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Ch. 23 24 india history and culture


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Ch. 23 + 24 India

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Ch. 23 24 india history and culture

  1. 1. Agenda 3/30/16 1.India map activity 2.Label page numbers in packet starting with page 1 as the vocab. Page and pg. 23 on the back cover. 3. “ Physical Geography Activity,” “Pakistan” 4.Video clips
  2. 2. INDIA MAP ACTIVITY 1. Label/color map of India. Use textbook pgs. 600- 603 OR atlases pg. 122 2. Label the country of Afghanistan 3. Label the following capital cities with a *- New Delhi and Islamabad 4. Color the map as follows: - Color each country a different color - Color/outline any rivers blue - Color/shade any high elevation brown 3. Make a map key and label as follows: pgs. 602- 603 textbook - Highest population (500 and over)- shade color - Label Co for coal - Label G for gold 4. Map quiz Friday!
  3. 3. INDIA
  5. 5. •Forms a natural border between India and Pakistan. •The 18th largest desert in the world •Most densely populated desert in the world. •Lack of water supply leads to nomadic life
  7. 7. • Flows through northern India & Bangladesh and empties into the Bay of Bengal •Ganges Basin: Most heavily populated river basin in the world (400 million people) •Lifeline to millions of Indians •Among the 5 most polluted rivers in the world
  8. 8. Sacred River •Most sacred river to Hindus- have festivals on river •Earthly home to Hindu goddess Ganga •Referred to as Gangamai “Mother Ganges” •Believe river has healing powers •Many temples and shrines built along the river •People gather daily at Varanasi (town along the river) for purification and prayer •
  9. 9. Population •More than 1.2 billion live in India. •India is the most populated democratic country in the world. •Most Indians live in the north or along the coasts.
  10. 10. Language •Several hundred languages are spoken in India. •India’s two official languages are Hindi and English. •Hindi is spoken by about 30% of the population.
  11. 11. Religion •India is the birthplace of four religions: •Hinduism •Buddhism •Jainism •Sikhism
  12. 12. Caste System The caste system is a strict separation of people based on occupation. Although illegal for over 50 years, the caste system still influences India.
  13. 13. High Caste vs. Low Caste •High caste=a lot of privileges •Low caste=limited opportunities •The caste system is slowly changing
  14. 14. Determining Factor •Your caste determines: •Who you marry •The kind of house you live in •What type of job you will have
  16. 16. •DoNOT HAVE TO COMPLETE: •Pg. 5, 6, 7 •Pgs. 14, 15, 16 •Pgs. 17, 18, 19, 21, 23 Due next Fri. 4/15
  17. 17. CLASS WORK 4/5/16 1. Use textbook pgs. 626- 632 to complete pg. 20 “History and Governments” Ch. 23 Section 1 2. Video clips 3. Hinduism/Buddhism article
  18. 18. Hinduism & Buddhism reading •When done pg. 20, answer all questions on pg. 3 and 5 – can write directly on the paper.
  19. 19. Quick-Write • Write a paragraph detailing the problems that might be caused by the Hindu caste system. • Think about: – Being born into a caste – Being able to move into a different caste only through reincarnation
  20. 20. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION 2500-1500 BCE, largest of the world’s earliest civilizations, 1,000 miles inland from Arabian Sea
  21. 21. PLANNED CITIES: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Carefully laid out, checkerboard roads, walls, warehouses for food, elaborate bathing facilities
  22. 22. ARRIVAL OF THE ARYANS Came to Indus River Valley through the Hindu Kush Mountains Aryan migration into India took hundreds of years: successors came due to iron weapons and chariots
  23. 23. ARYAN CULTURE Vedas- oral religious tradition: get most information about Aryan culture: includes hymns, prayers, and rituals Written between: 1500 BCE and 1000 BCE
  24. 24. Vedas • Vedas showed that Aryans were organized into varnas, social groups • Over time a caste system arose • Caste= social group that someone is born into; cannot change • Called jati in South Asia • Thousands of jati still exist • Constitution does not recognize the caste system
  25. 25. SOCIAL CLASSES Four social classes called Varna which became the caste system
  26. 26. Aryan civilization • Smaller kingdoms emerged to Mauryan empire • Leader Asoka helped spread Buddhism • Gupta empire then ruled India • Muslims then conquered and formed Mughal empire- lasted until the 1700s; then under British rule
  27. 27. Religions of South Asia
  28. 28. Buddhismin the Subcontinent
  29. 29. Ancient indiAn Religions: Hinduism oVeRVieW •3rd largest religion in the world •Began in Indus Valley •Reflect beliefs of ancient Aryans and other civilizations- many different deities (gods) •All gods part of one spirit (Brahman)- goal is to reach this after cycle of rebirths •Belief in reincarnation (rebirth), and karma (consequences of our lives) will determine the spot in our cycle of rebirth
  30. 30. Hinduism SHIVA
  31. 31. Hinduism • Began about 4,000 years ago in India • Religion of the Aryans Hinduism is a way of life that shapes and unifies much of Indian culture.
  32. 32. Hinduism: Development Hindu, from the Persian “Hind”: geographical area where original civilization of India began (Indus River Valley) Beliefs change based on local/regional traditions •Over a million gods exist as a result
  33. 33. • The sacred texts – books about Hindu beliefs are recorded in the Vedas and the Upanishads contain eternal truths that were revealed to wise men.
  34. 34. The Three Main Gods • Brahma is the creator, Vishnu is the preserver, and Siva or Shiva is the destroyer.
  35. 35. Brahman • Brahman: the single supreme force; an infinite reality; divine ground beyond this universe • Very few Hindus can truly understand Brahma It could remind you of Christian heaven.
  36. 36. Moksha • Suffering: pursue false goals such as material riches and personal pleasure The true goal of life is moksha: freeing of the soul from the body so that the soul can unite with Brahma.
  37. 37. Reincarnation • Moksha – cannot be achieved in one lifetime so undergo reincarnation: rebirth of the soul in various forms.
  38. 38. Samsara: Reincarnation • After the body dies – the soul may be reborn as anything from a flower to a snake – however, each form is only temporary. You only need to die to change your current position (or form).
  39. 39. • Dharma: the ultimate moral balance of all things. Each person is responsible for balancing his or her dharma. • Karma: Will experience the effects of his or her actions if balance is disturbed
  40. 40. Karma • A person’s current situation is a result of his or her deeds in a past existence. • The better the deeds – the higher the caste or place in society.
  41. 41. Quick-Write • Write a paragraph detailing the problems that might be caused by the Hindu caste system. • Think about: – Being born into a caste – Being able to move into a different caste only through reincarnation
  42. 42. MANDIR • Hindu temple: place of worship • Dedicated to one or many Hindu deities • Japa - Individual silent or soft repetition of mantras
  43. 43. Delhi: Largest Hindu Temple Complex
  44. 44. London
  45. 45. Krishna Temple, Utah
  46. 46. PUJAS (Prayers, Songs, Rituals) • Create shrines in temples, in the home, and in outdoor public spaces. • Priests perform puja at sunrise, noon, sunset, and midnight. • Visiting a temple every day or even regularly is not mandatory so many worship at home.
  47. 47. FAMILY SHRINE • A photograph of god/gods, flowers, fruits, incense, perfume, a bell, an oil lamp, scripture
  48. 48. HOLIDAYS: DIWALI (A Row of Lights) • Hindu New Year (October or November) • Decorate streets and doorways with small clay lamps in anticipation of the coming of Lakshmi (prosperity and good fortune) • Lasts for five days • Clean homes, decorate floors with floor paintings made of rice flour • Wears finest clothes & offers gifts to neighbors
  49. 49. CHAITRA (HOLI) • Spring festival (March or April) celebrating coming of Krishna • Bonfires lit in the evening to empower the sun as it moves to longer and warmer spring hours • Sing and dance all night and extinguish fire with water at dawn • Water colored with dyes are thrown at each other, eat holiday foods and sweets • Lasts for 3 days
  50. 50. SYMBOLS: AUM • Means yes or will be • Said in the beginning of mantras or Hindu texts and at the end of reading the Vedas
  51. 51. SRI YANTRA • 9 interlocking triangles (4 upward: masculine and 5 downward: feminine) meet at a point representing the interlocking of the two and representing all creation
  52. 52. THE SWASTIKA • Good fortune, luck, well-being
  53. 53. THE LOTUS • Represents beauty
  54. 54. Buddhism • 500 BC • Founded by Siddharta Gautama- was a prince, then gave up his wealth • Became known as the Buddha or “Enligtened One” • Teachings of giving up material possessions and reaching nirvana
  55. 55. Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Born in NE IndiaBorn in NE India (Nepal).(Nepal).  Raised in great luxuryRaised in great luxury to be a be a king.  At 29 he rejectedAt 29 he rejected his luxurious life tohis luxurious life to seek enlightenmentseek enlightenment and the source ofand the source of suffering.suffering.  Lived a strict,Lived a strict, asceticascetic life for 6 for 6 yrs.  Rejecting this extreme, sat inRejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and foundmeditation, and found nirvananirvana..  Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
  56. 56. What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!  Therefore, extinguish the self,Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.don’t obsess about oneself.
  57. 57. Buddha’s teachings - Suffering is caused by wanting material goods and being too attached to material goods - Only way to relieve suffering is to give up material goods - Follow the Eightfold Path
  58. 58. FourNoble Truths 4.4. To reachTo reach nirvananirvana, one, one must follow the Eightfoldmust follow the Eightfold Path.Path.
  59. 59. Eightfold Path Nirvana  The union with the ultimateThe union with the ultimate spiritual reality.spiritual reality.  Escape from the cycle ofEscape from the cycle of rebirth.rebirth.
  60. 60. Buddha – 19c Thailand
  61. 61. Buddha’ s head : 2c Pakistan
  62. 62. Mandala: Wheel of Life Motif
  63. 63. Mandala: Wheel of Life Motif
  64. 64. The Dalai Lama
  65. 65. Distribution of Buddhism Centers in the US, 2001
  66. 66. 10th Annual western buddhist monastic conference California, 2004California, 2004
  67. 67. Relieve Stress & Meditate: Get a Mantra! Ohm...mani...padme...hunOhm...mani...padme...hun g...g...Hail to the jewel in the lotus!Hail to the jewel in the lotus!
  69. 69. MUGHAL EMPIRE Founded by Babur (1526) Lasted for more than 300 years Akbar the Great: Religious toleration (Muslims and Hindus)
  70. 70.  Shah Jahan: Monument to his 3rd wife  Both are buried there
  71. 71. EUROPEAN TRADERS  Portuguese built a trading empire in Asia (Vasco da Gama)  Catholic missionaries sailed with Portuguese merchants and converted many Indians to Christianity.  In 1600, Dutch broke in and England set up the East India Company  The English built trading posts and traded gold and silver for Indian goods such as cotton, textiles, silk, and tea
  72. 72. A STRUGGLE FOR POWER  At first, the Mughal Empire looked down on the Europeans and had power to set the terms of trade.  Later (Early 1700s), Mughal Empire began to decline (wasteful spending, ended toleration policy, civil wars)  Rival princes set up small independent kingdoms  Britain and France began to compete with each other for political and economic power.  They allied with local Indian rulers against the Mughal Empire  British forces had overcome the French.
  73. 73. EAST INDIA COMPANY RULE  Robert Clive- British officer and administrator of the East India Company  Led British forces against the French and drove the French out.  Won control of Bengal section of India (Bangladesh)  He appointed local rulers who favored the East India Company
  74. 74. EAST INDIA COMPANY RULE  Traditional rivalries kept Indian rulers from uniting against the British.  The British encouraged disunity  Earned the right to collect taxes, set up a law code, set up a court system
  75. 75. BRITISH RULE  Indians had many grievances against British rule.  British outlawed Hindu ritual suicide by widows  British imposed high taxes  Christian missionaries tried to convert Hindus
  76. 76. SEPOY REBELLION  Sepoys: Indian troops who served in the British army  Sepoys heard rumors that cartridges for their rifles were greased with beef or pork fat  Fight for Britain in foreign lands (afraid would lose caste)  Sepoy Rebellion: 1857 near Delhi  Sepoys killed some British soldiers.  British brutally put down the uprising  Led to lasting distrust between British and Indians
  77. 77. Positive and Negative outcomes (See pg. 630) Negative Outcomes  British textiles destroyed local textile industry; Indians had to buy expensive British products  High taxes  Had to raise cash crops (tea, cotton, etc.) instead of food to pay for goods which led to a food shortage and famines  Only minor advances in health care Positive outcomes  Well-run government  Founded schools to educate higher-caste Indians  Improved education led to Indian resentment of British and increased nationalism  Improved transportation and communication; increased trade
  78. 78. MOHANDAS GANDHI  Came from a middle class Hindu family  Became a lawyer in Britain. Practiced law in South Africa where he developed ideas about nonviolent resistance  Practiced civil disobedience: The refusal to obey unjust laws  Gave up western ways and encouraged traditional Indian industries like spinning cotton  Fasted  Preached better treatment of all people regardless of caste
  79. 79.  Urged protests by civil disobedience (refusal to obey unjust laws with peaceful protests)
  80. 80. MOHANDAS GANDHI  Civil disobedience: supported strikes and protests, stop buying British-made goods  The Salt March (1930): Protested the tax on salt  Led followers on a 200 mile march and made salt from sea water  British arrested Gandhi and about 50,000 other Indians
  81. 81. MOVING TOWARD INDEPENDENCE  When WWII began, the INC (Indian National Congress) refused to fight in support of Britain unless they were promised immediate independence  The British refused  “Quit India” movement and followed a policy of non- cooperation  Britain arrested more than 20,000 Congress members but was weakened by WWII
  82. 82. HINDU-MUSLIM CONFLICT  British encouraged conflict between the INC and the Muslim League  Muslims wanted a separate Muslim nation to protect their rights.
  83. 83. THE SUBCONTINENT DIVIDED  1946: widespread rioting between Hindus and Muslims  1947: British parliament passed the Indian Independence Act  Ended British rule and provided for partition (division) of India into two nations  Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan  Fighting between the two nations continued.
  84. 84. Tensions today  East Pakistan became Bangladesh  Both Muslims in Pakistan and Indians claim land of Kashmir in Himalaya Mountains  Fights over this border still today
  85. 85. Yes, you have a test today!  Can not use notes/packet 1. After the multiple choice, hand in scan- tron in bin and test outside bin. 2. Take a Short Answer test and hand in. 3. Complete following packet pages by Fri. 4/15 1. Pgs. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13; 22