Why do some data storage solutions perform better than others? What tradeoffs are made for economy and how do they affect the system as a whole? These questions can be puzzling, but there are core truths that are difficult to avoid. Mechanical disk drives can only move a certain amount of data. RAM caching can improve performance, but only until it runs out. I/O channels can be overwhelmed with data. And above all, a system must be smart to maximize the potential of these components. These are the four horsemen of storage system performance, and they cannot be denied.