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Bosnia Herzegovina Pp #2


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Bosnia Herzegovina Pp #2

  1. 1. GORNJI VAKUF/USKOPLJE Bosnia Herzegovina
  2. 2. BiH Flag: Created in 1998 Stars: represent Council of Europe Triangle pnts: Bosnia’s 3 main ethnic groups Half Stars: Bosnia’s 2 regions
  3. 3. Brief Recap on BiH <ul><li>Location: South-eastern Europe on Balkan Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding Countries: Croatia (N&W); Serbia (E); Montenegro (S) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Sarajevo </li></ul><ul><li>Placement: Gornji Vakuf/Uskoplje (W of Sarajevo) </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse ethnicity: Bosnians; Croatians; & Serbians </li></ul>
  4. 4. History <ul><li>Illyrian: 1 st people to settle </li></ul><ul><li>First century AD: Romans conquered most of country </li></ul><ul><li>7-12 th century: Croats & Serbs ruled </li></ul><ul><li>1180-1463: Hungary controlled Bosnia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BiH united until 1448 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Late 1400s: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turks captured Bosnia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded to Herzegovina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most people converted to Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Late 1800s: Austro-Hungarian Empire took over Bosnia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Following Russo/Serbian-Turk war (1876), Turks were expelled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influx of non-Muslims from North to BiH ( contributing to present-day ethnic mix) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. History Cont’d <ul><li>1904: Austria-Hugary annexed Bih </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent BiH from becoming independent Yugoslavia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused two events: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Balkan war of 1912-1913 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1914: Serbian killed heir to Austro-Hungarian throne: WWI was declared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>After war (1929): Bosnia became a part of Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>1940s (WWII): Josip Broz Tito helped free Bosnia from German control and created communist-ruled Yugoslavia (1945) </li></ul><ul><li>1980: Tito died & federation fell apart </li></ul><ul><li>1992: BiH claimed independence & ethnic/civil war followed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First in Slovania, then Croatia & finally in BiH </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Central Bosnian Conflict <ul><li>Bosnian War: 1992-1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Serbians vs. Croatians & Bosnians </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serbs wanted to reunite all Yugoslav territories but eliminate non-Serbs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fought over territory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Summer 1995: NATO intervenes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germans & U.S. armed and trained Croat & Muslim armies so they could reclaim their territory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1995: divided BiH into Serb Republika Srpska & the Federation of BiH </li></ul>
  7. 7. Eastern Bosnian Conflict <ul><li>Conflict between Muslims and Croats </li></ul><ul><li>Fought in main street in Gornji Vakuf- Uskolje </li></ul><ul><li>Physical conflict began from January- February 2003, then July 2003 (when city was split)-March 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Fought over territory & ethnic differences </li></ul><ul><li>City, especially Muslim area, was destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HVO (Croat separatist army) used the nearby hills to snipe and bomb the city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City split created primarily homogenized areas, apart from the previously formed cross-cultural families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1995: Dayton Accord (Pease Agreement) was signed </li></ul>
  8. 8. Post- War : Social Implications <ul><li>Gornji Vakuf split in middle (lower part “Uskoplje”: Croats; Upper part: Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Violence hasn’t erupted since 2004; however, the mixing of ethnic groups isn’t has prominent, families torn </li></ul><ul><li>Tension = demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Separate city structures: city councils (2); mayors (2); post offices (2); schools systems (2); & health centers (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I.e., 2007 Alumni noticed that schools have separate entrances for Bosnian and Croatians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed city structures: bus station; police force; & public market (both sides shop on Wednesdays) </li></ul><ul><li>4% of land has unexploded landmines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limits social and economic activities (also causes health concerns) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Post War: Economic Implications <ul><li>Economy: destroyed from war </li></ul><ul><li>Refocus from primary sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-war: ½ revenuewas generated from agriculture & mineral resources (i.e., iron, coal, zinc, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present: focus on education, transit, banking & health care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% unemploeyment rate; those employed mostly work as construction workers and or own or work in cafes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign Aid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~$ 15 billion thus far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequally distributed (primarly goes to Croatian side) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for reconstructing cities, power lines & telecommunicaion and transportation systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnic rift = economic stagnation & deteriorated international position </li></ul>
  10. 10. General Government Info <ul><li>Independent from Yugoslavia in either March or April 1992 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became Federal Democratic Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under terms of 1995 Dayton Accord: BiH consists of 2 First-order administrative divisions (federal governments): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim/ Croat Federation of Bosnia & Herzegovina (Federacija Bosnia Hercegovina) (2 presidents) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (1 president) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BiH also has 1 Internationally supervised district: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NE Bosnia: Brcko District </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for national functions (i.e., foreign, external trade and financial policies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3-member rotating presidency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each member is elected by popular vote for 4 year term (similar to the States) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotates ever 8 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents appoint Chairman of Council of Ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Last election date: Oct 1 st 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>National Statehood Day: 25 Nov (1943) (commemorates the day BiH became free of Germans & became communist Yugoslavia: Tito’s reign) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Omladinsky Centar <ul><li>Founded: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spring 1996 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle of Gornji Vakuf, central Bosnia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal front line where the war of Muslims & Croats fought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Major Organizations Involved: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local NGO; National NGO; International NGO; & Local Leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project for: UMCOR (United Methodist Committee on Relief); UNDP (U.N. Development Project) until 1997; and locals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Runs without government assistance, in order to work towards multi-culturalism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~12 staff members & 15 volunteers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost of Operation: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Runs on ~7000 KM /month </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Omladinsky Centar <ul><li>Goal: “Encourage youth to take major roles in peace building” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A location where students, teachers and parents can safely interact cross-culturally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target Demographic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500+ 7-18 yr olds take part in the educational and recreational programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hours of Operation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9am-8pm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some programs and courses offered at the center: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Computer classes in computer lab for 10-17 yr olds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English & German </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict Resolution & Non-Violent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently, classes are intermixed </li></ul>
  13. 13. Highlights from Former BB Students’ Placements (2006)
  14. 14. Omladinsky Centar
  15. 15. Canada Day at Omladinsky Centar 2006 Alumni Created this Program (I would like my group to reintroduce this event; I’m going with 4 other Intercordia students this year: Chelsea from King’s college; Ryan from Saskatoon; and the newbies to our group being Jillian from Fredericton & Bridgette from Toronto) &quot;Banana is Unite!&quot; Massive Cdn Word Search Canadian Family Feud Fear Factor
  16. 16. Bosnia Herzegovina Vacant hotel Structure with evidence of war: locals don’t like people taking pictures of these memories of the war Field with unexploded mines (also prominent in deserted buildings Vacant hotel Locals hard at work: example of jobs in BiH View of the Gornji-Vakuf from the hillside Buildings near Alumni’s host family’s house. Evidence of war: bullet holes in the side of the buildings. (Muslim side of town)
  17. 17. Bosnia Herzegovina July 13, 2006 One of only a hand full of times 2006 Alumni saw a large crowd of people. Usually the town is fairly deserted. Diving competition: They made a dam a couple days before so it would be more safe to dive of the bridge. The winner (best diver) received 100 KMs
  18. 18. Weekend Trips to Surrounding Cities Sarajevo Dubrovnik Travnik
  19. 19. Weekend Trips to Surrounding Cities Cont’d Split Bashka Voda Mostar Tucepi (tu-che-pi)
  20. 20. Websites: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Mulla-Feroze, Gabrielpillai. Welcome to my Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina . 2002 N.A. Gareth Stevens Publishing </li></ul>