number of hair follicles decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Nail growth becomes impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory receptors decline </li></ul><ul><li>Body temperature unable to be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished ability to activate Vitamin D </li></ul>
  32. 32. Important Points in Chapter 6: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>6.1: Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Define organ, and name the large organ of the integumentary system. </li></ul><ul><li>6.2: Skin and Its Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>List the general functions of the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure of the layers of skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the factors that determine skin color. </li></ul><ul><li>6.3: Accessory Structures of the Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the accessory structures associated with the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the functions of each accessory structure of the skin. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Important Points in Chapter 6: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>6.4: Regulation of Body Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the skin helps regulate body temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>6.5: Healing of Wounds and Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the events that are part of wound healing. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish among the types of burns, including a description of healing with each type. </li></ul><ul><li>6.6: Lifespan Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize lifespan changes in the integumentary system. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Quiz 6 Complete Quiz 6 now! Read Chapter 7.

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