Mary & the saints 11-12

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Mary & the saints 11-12

  1. 2. <ul><li>SHE WAS PRE-FIRGURED </li></ul><ul><li>PART OF GOD’S SALVATION PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>CHOSEN FROM THE BEGINNING </li></ul><ul><li>NO AN AFTER THOUGHT </li></ul>
  2. 3. GENESIS 3:15 “ I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; He will strike at your head, while you strike at his heel.&quot;
  3. 4. 700 YEARS BEFORE THE VIRGIN BIRTH “ Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign. The Virgin Herself will be with a Child and give birth to a Son and will call Him Immanuel.&quot; Isaiah 7:14
  4. 5. What did the Quran say? <ul><li>“ O Mariam, Allah gives you good tidings of `a Word from Him' whose name shall be the Messiah , Isa, the son of Mariam, highly honoured in this world and the next; and he shall be one of those brought near `to Allah” (Sura The House of Imran 3:45). </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>ANGEL GABRIEL; </li></ul><ul><li>“ HAIL, FULL OF GRACE….” Luke 1: 28 </li></ul><ul><li>MARTIN LUTHER ; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;She is rightly called not only the mother of the man, but also the Mother of God ... It is certain that Mary is the Mother of the real and true God.“ </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>JOHN CALVIN: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ulrich Zwingli : </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The more the honor and love of Christ increases among men, so much the esteem and honor given to Mary should grow.&quot; </li></ul>
  7. 10. There was much else that Jesus did; if it were written down in detail, I do not suppose the world itself would hold all the books that would be written. John 21:25 Bible
  8. 11. Traditions of the Church <ul><li>&quot;He who hears you hears me, and he who rejects you rejects me&quot; (Luke 10:16). </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;stand firm and hold to the traditions which you were taught by us , either by word of mouth or by letter &quot; (2 Thess. 2:15). St. Paul </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;So faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes by the preaching of Christ&quot; (Rom. 10:17). </li></ul><ul><li>St. Paul </li></ul>
  9. 12. So I now say to you: You are Peter and on this rock I will build my Church. And the gates of the Hell can never overpower it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of Heaven: whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven; whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.' Matt 16:18-19 Authority granted to the Church
  10. 13. CREATED IN THE IMAGE AND LIKENESS OF GOD
  11. 15. Nicene Creed I believe in one God the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth of all things visible and invisible. I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Only Begotten Son of God, born of the Father before all ages. God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, consubstantial with the Father; through Him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation
  12. 16. Nicene Creed He came down from heaven. (At the word that follow , up to and including “and became man”, all bow) and by the Holy Spirit was incarnate of the Virgin Mary, and became man.
  13. 17. Nicene Creed For our sake He was crucified under Pontius Pilate, He suffered death and was buried, and rose again on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead and his kingdom will have no end.
  14. 18. Nicene Creed I believe in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church. I confess one Baptism for the forgiveness of sins. I look forward to the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen.    
  15. 20. GENESIS 3:15 “ I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; He will strike at your head, while you strike at his heel.&quot;
  16. 22. <ul><li>TO BEAR THE WORD INCARNATE </li></ul><ul><li>SON OF GOD </li></ul><ul><li>HEIR TO THE THRONE OF DAVID </li></ul><ul><li>WHOSE KINGDOM WILL HAVE NO END </li></ul><ul><li>KING OF KINGS </li></ul><ul><li>ROYAL DIGNITY BESTOWED </li></ul><ul><li>MOTHER OF KING </li></ul><ul><li>MOTHER OF GOD </li></ul>
  17. 23. ANNUNCIATION- LUKE 1 : 26-38 “ Greetings favoured one” “ Hail, Full of Grace” Luke 1: 28 To become the mother of the Savior, Mary &quot;was enriched by God with gifts appropriate to such a role.” The angel Gabriel at the moment of the annunciation salutes her as &quot;full of grace”. In fact, in order for Mary to be able to give the free assent of her faith to the announcement of her vocation, it was necessary that she be wholly borne by God's grace. - CCC 490
  18. 24. <ul><li>CONCEPTION OF MARY WITHOUT SIN TO BE THE ARK OF THE NEW COVENANT; </li></ul><ul><li>THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION OF MARY: BORN WITHOUT ORIGINAL SIN (CCC 490- 493) </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IT IS NOT ; </li></ul><ul><li>NOT CONCEIVED BY THE POWER OF THE HOLY SPIRIT </li></ul><ul><li>NOT CONCEPTION OF JESUS – VIRGIN BIRTH </li></ul>
  19. 25. THE VISITATION –Luke 1: 39-45
  20. 26. <ul><li>Meeting of two women –pregnant through divine intervention at different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth’s greeting:- (Luke 1:42-43) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… ..you are the most blessed” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… ..the Mother of the Lord” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mary’s response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Magnificat (Luke 1:45-55) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“… all generations will call me blessed” </li></ul></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><li>FROM LUKE 1:28 </li></ul><ul><li>ROSARY - JOYFUL MYSTERY </li></ul>
  22. 29. FIRST MIRACLE – MARY’S INTERCESSION <ul><li>MARY INTERCEDED- SHE ASKED HER SON </li></ul><ul><li>SON SHOWED HE WAS NOT READY </li></ul><ul><li>AND SHE REMINDED: “DO WHATEVER HE TELLS YOU !” ( ALWAYS LEAD US TO HER SON) </li></ul><ul><li>JOHN 2:5 </li></ul><ul><li>JESUS RESPECTED HER MOTHER’S INTERCESSION AND PERFORMED THE FIRST MIRACLE AND NOT THE LAST DEFINTELY </li></ul>
  23. 30. <ul><li>4 TH COMMANDMENT – “ Honor your father and mother ;” </li></ul><ul><li>PROVERBS 15: 29 – “The Lord is far from the wicked, but he hears the prayer of the righteous.” </li></ul><ul><li>JAMES 5: 16 – “ The prayers of the righteous is powerful and effective” </li></ul><ul><li>HOW CAN JESUS REFUSE THE INTERCESSION OF HIS BELOVED MOTHER? </li></ul>
  24. 33. <ul><li>SHE STOOD FAITHFUL FROM THE CRIB TO CANNA AND NOW AT CALVARY </li></ul><ul><li>ALWAYS THERE WITH HER SON </li></ul><ul><li>JESUS GAVE HER MOTHER TO US </li></ul><ul><li>MOTHER OF THE CHURCH </li></ul><ul><li>HONOURED AND REVERED IN EVERY CHURCH </li></ul>
  25. 34. Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican
  26. 36. IT’S BREAK TIME !
  27. 38. Mary in Church Dogmas A time-line <ul><li>Mother of God Council of Ephesus 431 </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetual Virginity </li></ul><ul><li>Council of the Lateran, 649 </li></ul><ul><li>Immaculate Conception Ineffabilis Deus Pope Pius IX Dec. 8 1854 </li></ul><ul><li>The Assumption Munificentissimus Deus Nov. 1 1950 </li></ul>
  28. 39. The Church (Magisterium) defines dogmas as:- “ Dogmas are truths contained in Divine Revelation or having a necessary connection with it and defined in a form obliging the Christian people to an irrevocable adherence of faith “ (CCC 88) DOGMAS ARE INFALLIBLE TEACHINGS OF THE CHURCH MADE EX-CATHEDRAL DOGMAS
  29. 40.
  30. 41. <ul><li>That Mary of Nazareth was conceived without original sin was defined as dogma by Pope Pius IX in 1854. See CCC# 491-492; 508. CCC# 508: From among the descendants of Eve, God chose the Virgin Mary to be the mother of his Son. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Full of grace”, (Luke 1:28) &quot; Mary is &quot;the most excellent fruit of redemptions&quot; (SC 103): from the first instant of her conception, she was totally preserved from the stain of original sin and she remained pure from all personal sin throughout her life. </li></ul>
  31. 42. Immaculate Conception (Ineffabilis Deus) Pope Pius IX Dec. 8 1854
  32. 43. <ul><li>That Mary was the mother of Jesus who is God was defined as dogma at the very city where Mary had lived for several years'at the Council of Ephesus in 431AD. CCC# 495: Called in the Gospels &quot;the mother of Jesus,&quot; Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as &quot;the mother of my Lord,&quot; In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father's eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity, Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly &quot;Mother of God (Theotokos). Also #509. </li></ul>
  33. 44. <ul><li>The perpetual virginity of Mary of Nazareth is expressed in 3 parts: in her virginal conception of Christ; in giving birth to Christ, and her continuing virginity after His birth: </li></ul><ul><li>• virginitas ante partum: virginity before birth [CCC#396; 510] </li></ul><ul><li>• virginitas in partu: virginity during birth [CCC#510] </li></ul><ul><li>• virtinitas post partum: virginity after birth [CCC# 510] </li></ul>
  34. 45. <ul><li>The usage of this triple formula to express the fullness of this mystery of faith became standard with St. Augustan [354-430AD], St. Peter Chrysologus [c. 400-450AD], and Pope St. Leo the Great [440-461AD]. See CCC # 496-507; 964. </li></ul>
  35. 46. MARY’S PERPECTUAL VIRGINTY <ul><li>Teaching of the Universal Church </li></ul><ul><li>The Council of Constantinople II (553-554) twice referred to Mary as &quot;ever-virgin.“ </li></ul><ul><li>(Council of the Lateran, 649) </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther (1483-1546), On the Divine Motherhood of Mary; </li></ul><ul><li>C.C.C. 499-501 </li></ul>
  36. 47. <ul><li>CCC499: The deepening of faith in the virginal motherhood led the Church to confess Mary's real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made man. In fact, Christ's birth &quot;did not diminish his mother's virginal integrity but sanctified it.&quot; And so the liturgy of the Church celebrates Mary as Aeiparthenos, the &quot;Ever-virgin.&quot; </li></ul>
  37. 48. <ul><li>[Note: The so called &quot;brothers&quot; of Jesus mentioned in Scripture are His kinsmen. In Hebrew there was no designation for siblings, or half-brothers, or step-brothers. The Greek word used to designate Jesus' brothers “ adelphos” is the same word used for kinsmen, brothers like St. James and John Zebedee, and all &quot;brothers&quot; in the faith]. </li></ul>
  38. 49. PENITENTIAL RITE (1) I confess to almighty God, and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I have greatly sinned, in my thoughts and in my words, in what I have done, and in what I have failed to do;
  39. 50. PENITENTIAL RITE (2) (and striking their breasts, they say) Through my fault, through my fault and through my most grevious fault;
  40. 51. PENITENTIAL RITE (2) Therefore I ask blessed Mary, ever virgin , all the angels and saints, and you, my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord our God.
  41. 52. <ul><li>Assumption of Mary into heaven: That Mary's body did not experience corruption but was assumed into heaven was defined as dogma by Pope Pius XII in 1950. See CCC# 966; 974. CCC# 974: </li></ul><ul><li>The Most Blessed Virgin Mary, when the course of her earthly life was completed, was taken up body and soul into the glory of heaven, where she already shares in the glory of her Son's Resurrection, anticipating the resurrection of all members of his Body. </li></ul>
  42. 53. MARY’S PERPECTUAL VIRGINTY <ul><li>Martin Luther (1483-1546), On the Divine Motherhood of Mary; </li></ul><ul><li>Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), who wrote: </li></ul><ul><li>I firmly believe that Mary, according to the words of the gospel as a pure Virgin brought forth for us the Son of God and in childbirth and after childbirth forever remained a pure, intact Virgin. ( Zwingli Opera, Corpus Reformatorum , Berlin, 1905, v. 1, p. 424.) </li></ul>
  43. 54. <ul><li>3 Components of Marian Devotion: </li></ul><ul><li>- Veneration </li></ul><ul><li>- Invocation </li></ul><ul><li>- Imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Source: The New Catholic Encyclopaedia </li></ul>
  44. 55. TITLES OF MARY <ul><li>Mother of God; </li></ul><ul><li>Queen of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Star of the Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Seat of Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Our Lady of Guadalupe </li></ul><ul><li>Our Lady of Vladimir </li></ul><ul><li>Our Lady of Fátima </li></ul><ul><li>Our Lady of Lourdes </li></ul><ul><li>Our Lady of Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Our Lady of Peking </li></ul>
  45. 56. Our Lady of Deliverance, honored in Peking in the church of Beitang, in thanksgiving for the miraculous protection granted to those who defended the region during August 15, 1900.
  46. 57. <ul><li>PREPARE US TO BE FAITHFUL AND HOLY JUST SHE WAS- IMITATE HER : 1 COR 4: 16-17; PHIL 3:17; HEBREW 13:17; SIRACH 44:1-1 </li></ul><ul><li>DRAW ALL MAN TO HER SON; </li></ul><ul><li>“ DO WHATEVER HE TELLS YOU” JOHN 2:5 </li></ul>
  47. 58. DEVOTION TO MARY
  48. 59. <ul><li>“ All generations will call me blessed” </li></ul><ul><li>Hail Mary/Ave Maria </li></ul><ul><li>Rosary and Angelus </li></ul><ul><li>Novenas </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimages </li></ul><ul><li>Special prayers eg Memorare </li></ul>DEVOTION TO MARY
  49. 60. ROSARY The rosary is one of the most cherished prayers of our Catholic Church.
  50. 61. MYSTERIES OF THE ROSARY <ul><li>Joyful (Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity, Presentation and Finding in the Temple),; </li></ul><ul><li>Sorrowful (Agony in the Garden, Scourging, Crowning with Thorns, Carrying of the Cross and Death); </li></ul><ul><li>Glorious (Resurrection, Ascension, Pentecost, Assumption and Coronation). </li></ul><ul><li>Luminous mysteries: Baptism at the Jordan, Wedding Feast of Cana, Proclamation of the Kingdom of God, Transfiguration and Institution of the holy Eucharist. </li></ul>
  51. 62. THE HAIL MARY Luke 1:28
  52. 63. ROSARY After the apparitions of Our Lady at Fatima in 1917, the prayer Mary taught to the children has generally been added at the end of each decade: &quot;O my Jesus, forgive us our sins, save us from the fires of hell. Lead all souls to heaven, especially those in greatest need of Thy mercy.&quot;
  53. 64. ROSARY Archbishop Fulton Sheen said, &quot; The rosary is the book of the blind, where souls see and there enact the greatest drama of love the world has ever known; it is the book of the simple, which initiates them into mysteries and knowledge more satisfying than the education of other men; it is the book of the aged, whose eyes close upon the shadow of this world, and open on the substance of the next. The power of the rosary is beyond description.&quot;
  54. 65. THE ANGELUS V. The Angel of the Lord declared unto Mary, R. And she conceived of the Holy Spirit. Hail Mary …... V. Behold the handmaid of the Lord, R. Be it done unto me according to Thy Word. Hail Mary….. V. And the Word was made flesh, R. And dwelt amongst us. Hail Mary...
  55. 66. V. Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God. R. That we may be made worthy of the promise of Christ. Let us pray Pour forth , we beseech Thee, O Lord, Thy grace into our hearts; that we, to whom the Incarnation of Christ Thy Son was made known by the message of an angel, may, by His passion and cross, be brought to the glory of His Resurrection; through the same Christ our Lord. Amen The angelus (2)
  56. 67. MEMORARE Remember, O most gracious Virgin Mary, That never was it know that anyone who fled to your protection. Implored your help or ought your intercession, Was left unaided. Inspired with this confidence, I fly to you, O Virgin of virgins, my Mother; To you do I come, before you I stand, sinful and sorrowful. O Mother of the Word Incarnate. Despise not my petitions. But in your mercy hear and answer me, AMEN
  57. 68. CONCLUSION Heb. 13:7 - we must imitate the faith of our faithful leaders. We ask for their intercession and venerate them for their holiness.
  58. 69. MIRACLES OF MARY
  59. 71. Hiroshima Rosary Miracle - Safe in the Midst of Hiroshima Nuclear Blast !! <ul><li>Over five hundred thousand people were killed.. Everything within a one-mile radius was completely destroyed. That is almost everything was destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a home eight blocks (about 1 kilometer) from where the A-Bomb went off in Hiroshima Japan. This home had a church attached to it which was completely destroyed, but the home survived, and so did the eight German Jesuit missionaries who prayed the rosary in that house faithfully every day. </li></ul>
  60. 72. MIRACLES OF MARY
  61. 73. Sunday, August 20, 2006, Ephesus, Turkey Wild forest fire swept through 1,200 hectres of land and surpassed Mary’s house and carried on
  62. 75. Saints <ul><li>Holy persons (Latin “sanctus”-holy, consecrated) </li></ul><ul><li>St. Paul describes a believer as a saint and routinely calls Christian communities saints . </li></ul><ul><li>( eg Eph 1:1; 2Cor 1:1). </li></ul>
  63. 76. <ul><li>We are all one family in heaven and on earth, united together, as children of the Father. </li></ul><ul><li>Eph. 3:14-15- </li></ul><ul><li>We are called to be saints. Saints refer to both those on earth and in heaven who are in Christ. 1 Cor. 1:2; Rom. 1:7 - </li></ul>
  64. 77. <ul><li>Pope Pius XII –Encyclical on the Mystical Body, said “it is the society of those who have been baptized, and who profess the faith of Christ, and who are governed by their bishops under the visible head, the Pope, the Bishop of Rome.” </li></ul><ul><li>St. Paul speaks of all Christians as members of Christ, so that with Him, they form one Mystical Body (Cf. 1 Cor 12:12-31; Col 1:18; 2:18-20; Eph. 1:22-23; 3:19; 4:13) </li></ul>
  65. 79. This expression also refers to the communion between holy persons (sancti) ; that is, between those who by grace are united to the dead and risen Christ. Some are pilgrims on the earth ; others, having passed from this life, are undergoing purification and are helped also by our prayers. Others already enjoy the glory of God and intercede for us. All of these together form in Christ one family, the Church, to the praise and glory of the Trinity – CCC 961-962
  66. 80. For though we live in the world we are not carrying on a worldly war, for the weapons of our warfare are not worldly but have divine power to destroy strongholds. 2 COR 10:4
  67. 82. Canonisation of Saints <ul><li>Martyrs - who died for their faith in Christ Confessors - who died after a life of heroic virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiries – Congregation for the Causes of Saints – “Venerable” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beatification – evidence of virtues and miracles – “Blessed”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canonisation - two miracles worked at his/her intercession – “Saint” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canonization does not &quot;make&quot; a person a saint; it recognizes what God has already done. </li></ul>
  68. 83. Canonization Process- nutshell <ul><li>First Step </li></ul><ul><li>A petition is made to open a cause for canonization for a servant of God. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Second Step </li></ul><ul><li>The servant of God is declared “Venerable” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Third Step </li></ul><ul><li>Beatification </li></ul><ul><li>*One miracle is required </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Step </li></ul><ul><li>Canonization </li></ul><ul><li>*Second miracle is required </li></ul><ul><li>The Blessed is declared a saint in a solemn, public mass at the Vatican by the Pope. </li></ul>
  69. 84. Patron Saints <ul><li>Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England (George) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt (Mark) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China (Mary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France (Joan of Arc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA (Immaculate Conception of Mary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam (Joseph) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borneo (Francis Xavier) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: www.catholic.org/saints </li></ul></ul>
  70. 85. Patron Saints <ul><li>Churches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>St Francis Xavier Church PJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St Ignatius Church PJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption Church PJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Thomas Moore, Subang </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St John Cathedral KL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St Michael Church Ipoh </li></ul></ul>
  71. 86. Patron Saints <ul><li>Trades or Professions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountants & Bankers (Mathew) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Servants (Thomas Moore) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpenters (Joseph) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journalists (Francis de Sales) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishermen (Andrew) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers (John Baptist de la Salle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors (Luke) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wine Merchants (Amand) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: www.catholic.org/saints </li></ul></ul>
  72. 87. Patron Saints <ul><li>Special Cases/Circumstances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost Articles (Anthony of Padua) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegitimate Children (John Francis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopeless Case (Jude) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deaf (Francis de Sales) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pensioners (Our Lady) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travelers (Christopher) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: www.catholic.org/saints </li></ul></ul>
  73. 88. What do all these mean to me… ? Finally,
  74. 89. <ul><ul><li>It reminds us, that individually, we are all called to be “saints”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ be holy, for I am holy,” (Lev 11:44 and 45) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Be perfect, as your heavenly Father is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perfect” (Mt 5:48) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  75. 90. <ul><li>It invites us to live a life of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charity </li></ul></ul>
  76. 91. Patron Saints <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baptism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources: www.catholic.org/saints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parish Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic Bookshops (Arrupe, Daughters of St. Paul) </li></ul></ul>
  77. 92. THE GREAT FIAT &quot;Let it be with me according to your word&quot; (Luke 1:38)

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