“ Copy” Author: Jussi Parikka, 2008 Talking Head: Shannon Glass
Parikka’s use of “copy”: <ul><li>1. In the context of file management, and as a new phase of cultural reproduction. </li><...
Key Concepts <ul><li>Reproduction: mechanical vs. digital (reviving good ol’ Walter Benjamin) </li></ul><ul><li>Recursion:...
The Flow <ul><li>Reproduction--->Recursion<---->Remediation--->Regulation </li></ul>
Analog Reproduction <ul><li>1877 - Phonograph invented. </li></ul><ul><li>1928 - Magnetic tape invented. </li></ul><ul><li...
Analog Recursion <ul><li>Composers: John Cage, Terry Riley, Steve Reich </li></ul><ul><li>Key technique: sampling/looping ...
Analog Remediation <ul><li>1960s - Synthesizer becomes commercially available. </li></ul><ul><li>1960s - The Beatles (and ...
Digital Reproduction <ul><li>1971 - First commercial recordings. </li></ul><ul><li>1979 - First all-digital album. </li></...
Digital Recursion <ul><li>Early 1990s - Digital sampling/looping available for both live performances and recorded music. ...
Digital Remediation <ul><li>Repurposing of previously recorded music explodes in all genres in the late 1980s and early 19...
Digital Regulation <ul><li>Widespread sampling + expansion of music industry markets = copyright issues. </li></ul><ul><li...
Postmodern Culmination <ul><li>Girl Talk’s 2008 album,  Feed the Animals , uses 322 samples amongst its 14 tracks. </li></...
Key Questions <ul><li>Does the work of Girl Talk strike you as truly creative, or do you find it merely derivative? </li><...
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Parikka's "Copy"

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Parikka's article asserts that copy production is the key cultural technique of modernity, and the dominant mode of cultural production that culminates in digital production techniques. My presentation explored Parikka's ideas through the lense of copy production influencing the last 130 year of music formulation/composition/creation by the artist.

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Parikka's "Copy"

  1. 1. “ Copy” Author: Jussi Parikka, 2008 Talking Head: Shannon Glass
  2. 2. Parikka’s use of “copy”: <ul><li>1. In the context of file management, and as a new phase of cultural reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2. As part of copy/paste, a cultural technique and aesthetic principle. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Copy as verb vs. Copy as noun. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Concepts <ul><li>Reproduction: mechanical vs. digital (reviving good ol’ Walter Benjamin) </li></ul><ul><li>Recursion: software that calls itself; rabbit programs (think of a loop); AI and viruses (“going viral”) </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation: copy/paste replaces scissors-paper; refashioning of what has come before (e.g. a collage) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation: copyright protections and digital rights management (DRM) </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Flow <ul><li>Reproduction--->Recursion<---->Remediation--->Regulation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Analog Reproduction <ul><li>1877 - Phonograph invented. </li></ul><ul><li>1928 - Magnetic tape invented. </li></ul><ul><li>1929 - Records win, cylinders die out. </li></ul><ul><li>1960s - Compact cassette tape is born. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Analog Recursion <ul><li>Composers: John Cage, Terry Riley, Steve Reich </li></ul><ul><li>Key technique: sampling/looping </li></ul>
  7. 7. Analog Remediation <ul><li>1960s - Synthesizer becomes commercially available. </li></ul><ul><li>1960s - The Beatles (and others) start sampling and looping with tape. </li></ul><ul><li>1970s - Hip-hop employs sampling and looping using record turntables. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Digital Reproduction <ul><li>1971 - First commercial recordings. </li></ul><ul><li>1979 - First all-digital album. </li></ul><ul><li>1982 - Compact disc (CD) comes out. </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-1990s - Digital now dominant in both recording and in distribution. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Digital Recursion <ul><li>Early 1990s - Digital sampling/looping available for both live performances and recorded music. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Digital Remediation <ul><li>Repurposing of previously recorded music explodes in all genres in the late 1980s and early 1990s … and continues to be in widespread use in all music created since. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Digital Regulation <ul><li>Widespread sampling + expansion of music industry markets = copyright issues. </li></ul><ul><li>1987 song sparks UK legal dispute. </li></ul><ul><li>1989 song sends sampling to the U.S. Supreme Court. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Postmodern Culmination <ul><li>Girl Talk’s 2008 album, Feed the Animals , uses 322 samples amongst its 14 tracks. </li></ul><ul><li>Here’s your chance to dance! </li></ul><ul><li>http: //readyrickshaw .com/toob/node/62#5 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Key Questions <ul><li>Does the work of Girl Talk strike you as truly creative, or do you find it merely derivative? </li></ul><ul><li>Parikka refers to copying as not merely reproducing discrete objects, but as “seeding and culturing,” in that copying codes cultural products and communicates them across networks. Does this apply to the work of Girl Talk? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think copyright issues would have become as highly contentious if sampling had been just as widespread, but all music was still being produced via analog methods? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you see a relationship between the the notion of a “disembodied mind,” wherein knowledge is no longer embodied solely in the brain but also extends to external data storage, to current musical artists working with sampling instead of by playing traditional instruments? </li></ul>

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