Smart Growth Debate Proponent's Presentation


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From South Fraser OnTrax’s debate on whether or not Smart Growth principles are needed in the South of the Fraser. More information at:

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Smart Growth Debate Proponent's Presentation

  1. 1. ComprehensiveEvaluation of Smart Growth Benefits Todd Litman Victoria Transport Policy Institute Presented Smart Growth Debate Langley, BC 23 February 2012
  2. 2. Farmland Preservation Vs Sprawl• Farms are subdivided.• Land values and taxes increase.• Infrastructure costs rise (water, sewage, roads).• Road traffic increases.• Farming becomes less viable, forcing other farms to subdivide.
  3. 3. Farmland Preservation Vs Sprawl• Farms are subdivided.• Land values and taxes increase.• Infrastructure costs rise (water, sewage, roads).• Road traffic increases.• Farming becomes less viable, forcing other farms to subdivide.
  4. 4. Farmland Preservation Vs Sprawl• Farms are subdivided.• Land values and taxes increase.• Infrastructure costs rise (water, sewage, roads).• Road traffic increases.• Farming becomes less viable, forcing other farms to subdivide.
  5. 5. Smart Growth DevelopmentLand use and transportpolicies that encouragedevelopment of compact,mixed, walkable urbanvillages where commonly-used goods and services(shops, restaurants,elementary schools, parks,etc.) are nearby, and highquality public transit providesconvenient access to otherregional destinations. Victoria’s Cook Street Village is a example of a multi-modal urban village where walking, cycling, automobile and public transport are all convenient and safe transport options 15
  6. 6. Retrofitting SuburbsMany smaller cities, townsand suburban strips are nowbeing retrofitted based onsmart growth principles tocreate compact, walkable andbikeable, mixed useneighborhoods, reflectingtraditional developmentpractices. 16
  7. 7. Linking the Centers across US29by Dan Burden, Walkable & Livable Communities Institute
  8. 8. Ped/bike bridge from mall to transit stop/garage18
  9. 9. Mixed-use redevelopment on mall parking lot19
  10. 10. Landscaping matures20
  11. 11. Additional redevelopment21
  12. 12. Landscaping matures over time22
  13. 13. Household Transport Costs Sprawl Smart GrowthCars per household  Annual transport expenses $18,000 $6,000Mobility for non-drivers Poor (requires Moderate to good chauffeuring) (independent mobility)Commute Automobile Walk, bike, automobile or convenient public transportLocal errands Auto Walking, cycling and autoChild’s travel to school and Poor (requires Walking, cycling andfriends chauffeuring) chauffeured in auto
  14. 14. Land Use Impacts On Travel 24
  15. 15. Smart Growth Safety Impacts
  16. 16. Healthy Communities Walkability• Improves public fitness and health• Improves mobility options for non-drivers• Transport cost savings and affordability• Increases community livability
  17. 17. “A Heavy Load” ReportLower-income householdsin neighborhoods locatedcloser to the central citiesspend a much smallerportion of their income onhousing and transport thanthose located in moresprawled neighborhoods.
  18. 18. Return on Investment High quality public transit typically requires about $268 in additional subsidies and $104 in additional fares annually per capita, but provides vehicle, parking and road cost savings averaging $1,040 per capita, plus other savings and benefits: • Parking cost savings. • Congestion reductions • Accident reductions • Pollution reductions Improved mobility for non-drivers, • Improved fitness and health
  19. 19. Equity A more diverse transportation systems helps achieve equity objectives: • A fair share of public resources for non-drivers. • Financial savings to lower-income people. • Increased opportunity to people who are physically, socially or economically disadvantaged.
  20. 20. Sprawl Is Costly $10,000• Increases infrastructure Annual Transport Expenditurs and public service costs. $8,000• Increases transportation $6,000 costs and reduces travel options. $4,000• Environmental costs $2,000 (reduced greenspace and wildlife habitat). $- Smart Sprawl Growth 32
  21. 21. Smart Growth Benefits Economic Social EnvironmentalInfrastructure cost savings Improved transport options, Greenspace & habitat particularly for non-drivers preservationPublic service cost savings Increased housing options Energy savingsTransportation efficiencies Community cohesion Air pollution reductionsAgglomeration efficiencies Cultural resource preservation Water pollution reductionsEconomic reliance (historic sites, traditional neighborhoods, etc.) Reduced “heat island”Supports industries that effect.depend on high quality Increased physical exerciseenvironments (tourism, and healthfarming, etc.) 33
  22. 22. Memo From Future SelfHope for the best but prepare for theworst: • Physical disability – diverse and integrated transport with universal design (accommodates people with disabilities and other special needs). • Poverty and inflation – affordable housing in accessible, multi-modal locations. • Higher fuel prices – improve efficient modes (walking, cycling and public transport). • Isolation and loneliness – community cohesion (opportunities for neighbors to interact in positive ways).
  23. 23. Trends Supporting Multi-Modalism • Motor vehicle saturation. • Aging population. • Rising fuel prices. • Increased urbanization. • Increased traffic and parking congestion. • Rising roadway construction costs and declining economic return from increased roadway capacity. • Environmental concerns. • Health Concerns
  24. 24. Housing Demand By Type (Nelson 2006)The current supply oflarge-lot suburban isapproximately adequateto satisfy demand forthe next two decades.Most growth will be insmaller-lot and multi-family housing.
  25. 25. High Quality Public Transit• Geographic coverage (serves many worksites, schools, stores, recreational areas, neighborhoods).• Relatively fast, reliable and and frequent.• Comfortable and clean vehicles and waiting areas.• Convenient information and payment systems.• Affordable relative to incomes and driving costs.• Safe and secure.• Courtesy and responsiveness.
  26. 26. Walking and Cycling Improvements• More investment in sidewalks, crosswalks, paths and bike lanes.• Improved roadway shoulders.• More traffic calming.• Bicycle parking and changing facilities.• Encouragement, education and enforcement programs.
  27. 27. Motorists Benefit Too More balanced transport policy is no more “anti-car” than a healthy diet is anti-food. Motorists have every reason to support these reforms:• Reduced traffic and parking congestion.• Improved safety.• Improved travel options.• Reduced chauffeuring burden.• Often the quickest and most cost effective way to improve driving conditions.
  28. 28. Supported by Professional Organizations • Institute of Transportation Engineers. • American Planning Association. • American Farmland Trust. • Federal, state, regional and local planning and transportation agencies. • International City/County Management Association • National Governor’s Association • Health organizations. • And much more...
  29. 29. Roadway CostsTransport Canada reports that in2009–10, all levels of Canadiangovernment spent $28.9 billion onroads, about $900 annually percapita, and collected $12.1 billionin fuel taxes and $4.4 billion inother road user fees, indicatingthat in Canada, user fees coverabout 64% of roadway costs. Transport In Canada: An Overview,Transport Canada(
  30. 30. “Where We Want To Be: Home Location Preferences & Their Implications for Smart Growth”“If Health Matters: Integrating Public Health Objectives into Transportation Decision-Making” “Evaluating Transportation Economic Development Impacts” “Affordable-Accessible Housing In A Dynamic City” “The Future Isn’t What It Used To Be” “Evaluating Smart Growth Benefits” “Online TDM Encyclopedia” and more...