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A Quick Tour of
  JVM Languages

S. Fermigier, Open World Forum, Oct 2009
History
• Java 1.0 in January 1996
• 40 alt. languages implementations in 1997
• ...169 in 2004
• ...240 today (including research and toy
  languages)
• JVM Language Summits in 2008 and 2009
Why New Languages?
•   New challenges have emerged: increased
    software complexity, agile dev methodologies,
    multi-core parallelism, DSLs, etc.

•   Scientist and language enthousiasts want to try
    new language features or paradigms

•   But the Java Language must evolve in a very
    conservative way to cater to a huge existing
    code base + skills investment
PROs of Targeting the JVM

• The JVM is very robust, multiplatform,
  highly optimized (HotSpot)
• Chance to leverage existing Java code base
  or libraries
• Wealth of tools for development (profiling,
  debug) and operations (monitoring)
CONs of Targeting the JVM
• JVM is (currently) not explicitly designed for
  certain categories of languages (ex: scripting,
  functional)
• Not suited for all types of systems because
  memory or CPU constraints (ex: embedded)
• For existing languages (ex: Jython), new
  implementation not compatible with existing
  native extensions
Currently Popular
•   Jython (1997), an implementation of Python

•   Rhino (1997), an implementation of JavaScript

•   JRuby (2001), an implementation of Ruby

•   Groovy (2003), a dynamic language

•   Scala (2003), an object-oriented and functional programming
    language

•   JavaFX Script (2005), a scripting language targeting the Rich
    Internet application domain

•   Clojure (2007), a Lisp dialect
Common Features
• Dynamic typing (scripting): Jython, JRuby,
  Groovy
• Stronger type systems: Scala
• Functional programming style: Clojure,
  Scala (also: Jython, JRuby and Groovy)
• Parallelism: Scala Actors, Clojure STM
Original
    Scala


                  Groovy    Clojure

Static                         Dynamic
typing                           typing



                           Rhino
                           Jython
            Existing       JRuby
Da Vinci Project aka
        MLVM
• (Better) scripting support: JSR 292 =
  •   new InvokeDynamic instruction at the JVM level

  •   change classes and methods at runtime dynamically

• Continuations
• Tail-call elimination
• Interface injection
• Etc.
Next Speakers

• Guillaume Lafforge, Groovy Project
  Leader / SpringSource
• François Armand, Scala enthousiast
• Alexis Moussine-Pouchkine, Sun
  Microsystems

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A Quick Tour of JVM Languages

  • 1. A Quick Tour of JVM Languages S. Fermigier, Open World Forum, Oct 2009
  • 2. History • Java 1.0 in January 1996 • 40 alt. languages implementations in 1997 • ...169 in 2004 • ...240 today (including research and toy languages) • JVM Language Summits in 2008 and 2009
  • 3. Why New Languages? • New challenges have emerged: increased software complexity, agile dev methodologies, multi-core parallelism, DSLs, etc. • Scientist and language enthousiasts want to try new language features or paradigms • But the Java Language must evolve in a very conservative way to cater to a huge existing code base + skills investment
  • 4. PROs of Targeting the JVM • The JVM is very robust, multiplatform, highly optimized (HotSpot) • Chance to leverage existing Java code base or libraries • Wealth of tools for development (profiling, debug) and operations (monitoring)
  • 5. CONs of Targeting the JVM • JVM is (currently) not explicitly designed for certain categories of languages (ex: scripting, functional) • Not suited for all types of systems because memory or CPU constraints (ex: embedded) • For existing languages (ex: Jython), new implementation not compatible with existing native extensions
  • 6. Currently Popular • Jython (1997), an implementation of Python • Rhino (1997), an implementation of JavaScript • JRuby (2001), an implementation of Ruby • Groovy (2003), a dynamic language • Scala (2003), an object-oriented and functional programming language • JavaFX Script (2005), a scripting language targeting the Rich Internet application domain • Clojure (2007), a Lisp dialect
  • 7. Common Features • Dynamic typing (scripting): Jython, JRuby, Groovy • Stronger type systems: Scala • Functional programming style: Clojure, Scala (also: Jython, JRuby and Groovy) • Parallelism: Scala Actors, Clojure STM
  • 8. Original Scala Groovy Clojure Static Dynamic typing typing Rhino Jython Existing JRuby
  • 9. Da Vinci Project aka MLVM • (Better) scripting support: JSR 292 = • new InvokeDynamic instruction at the JVM level • change classes and methods at runtime dynamically • Continuations • Tail-call elimination • Interface injection • Etc.
  • 10. Next Speakers • Guillaume Lafforge, Groovy Project Leader / SpringSource • François Armand, Scala enthousiast • Alexis Moussine-Pouchkine, Sun Microsystems