Chapter 5 Tissues

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Chapter 5 Tissues

  1. 1. Chapter 5 LecturePowerPoint 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Paris Junior College 2401Anatomy and Physiology I Chapter 5 Susan Gossett sgossett@parisjc.edu Department of Biology 2
  3. 3. Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier w Butler w Lewis Chapter 5 TissuesCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 3
  4. 4. 5.1: Introduction• Similar cells with a common function are calledtissues.• The study of tissues is called histology.• There are four (4) primary or major tissue types: 1. Epithelial Tissue 2. Connective Tissue 3. Muscle Tissue 4. Nervous Tissue 4
  5. 5. Intercellular Junctions Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Tight junctions Cell membrane • Close space between cells • Located among cells that form Tight junction linings Cell membraneDesmosomes • Form “spot welds” between cells • Located among outer skin cells DesmosomeGap junctions Cell membrane • Tubular channels between cells • Located in cardiac muscle cells Gap junction 5
  6. 6. 5.2: Epithelial Tissue• General characteristics: • Cover organs and the body • Line body cavities • Line hollow organs • Have a free surface • Have a basement membrane • Are avascular • Cells readily divide • Cells tightly packed • Cells often have desmosomes • Function in protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion • Classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers 6
  7. 7. Epithelial Tissue • Simple squamous: • Simple cuboidal: • Single layer of flat cells • Single layer of cube-shaped cells • Substances pass easily through • Line kidney tubules • Line air sacs • Cover ovaries • Line blood vessels • Line ducts of some glands • Line lymphatic vessels Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Free surface Lumen of tissue Nucleus Simple squamous Basement epithelium membrane Basement Free surface of tissue Nucleus Simple cuboidal epithelium Connective Connective tissue tissue (a) (b)(a) (b) b,d: © Ed Reschke b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer 7
  8. 8. Epithelial Tissue • Simple columnar: • Pseudostratified columnar: • Single layer of elongated cells • Single layer of elongated cells • Nuclei usually near the basement • Nuclei at two or more levels • Membrane at same level • Appear striated • Sometimes possess cilia • Often have cilia • Sometimes possess microvilli • Often have goblet cells • Often have goblet cells • Line respiratory passageways • Line uterus, stomach, intestines Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cilia (free surface of tissue) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cytoplasm Mucus Goblet cell Nucleus Cytoplasm Nucleus Basement Microvilli membrane (free surface of tissue) Connective tissue Goblet cell (a) (b) Basement membrane Connective b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer tissue(a) (b) 8 b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer.
  9. 9. Epithelial Tissue• Stratified squamous: • Stratified cuboidal: • Many cell layers • 2-3 layers • Top cells are flat • Cube-shaped cells • Can accumulate keratin • Line ducts of mammary glands, • Outer layer of skin sweat glands, salivary glands, and • Line oral cavity, vagina, and the pancreas anal canal Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Free surface of tissue Stratified cuboidal epithelium Squamous Nucleus cells Lumen Free surface of tissue Basement membrane Connective tissue (a) (b) Layer of dividing cells Basement membrane b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer. Connective (a) tissue (b) 9 b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
  10. 10. Epithelial Tissue • Stratified columnar: • Transitional: • Top layer of elongated cells • Many cell layers • Cube-shaped cells in deeper • Cube-shaped and elongated layers cells • Line part of male urethra and • Line urinary bladder, part of pharynx ureters, and part of urethra Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Free surface of tissue Unstretched transitional epithelium Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lumen Basement Free surface membrane of tissue Stratified Underlying columnar connective tissue epithelium (a) (b) Basement membrane Free surface Connective of tissue tissue Stretched transitional epithelium(a) (b) Basement membrane Underlying connective tissue b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer (c) (d) b,d: © Ed Reschke 10
  11. 11. Glandular Epithelium• Composed of cells that are specialized to produce andsecrete substances• There are two (2) types: • Endocrine glands are ductless (key word: hormone) • Exocrine glands have ducts • Unicellular exocrine gland: • Composed of one cell • Goblet cell • Multicellular exocrine gland: • Composed of many cells • Sweat glands, salivary glands, etc. • Simple and compound 11
  12. 12. Structural Types of Exocrine Glands Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Tissue surfaceDuctSecretory portion Simple tubular Simple branched Simple coiled Simple branched tubular tubular alveolar Compound tubular Compound alveolar 12
  13. 13. Types of Glandular Secretions• Merocrine Glands • Apocrine Glands • Holocrine Glands • Fluid product • Cellular product • Secretory products • Salivary glands • Portions of cells • Whole cells • Pancreas gland (?) • Mammary glands • Sebaceous glands • Sweat glands • Ceruminous glands Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pinched off Disintegrating cell portion of cell and its contents Intact (secretion) (secretion) cell Secretion New cell forming by mitosis and cytokinesis (a) Merocrine gland (b) Apocrine gland (c) Holocrine gland 13
  14. 14. 5.1 From Science to Technology Nanotechnology Meets the Blood-Brain Barrier 14
  15. 15. 5.3: Connective Tissues• General characteristics: • Most abundant tissue type • Many functions: • Bind structures • Provide support and protection • Serve as frameworks • Fill spaces • Store fat • Produce blood cells • Protect against infections • Help repair tissue damage • Have a matrix • Have varying degrees of vascularity • Have cells that usually divide 15
  16. 16. Connective Tissue Major Cell Types Present• Fibroblasts • Macrophages • Fixed cell • Wandering cell • Most common cell • Phagocytic • Large, star-shaped • Important in injury or • Produce fibers infection• Mast cells • Fixed cell • Release heparin • Release histamine 16
  17. 17. Connective Tissue Fiber Types Present• Collagenous fibers • Elastic fibers • Thick • Bundles of microfibrils • Composed of collagen embedded in elastin • Great tensile strength • Fibers branch • Abundant in dense CT • Elastic • Hold structures together • Vocal cords, air passages • Tendons, ligaments• Reticular fibers • Very thin collagenous fibers • Highly branched • Form supportive networks 17
  18. 18. Connective Tissues• Connective Tissue Proper: • Specialized Connective Tissue: • Loose connective tissue • Cartilage • Adipose tissue • Bone • Reticular connective tissue • Blood • Dense connective tissue • Elastic connective tissue 18
  19. 19. Connective Tissue Types • Loose Connective Tissue • Adipose Tissue • Mainly fibroblasts • Adipocytes • Fluid to gel-like matrix • Cushions • Collagenous fibers • Insulates • Elastic fibers • Store fats • Bind skin to structures • Beneath skin • Beneath most epithelia • Behind eyeballs • Blood vessels nourish • Around kidneys and heart nearby epithelial cells Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Between muscles Cytsol Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fat droplet Collagenous Cell fiber membrane Fibroblast Nucleus Ground (a) (b) substance Elastic fiber b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer(a) (b) 19 b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer
  20. 20. Connective Tissue Types • Reticular Connective Tissue • Dense Connective Tissue • Composed of reticular fibers • Packed collagenous fibers • Supports internal organ walls • Elastic fibers • Walls of liver, spleen, • Few fibroblasts lymphatic organs • Bind body parts together • Tendons, ligaments, dermis • Poor blood supply Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fibroblasts Collagenous fibers Collagenous fibers White blood (a) (b) cell Fibroblast(a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer 20
  21. 21. Connective Tissue Types • Elastic Connective Tissue • Bone (Osseous Tissue) • Abundant in elastic fibers • Solid matrix • Some collagenous fibers • Supports • Fibroblasts • Protects • Attachments between bones • Forms blood cells • Walls of large arteries, airways, heart • Attachment for muscles • Skeleton • Osteocytes in lacunae Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Collagenous fibers Osteon Lamella Fibroblast Central Elastic fibers canal Osteocyte in lacuna(a) (b) Canaliculi (a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Osteocyte Nucleus Cell process in canaliculus 21 21 b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer
  22. 22. Connective Tissue Types • Hyaline cartilage • Most abundant • Ends of bones • Nose, respiratory passages• Cartilage • Embryonic skeleton • Rigid matrix • Chondrocytes in lacunae • Elastic cartilage • Poor blood supply • Flexible • Three (3) types: • External ear, larynx • Hyaline Cartilage • Elastic Cartilage • Fibrocartilage • Fibrocartilage • Very tough • Shock absorber • Intervertebral discs • Pads of knee and pelvic girdle 22
  23. 23. Connective Tissue Types Three (3) types of cartilage: Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Elastic fibers Nucleus Nucleus Lacuna Lacuna Chondrocyte Chondrocyte Extracellular matrix Extracellular(a) (b) matrix (a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Hyaline Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lacuna Chondrocyte Nucleus Collagenous fiber Extracellular matrix (a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer 23 Fibrocartilage
  24. 24. Connective Tissue Types• Blood • Fluid matrix called plasma • Red blood cells Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • White blood cells White blood cell • Platelets Red blood cells • Transports Plasma (extracellular matrix of blood) • Defends Platelets • Involved in clotting (a) (b) • Throughout body in blood b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer vessels • Heart 24
  25. 25. 5.1 Clinical Application The Body’s Glue: The Extracellular Matrix 25
  26. 26. 5.2 Clinical Application Abnormalities of Collagen 26
  27. 27. 5.4: Types of Membranes• There are four (4) types of epithelial membranes:1. Serous Membranes 2. Mucous Membranes • Line body cavities that • Line tubes and organs do not open to the that open to outside world outside • Lining of mouth, nose, • Reduce friction throat, etc. • Inner lining of thorax • Secrete mucus and abdomen 3. Cutaneous Membranes • Cover organs of thorax • Covers body and abdomen • Skin • Secrete serous fluid 4. Synovial Membranes • Composed entirely of connective tissue • Lines joints 27
  28. 28. 5.5: Muscle Tissues • Skeletal muscle • Attached to bones • Striated• General characteristics: • Voluntary • Muscle cells also called muscle fibers • Smooth muscle • Contractile • Walls of organs • Three (3) types: • Skin • Skeletal muscle • Walls of blood vessels • Smooth muscle • Involuntary • Cardiac muscle • Non-striated • Cardiac muscle • Heart wall • Involuntary • Striated • Intercalated discs 28
  29. 29. Muscle Tissue Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Striations Cytoplasm Nuclei Nucleus Portion of a muscle fiber (a) (b)(a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Striations Nucleus Intercalated disc (a) (b) b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer 29 Cardiac Muscle
  30. 30. 5.6: Nervous Tissue• Found in brain, spinal cord, andperipheral nerves Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Functional cells are neurons Cellular process Cytoplasm• Neuroglial cells support and Nucleusbind nervous tissue components Cell membrane Neuroglial cells• Sensory reception (a) (b) b: © Ed Reschke.• Conduction of nerve impulses 30
  31. 31. 5.2 From Science to Technology Tissue Engineering: Replacement Bladders and Hearts 31
  32. 32. Important Points in Chapter 5: Outcomes to be Assessed5.1: Introduction Describe a tissue, and explain the intercellular junctions found in tissues. List the four major tissue types in the body.5.2: Epithelial Tissues Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue. Name the types of epithelium and identify and organ in which each is found. Explain how glands are classified.5.3: Connective Tissues Describe the general characteristics of connective tissue. Compare and contrast the cellular components, structures, fibers, andextracellular matrix (where applicable) in each type of connective tissue. 32
  33. 33. Important Points in Chapter 5: Outcomes to be Assessed Describe the major functions of each type of connective tissue.5.4: Types of Membranes Describe and locate each of the four types of membranes.5.5: Muscle Tissues Distinguish among the three types of muscle tissue.5.6: Nervous Tissues Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissue. 33
  34. 34. Quiz 5Complete Quiz 5 now! Read Chapter 6. 34

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