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How We Got Into this Mess, and Our Way Out


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Presentation by Dan Burden at South Fraser OnTrax's 2nd Annual Sustainability on the Edge Event.

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How We Got Into this Mess, and Our Way Out

  1. 1. Walkability
  2. 2. By Dan Burden Walkable and Livable Communities Institute Sustainability on the Edge II How We Got Into this Mess, and Our Way Out
  3. 3. How do we take the principles of active living, combine them with active transportation and expand our ideas and concepts to achieve a fully sustainable world? Have we reached the precipice yet?
  4. 4. How do we take the principles of active living, combine them with active transportation and expand our ideas and concepts to achieve a fully sustainable world? Simple: by waking up, then using our heads, our heart and our feet. The question is will we do this just in the nick of time? Or not?
  5. 5. Is this the landscape we want to leave our children?
  6. 6. What’s Wrong Here? America’s Wealthiest County
  7. 7. What the Community Provided What the Customer Wanted
  8. 8. What the Community Provided What the Customer Wanted
  9. 9. Who we built for Who we did not build for
  10. 10. Who we built for Who we did not build for
  11. 11. The Pedestrian in America has been marginalized compromised to Death
  12. 12. Thirty percent of North Americans old enough to drive do not drive. This percentage is increasing.
  13. 13. Choosing a Preferred Alternative Scenario A: Low Density Scenario B: Baseline Scenario C: Walkable Neighborhoods Scenario D: High Infill
  14. 14. If you come to a fork in the road, take it.” … Yogi Berra
  15. 15. If you want to build a ship. Don’t drum up people to collect wood and don’t assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea” — Antoine de Saint-Exupery
  16. 16. West Lafayette, Indiana (Home of Purdue University)
  17. 17. 1962 – Dr. Paul Dudley White 1977, NEA Conference 1964 1980, First Boulder Conf. 1997 1999 2005 2002-05 2010 1997 Kyoto Treaty 1985--1996
  18. 18. LosAngeles,Then
  19. 19. LosAngeles,Now
  20. 20. Driving more miles each year (like obesity) is a visible symptom, an indicator of a disease that is running amuck in each of our towns and villages.
  21. 21. 2000 Monthly Household Transportation Expenditures Source:
  22. 22. 2008 Monthly Household Transportation Expenditures Source:
  23. 23. 2008 Monthly Household Transportation Expenditures Urban center remains affordable! Source:
  24. 24. •Time in car: - All women 64 min/day - Single mothers 75 min/day STPP 2000 From 1969 to 2000, Americans drive: +88% farther to shop +137% farther for errands Women effected most • Mom/Family “chauffeur”
  25. 25. 2001 National Geographic Magazine Article on Sprawl Photo by: Newsday Levittown New York Where are the parks? Where are the trails? Where is the public realm? Where do people gather? How do you go place to place? Where do you buy a popsicle? How does a child visit a friend?
  26. 26. "If we are to have full use of automobiles, cities must be remade...awaiting industry that will do wonders, for prosperity will spring up when we revamp our cities” …Post Magazine (circa 1930)
  27. 27. “Abundant sunshine, fresh air, fine green parkways will blend together seamlessly with dazzling skyscrapers and seven-lane highways.”
  28. 28. If it weren’t for the damn pedestrian there would be no traffic problem in Los Angeles… … circa 1972, Los Angeles Traffic Engineer Compact villages and a strong civilian presence is the only solution to our traffic problems… … circa 1995, San Diego Traffic Engineer
  29. 29. “A driveable future. An auto company has a new design competition to imagine a future city that is car-friendly” (June 28, 2010)
  30. 30. “Automobiles are often conveniently tagged as the villains responsible for the ills of cities and the disappointments and futilities of city planning. But the destructive effects of automobiles are much less a cause than a symptom of our incompetence at city building. The simple needs of automobiles are more easily understood and satisfied than the complex needs of cities, and a growing number of planners and designers have come to believe that if they can only solve the problems of traffic, they will thereby have solved the major problems of cities. Cities have much more intricate economic and social concerns than automobile traffic. How can you know what to try with traffic until you know how the city itself works, and what else it needs to do with its streets? You can't.” Jane Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American Cities , 1961 “How can you know what to try with traffic until ….”
  31. 31. ConventionalApproach System Management More Pavement MoreLanes MoreRoads ITS MoreCars More Car-Carrying Capacity Lateral Approach User View and Comfort Context-Sensitive Design Traffic Calming Personal Security Intensify land use densities Promote Mixed Use Development Transit Supportive Development Demand Management – Pricing, e-commerce, telecommuting, etc… Lane Limits Change Standards Shift Policy Transit Bicycling Walking HOV/HOT Lanes A Balanced Transportation Approach
  32. 32. Widen Road Reduce Delay Reduce Cost FIRST ORDER Move Home Range Farther Drive Home Own More Cars SECOND ORDER Move Business Move Jobs Mega Boxes More Strip More Lane Miles New Construction THIRD ORDER Chain of Impacts
  33. 33. Surgeon General’s Report 21% US citizens ages 9- 17 have a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder associated with at least minimum impairment
  34. 34. Depressive Disorders 19 million American adults • Leading cause of disability in the USA • Treatment: • Medication • Social Contact, including therapy • And…..
  35. 35. “What is the first thing an infant wants to do and the last thing an older person wants to give up?”
  36. 36. A walkability plan must set a stage for all other modes of transportation to work, including transit. If people cannot walk then transit remains ineffective. “What is the first thing an infant wants to do and the last thing an older person wants to give up?” Walking is the exercise that does not need a gym. It is the prescription without medicine, the weight control without diet, and the cosmetic that can’t be found in a chemist. It is the tranquilizer without a pill, the therapy without a psychoanalyst, and the holiday that does not cost a penny. What’s more, it does not pollute, consumes few natural resources and is highly efficient. Walking is convenient, it needs no special equipment, is self-regulating and inherently safe. .”
  37. 37. Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) around the U.S. have increased by 70 percent over the last 20 years, compared with a two percent increase in new highway construction. The U.S. General Accounting Office predicts that road congestion in the U.S. will triple in 15 years even if capacity is increased by 20 percent. Traffic is growing about five times faster than the growth in population. (Data compiled for a report to the U.S. Department of Transportation in 2006 written by Stephen Polzin, (transportation researcher at the University of South Florida in Tampa.) Why we cannot build our way out of traffic
  38. 38. The World is Changing Expect: Option One: 25% more traffic every ten years. More intersections failing. More people spreading out into canyons, ridges and other high risk locations. Also Expect: More cars per household Limited new lanes and limits on intersections being rebuilt More demand for slowing traffic More demand for traffic to stay in motion More demand for safer streets More demand for quieter streets
  39. 39. Option Two: Return to Traditional streets and land uses More connectivity More walking, bicycling and transit People living closer to services, shorter trips by time and distance More funding for well located engine houses Improved and more appropriate equipment More ways to respond Fewer personal injury auto crashes
  40. 40. The simple needs of automobiles are more easily understood and satisfied than the complex needs of cities, and a growing number of planners and designers have come to believe that if they can only solve the problems of traffic, they will thereby have solved the major problems of cities. Following that philosophy led to this, redundantly. A new beaker and measure will lead to this.
  41. 41. New measure for street performance: People come to your street to shoot their wedding pictures
  42. 42. "If we want a booming economy of mom and pop stores, we'd better build the environment where they succeed”
  43. 43.  Build Villages, Not Traffic • Right Pattern, Right Form, Right Scale, Right Density • Circulation System and Connectivity • Focus on Access, not Mobility. • Seamless switching from mode to mode in all places Sustainable Future
  44. 44. Quality Of Life In building facilities to accommodate cars……we often forget about the people
  45. 45. As we age our need for association will continue to grow
  46. 46. As we age access to healthy foods will be critical
  47. 47. Peak Happiness 1965
  48. 48. City Making
  49. 49. Narrow streets Short blocks Tight corner radii Great plazas Beautiful buildings Limited parking Built by Pirates OldTown, KeyWest, Florida
  50. 50. newTown, KeyWest, Florida Designed by college graduates
  51. 51. If Cities are to reduce auto-dependence a working alternative should include: Developers no longer block access to those places people want to reach.
  52. 52. © Citizen Planner Institute Before and After Espanola Way, circa 1986
  53. 53. Not Walkable Walkable High Car Dependency Low Car Dependency Serious Congestion Moderate Congestion
  54. 54. Based on the 1928 drawings by James Perry The intensity of uses should gravitate away from the neighborhood center Townhouses frame the square while open space provides an outdoor environment for nearby residents The largest lots of the TND can be at the edge In these cases where a TND is bordered by a principal street higher intensity uses such as medium density housing can be used in creating the edge Civic buildings Should be terminate street or open space vistas
  55. 55. Personal choices of where to sit or recreate are not accidental. Balance of sun and shade are determinant in active and passive activities. In warm climates like Florida, shade is a critical asset to the comfortable year round use of a space. Why are these the only three empty tables at this restaurant? Why did this person choose this spot?
  56. 56. size neighborhoods for a 5-minute walk
  57. 57. Make blocks a walkable size: block perimeters of 1,500’ to 2,000’ create a connected network of streets
  58. 58. Design for a mix of land uses: Centers include denser housing, a square, civic uses, and neighborhood- oriented retail. Civic Buildings Neighborhood Centers Parks and Open Spaces
  59. 59. Internal Trips 100% External Trips 100% Internal Trips 60-90%
  60. 60. Connectivity: Network CrabappleRd. Hembree Rd. 400 N 3,568 miles of roads
  61. 61. Connectivity: Effective Network 12% of the Total Network is “Effective” CrabappleRd. Hembree Rd. 400 N 735 miles of roads
  62. 62. Connectivity Requirements Compact Area Type for Network Additions • Link-Node Ratio of 1.6 or greater • One external connection as well as an additional external connection and stub-out per 50 links or fraction thereof Virg
  63. 63. Chico, CA Nord Avenue
  64. 64. Chico, CA Nord Avenue
  65. 65. Meriam Park, Chico, California
  66. 66. If Cities are to reduce auto- dependence a working alternative should include: Buildings no longer “moon” the street
  67. 67. Density with Design 1980s & 90s: Density, but… Dover Kohl & Partners
  68. 68. Density with Design In New Projects: Maintain the Relationship of Building and the Street Dover Kohl & Partners
  69. 69. Density with Design In New Projects: Make the Streets Good Neighbors Dover Kohl & Partners
  70. 70. Density with Design In New Projects: Promote the Street as an Amenity, and Inspire Investment Dover Kohl & Partners
  71. 71. Well Designed Density What are the problems here? Lack of Security Lack of people Lack of investment Auto dependence No place to buy a popsicle Lack of diversity Lack of activity Lack of diversity
  72. 72. Petaluma, California
  73. 73. Petaluma, California
  74. 74. DOWNTOWN STRIP CORRIDOR SHOPPING CENTERS Investment moves to Investment moves to Freeway Corridor Courtesy of Michael Freedman
  75. 75. Falling out of Favor: Linear Strip format
  76. 76. The Illustrative Plan (above) is the result of this planning process; it shows the hypothetical buildout of the corridor, locating building footprints (new and existing), open space, and parking areas. The corridor was divided into four study areas, the Western Gateway, the Neighborhood Center, the Village Center, and the Town Center. Each area has it’s own unique characteristics and challenges which were addressed. Quick sketches were done to study buildings that would result from the hypothetical building footprints in the Illustrative Plan, combined with the proposed height limits in the study areas and potential architectural regulations of the new code. each street, which corresponds to written code regulations.
  77. 77. Burnaby, British Columbia
  78. 78. High Gate Village - Former Strip Mall
  79. 79. Burnaby, British Columbia
  80. 80. It’s Not What You Think It Is.
  81. 81. 11-12 du/a net8-10 du/a net
  82. 82. Land Use Pattern Affects Travel Higher Density can reduce Vehicle Trips 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 Trips/Household(ADT) Density in Units/Acre Source: John Holtzclaw, PhD, Sierra Club Vehicle Trips Walking Trips Significant reduction in VMT as we go from 3-4 units/acre to over 20 units/acre 6-7 du/a 7-10 du/a 11-18 du/a 2-3 du/a 20 du/a
  83. 83. Vancouver now has so much density that there is no comparison until you travel to Asia … to Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo. As Vancouver has built itself into the one city in the “Most Livable City in the World” …Vehicle Miles Per Day (VPD) is declining. Registered car Virtually all growth occurred in brown fields, industrial yards, old rail yards. Virtually all former single family homes are still in place. Loved, cared for, and worth a
  84. 84. Street and Trail Division Shore line Ground level retail 70-90% transparency Housing above street 60-90% transparency Eyes on Trail
  85. 85. Complete Streets
  86. 86. Marine Drive, Dundarave, B.C. Highway 93, Missoula, Montana USA Canada
  87. 87. Marine Drive, Dundarave, B.C.
  88. 88. • Complete Streets, • Green Streets, • Context Sensitive Design • LEED for Neighborhood Design • Healthy Streets Terms Describing Streets of the Future
  89. 89. Above Where would you rather walk? Where would you rather bike? Which is the safest place to bike? Or Below Where would you rather drive? Where would you rather live? Which is the safest place to drive?
  90. 90. 12 Feet 5 Feet Natomas, Curb-to-Curb
  91. 91. Grandview Drive , University Place, WA (33 mph Average Speed)
  92. 92. Street Design Manual Streets Pay Their Way Through Increased Land Value Increased Land Values New Maintenance Funds Holistic Use of Streets Complete Streets Green Streets
  93. 93. TWO WOLVES One evening an old Cherokee told his grandson about a battle that goes on inside people. He said, "My son, the battle is between two wolves inside us all. "One is Evil - It is anger, envy, jealousy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority, and ego. "The other is Good - It is joy, peace, love, hope, serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion and faith." The grandson thought about it for a minute and then asked his grandfather: "Which wolf wins?" The old Cherokee simply replied, "The one you feed."
  94. 94. Where There’s Opposition There Needs To Be Courage
  95. 95. Is this an age-friendly place?
  96. 96. The Cycle of Strip Development Land Use Planning INPUTS •Auto Oriented Business •Single Use Zoning •Single Family Residential GROWTH OUTCOMES •Isolated Neighborhoods •Multiple Automobile Trips •Poor Mobility •Difficult Walking Transportation Planning INPUTS •Traffic Demand Forecasting •Congestion GROWTH OUTCOMES •Wider Roads •Induced Traffic •More Traffic
  97. 97. Breaking The Cycle of Strip Development Land Use Planning GROWTH OUTCOMES •Increased Mobility •More Walking & Bicycling •Increased Access •Sustainable •Prosperity OUTCOMES •Healthy Neighborhoods •Choices of Transportation •More Open Space •Sense of Place •Sense of Community •Age-in-Place Friendly INPUTS •Diversity of Business •Mixed Use Zoning •Diversity of Residential Units •Context Sensitive Solutions •Community Involvement Transportation Planning Community Planning