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Open Innovation in Action

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Open Innovation in Action

  1. 1. Open Innovation in Action Lessons learned about social collaboration from 30 years of open source Stefane Fermigier, Abilian, March 2012 Monday, March 25, 2013
  2. 2. Who am I? Monday, March 25, 2013
  3. 3. Monday, March 25, 2013
  4. 4. I’m an open source developer Monday, March 25, 2013
  5. 5. I’m an open source developer (And an entrepreneur, too...) Monday, March 25, 2013
  6. 6. Today’s thesis Many of the aspects of what we call social technologies and social business were pioneered at one point by the open source development communities. It’s also true for Open Innovation. Monday, March 25, 2013
  7. 7. A short history of Free & Open Source Software Monday, March 25, 2013
  8. 8. FOSS 0.1 1983-1990 Monday, March 25, 2013
  9. 9. Photo credit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Vicapowell39 Monday, March 25, 2013
  10. 10. Richard Stallman, Founder of the Free Software Movement Photo credit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Vicapowell39 Monday, March 25, 2013
  11. 11. • The free software movement was started in 1983 by Richard Stallman • Most of the open source software produced at the time was developed by very small teams (2-3 persons), using local development tools • Software were distributed using tapes, then FTP • Marketing was mostly through word-of- mouth Monday, March 25, 2013
  12. 12. Early successes • The GNU “operating system” (minus the kernel) was already displacing proprietary tools in the early 90s • The moral and legal frameworks upon which the free software (and later, the open source) movement is built • Didn’t mandate / prescribe any production model for free software, though Monday, March 25, 2013
  13. 13. Challenges • Economic and moral questioning: • Is it ok to make money with free software? • How to make the system sustainable? • How to scale development efforts to larger teams? Monday, March 25, 2013
  14. 14. FOSS 0.9 1991-1998 Monday, March 25, 2013
  15. 15. • Larger scale projects start to appear, attracting tens, then hundreds of developers (and later, thousands) • Tools and practices are developed, most often on top of existing internet protocols to address the needs of distributed development at this scale : • Centralized source code management • Mailing lists or usenet forums Monday, March 25, 2013
  16. 16. Successes • Linux (1991) • The Debian (1993) and Red Hat (1994) distributions • The Apache Web Server (1995) Monday, March 25, 2013
  17. 17. FOSS 1.0 1998-2007 Monday, March 25, 2013
  18. 18. • Open source becomes the preferred term for most free software based businesses • The Web becomes pervasive • Several organizations created to foster governance of open source projects (Apache Foundation, Eclipse Foundation, OW2...) • Several successful IPOs on top of the Web 1.0 bubble (Red Hat,VA Linux), Netscape open sources the Mozilla browser... Monday, March 25, 2013
  19. 19. The 4 engines of collaboration • Real-time shared vision • Real-time status updates • Real-time help requests • Self-service archives Source: Bertrand Delacretaz, 2009 Monday, March 25, 2013
  20. 20. “Every successful open source project I know uses PRIM. Every closed source project I know, doesn't. People wonder how open source projects manage to create high-quality products without managers or accountability. The answer: we're accountable to our infrastructure. PRIM is the open source secret sauce.” Ted Husted http://jroller.com/TedHusted/entry/prim Monday, March 25, 2013
  21. 21. P = Portal (often, a Wiki) Monday, March 25, 2013
  22. 22. R = Repository Monday, March 25, 2013
  23. 23. I = Issue (or Bug)Tracker Monday, March 25, 2013
  24. 24. M = Mailing List (+ foruM) Monday, March 25, 2013
  25. 25. Software Forges, a more integrated approach • Sourceforge, launched in 1999 by VA Linux, integrates all these tools in a consistent Web (1.0) portal • Makes it super easy for anyone (3.4 million users currently) to start a new open source project (324 000 as of today) • Several similar products launched afterwards (Collabnet, Trac, Redmine) Monday, March 25, 2013
  26. 26. Works for non open source software too... Monday, March 25, 2013
  27. 27. FOSS 2.0 2008-now Monday, March 25, 2013
  28. 28. Web 2.0 • Wikipedia (2001) • Tim O’Reilly’s Architecture of Participation (2004) and Web 2.0 (also 2004) • Consumer Web 2.0, then Enterprise 2.0 replace older applications Monday, March 25, 2013
  29. 29. • Git, and a bunch of other Distributed Source Control Management Systems (DSCM), appear circa 2005 to address the need of very large distributed development teams (1000s of developers for Linux) • They allow for completely decentralized development, and make it much easier for developers to try out new ideas on their own, then “merge” the changes with the main development lines Monday, March 25, 2013
  30. 30. Monday, March 25, 2013
  31. 31. Linus Torvalds, Git creator (2005) Monday, March 25, 2013
  32. 32. Linus Torvalds, Git creator (2005) BTW, he invented Linux too... Monday, March 25, 2013
  33. 33. • A new breed of SaaS offerings for developpers, such as GitHub (2008) or StackOverflow (2008), appear, leveraging many of the characteristic features of W2.0 or E2.0 applications: • Activity streams • Social networking • Tagging / folksonomies • Votes, reputation Monday, March 25, 2013
  34. 34. GitHub, like SourceForge, but more social Monday, March 25, 2013
  35. 35. StackOverflow, a knowledge base based on a reputation system Monday, March 25, 2013
  36. 36. Additional tools with a social impact • Continuous integration (with a strong testing culture) allows distributed development to happen with confidence that developers don’t “break the build” • Code review applications Monday, March 25, 2013
  37. 37. Continuous integration Monday, March 25, 2013
  38. 38. Code review on GitHub Monday, March 25, 2013
  39. 39. Open Source as a model for Open Innovation Monday, March 25, 2013
  40. 40. Monday, March 25, 2013
  41. 41. Governance models for OSS projects • Vendor-led • May include, to balance power with the users: a users club, a more or less independent and powerful board... • Community led • Either formal or informal • If formal, either though a generic community (FSF, ASF, Eclipse, OW2...) or ad-hoc Monday, March 25, 2013
  42. 42. How to create a thriving open source community? (May apply to your social business initiative too...) Monday, March 25, 2013
  43. 43. • Put people first (“community over code”) • Welcome newcomers, give credits • Learn how to deal with poisonous people • Create an architecture of participation • Have a modular architecture for your product • Be clear about your vision (roadmap) and give regular status reports • Make it easy to contribute Read http://www.artofcommunityonline.org/ for details Monday, March 25, 2013
  44. 44. Open by default? Monday, March 25, 2013
  45. 45. (...) (...) Source: http://circulaire.legifrance.gouv.fr/pdf/2012/09/cir_35837.pdf Monday, March 25, 2013
  46. 46. Source: https://www.gov.uk/service-manual/making-software/open-source.html Monday, March 25, 2013
  47. 47. Contact: sf@fermigier.com Web: www.fermigier.com www.abilian.com Monday, March 25, 2013

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