The cultural context of leadership development, Dr Angus Hirairo Macfarlane, Professor of Maori Research, University of Canterbury


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Presented at Education Leaders Forum 2010 by Dr Angus Hikairo Macfarlane, Professor of Maori Research, University of Canterbury

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The cultural context of leadership development, Dr Angus Hirairo Macfarlane, Professor of Maori Research, University of Canterbury

  1. 1. The cultural context of leadership development Keynote address Angus H Macfarlane Professor of Māori Research University of Canterbury
  2. 2. Aims of this presentation  Introduce four pillars of learning  Pose four questions for leadership potential  Critique several leadership theories  Introduce an cultural leadership theory  Examine the craft of cultural leadership  Determine that leadership is context-bound  Propose a blended (life-world and systems- world) approach for educational leadership  Offer some activities that explore the opportunities for educultural leadership
  3. 3. Purposes of leadership To project the ‘lifeworlds’ that exist and are required to operate within organisations (Segiovanni, 2000) To be capable of operating under a ‘systemsworld’ which is often a set of complex, uncertain conditions (Segiovanni, 2000) To lever knowledge within a team (Fullan, 2001) To create a confident organisation that responds to Māori needs at the right time, in the right way, and in the right setting (Te Hikoitanga, GSE, 2008) To enable Māori to…… live as Māori; to participate as global citizens; and, to enjoy good health and a high standard of living (Mason Durie, 2003)
  4. 4. UNESCO - 4 pillars (Atherley, 1998)  Learning to know  Learning to do  Learning to be  Learning to live together  And an additional pillar ……..  Learning to lead
  5. 5. Ngā pātai e whā  Do they know you?  Do they know what you do?  Do you consider that you are empowered?  Do you exist and work within a partnership? And an additional pātai ….  Do you have opportunities to lead with influence?
  6. 6. Development in Leadership Theories Leaders can have a major effect on  Emotions  Motives  Preferences  Aspirations  Commitments  Structure  Performance  Culture
  7. 7. Outstanding leadership theories  Charismatic leadership theory (House, 1977; Conger & Kanungo, 1987)  Transformational leadership theory (Burns, 1978; Bass, 1985)  Visionary leadership theory (Sashkin, 1988)  Democratic-oriented leadership theory (Macfarlane, 2004; Tannenbaum & Schmidt, 1977)  Māori leadership theory (Durie, 2007; Macfarlane, 2006; Mead, 2005; Reedy, 2008; Tau & Anderson, 2008; Totoro, 2004)
  8. 8. Charismatic leadership theory  Vital force or personal magnetism which, radiating from a person, elicits in the beholder a response of awe and respect (Marsden, 1975 p. 193)  It is an intrinsic quality in human beings, a personal essence which can be more highly developed in some than others (ibid)  Tate (1990) takes it a step further by declaring that mana is not just charisma but a force that brings about change. Mana can move people
  9. 9. Transformational leadership theory  By definition seek to transform  Have immense enthusiasm  Tend to see the big picture  A trap…passion and confidence can easily be mistaken for truth and reality….just because someone believes that they are right does not necessarily believe that they are right.
  10. 10. Visionary leadership theory  Good with words  And, good with actions  Has heartfelt commitment  A visionary leader is effective in manifesting his or her vision because s/he creates specific, achievable goals, initiates action and enlists the participation of others
  11. 11. Democratic-oriented leadership theory (Macfarlane, 2008) The Hikairo Rationale  Huakina mai Opening doorways  Ihi Being assertive  Kotahitanga Establishing inclusion  Āwhinatia Supporting treaty  I runga i te manaaki Engendering care  Rangatiratanga Enhancing meaning  Orangatanga Achieving balance
  12. 12. The Hikairo Rationale (Macfarlane & Macfarlane, 2009) A Leadership Schema Rangatiratanga Enhancing meaning Huakina Mai Opening doors Kotahitanga Establishing inclusion Āwhinatia Supporting Treaty Orangatanga The pulse I Runga I te Manaaki Engendering care Ihi Demonstrating assertiveness
  13. 13. Māori leadership in metaphor (Mead, Stevens, Third, Jackson & Pfeifer, 2006)  A leader is a sheltering rata tree  A leader is a tōtara tree standing tall in the forest  A leader is a rock that is dashed by the waves of the sea  A leader is a waka ===========================  A leader takes opportunities for growth
  14. 14. Opportunities for growth (Joyce & Showers, 1988) There are levels of activity, represented in the following states of growth…  The reticent consumer  The passive consumer  The gourmet omnivore Conceptual systems theory describes persons in terms of the structure of concepts they use to organise information about the world. There is often a correlation between conceptual development and the state of growth of the individual. These individual differences are often in response to the physical and social environment (See Maslow, 1962; Rogers, 1961)
  15. 15. Characteristics of a Leader and a Non-Leader Leader Non-leader Appeals to the best in each person Gives orders to staff - expects them to be carried out Thinks of ways to make people more successful Thinks of personal rewards or how she or he looks to others Looks for ways to reinforce them Holds back on reinforcement Schedules frequent, short meetings to “touch base” Meets infrequently with staff Good listener Talker Notices what’s going well and improving Only notices what’s going wrong Available Hard to reach Persistent Gives up Gives credit to others Takes credit Consistent and credible Unpredictable Never divulges a confidence Cannot be trusted with confidences Makes tough decisions Avoids difficult decisions Treats teachers and students with respect Treats others as if they don’t matter Source: Adapted from: Peters, T., & Austin, N. (1985). A Passion for Excellence. New York: Random House
  16. 16. Features of these culturally-effective sites (Macfarlane, 2003; Pierce, 1996) Compelling Facet Mokoia Wananga Secondary Class Primary Class SE USA Class Skilled Leadership Respected culturally diverse knowledge, language and customs Listened actively; made tough decisions with timing Bonded early; The ‘powhiri’ metaphor Manifested qualities of tika (fairness), pono (integrity), aroha (inclusion) Home, school and community links Seen in the community - kanohi kitea Reached out to the community - naku te rourou Encouraged the community to reach in - nau te rourou Viewed the notion of whanau as paramount - ka ora ai tatou Roles assumed by teachers Generalist - Considered seriously national mandates and responsibilities Bridge - Shared, discerningly, own experiences; tapped into students’ also Communicator – students knew they were valued - relevance and choice Model - Modeled the desired behaviour Style adopted by teachers Consistent - worked on getting high academic and behaviour standards Participatory and engaging Organised and planned Assertive and warm
  17. 17. Successful leadership requires “Craft, Know How” (Blumberg, 1989; Jones, 1987; Kounin,1977; Macfarlane, 2004, 2007)  Developing a “nose” for things  Having a sense of what constitutes an acceptable outcome…and an acceptable one  Understanding the nature of “materials” you are working with  Knowing techniques and having skill to use them  Knowing what to do when - pragmatically and morally  Having a sense of “process”, what Sergiovanni (1991) refers to as the heart, the head and the hand
  18. 18. Leadership as a Moral Craft (adapted from Sergiovanni,1991)  Heart - feelings (beliefs, values, vision)  Head - personal or philosophical theory (thinking, making meaning)  Hand - practices (skills, strategies, decisions)
  19. 19. As leaders we may affirm, support, or encourage organisational leadership, but it is through our ‘lifeworld’ - as kaiārahi - that determines that we are in charge of ourselves. Through sharing our resources with the ‘systemsworld’ we can together create greater energy for leading. Such an environment is neither ‘lifeworld’–centered nor ‘systemsworld’–centered, but more blended-centered, with kaiārahi serving the agreed–upon leadership role when culture is at the fore. This approach is based on a rationale where ‘lifeworld’ is the essence of hope. The ‘systemsworld’ is the means to achieve hope. Both are necessary for the organisation to flourish. The blended-centred approach (adapted from Sergiovanni, 2001)
  20. 20. A guide to leadership - through the ages: Mai i te ao tawhito ki te ao hōu (see Macfarlane, 2006)  Boldness and Tamatekapua  Curiosity and Ihenga  Balance and Hikairo  Scholarship and Makereti  Vision and Kepa Ehau  Humility and Dr Hiko Hohepa
  21. 21. The management styles of effective leadership as perceived by head-teachers, teachers and students (adapted from Gersch, 1996; Macfarlane, 2004, 2007) Frequency Management Style Frequently Democratic Consultative Participative Occasionally Charismatic Transformational Seldom Autocratic Never Laissez-faire Always Culturally-responsive ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ - High Relational, Motivational Low Negativity, Adversity ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  22. 22. A leader is a waka (see Mead et al., 2006) Ensuring essential services are maintained Ensuring that the status of the community is such that the people can feel proud to belong Ensuring that the whole whānau, hapū, or iwi is functional and able to hold their own against or in comparison with others Ensuring that the symbols and icons of the group are respected, maintained and enhanced
  23. 23. To critique and to challenge - The way forward, with guile and grace  Challenge the status-quo  Critique the leadership we often take for granted  Acknowledge epistemologies of local wisdom and global considerations - positions of advantage  Look for different angles; culturally inclusive paradigms  Look for how your children, our children, their children, can grow up in the best possible way  Adopt a blended approach
  24. 24. The Challenge…te wero  The challenge facing all citizens, but especially educational professionals, is to develop culturally responsive leadership qualities... Diversity is no longer a projection – it is a reality. Locating diversity as central to institutional effectiveness, excellence, and viability is obligatory to the terms of reference upon which we frame our futures …
  25. 25. UNESCO - 4 pillars (Atherley, 1998)  Learning to know  Learning to do  Learning to be  Learning to live together And an additional pillar ……..  Learning to lead
  26. 26. A model of cultural inclusion (Grace, 2002) PAPATUANUKU RANGINUI
  27. 27. Figure 1.1 In search of an educultural community (Macfarlane, 2009) An educultural community is one where culturally responsive practices transcend the school, the home and the wider community. Within this culturally-connected community the following elements are valued: • All students and teachers benefit in terms of desirable goals • All parents and caregivers understand, support and contribute to these desirable goals • Excellence in teaching and learning is pursued through appropriate academic and professional development • The culture of the school and the community is one where democracy and diversity co-exist What would an educultural environment look like in our community? What are the main challenges that we face in making our community an educultural one? In light of the emerging information and meanings, what are some values and philosophies that we, as a community, can adopt? Based on the emerging values and philosophies, what are three bold steps we can propose to make our community truly educultural.
  28. 28. Figure 1.2 In search of an educultural community (Macfarlane, 2009) An educultural community is one where culturally responsive practices transcend the organisation (service) the home and the wider community. Within this culturally-connected community the following elements are valued: • • • •
  29. 29. Reflective Questions  What are three key ideas you learned from this korero  What did you learn from this korero that affirms your current work?  What attitudes of your own will you need to reconsider so that you can progress more proficiently in your work?  What attitudes in your organisation may need to be reconsidered on account of your reflections?